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FLOATING BATTERY_FLOATING ISLANDS.

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in defending harbours, or in attacks on marine the icebergs of colder latitudes. Imagination har fortresses. The most remarkable instance of their always invested with a peculiar interest the employment was by the French and Spaniards against Gibraltar, in the memorable siege which

Straggling plots, which to and froe doe rome

In the wide waters; lasted from July 1779 to February 1783, when ten of these vessels, carrying 212 large guns, were and ancient legend did not fail to notice the floating brought to bear on the fortress; they had sides of islets of the sacred Vandimonian Lake, which were

large enough to bear away cattle that were tempted upon them by their fresh green grass; and the island of the Cutulian waters, which carried on its surface a dark and gloomy grove, and was constantly changing its place. A small lake in Artois, near St Omer, is remarkable for the number of its floating islands, as are also the marshy lakes of Comacchio near the Gulf of Venice. Among the largest in the world are those of the Lake of Gerdau, in Prussia, which furnish pasturage for 100 head of cattle; and that of the Lake of Kolk, in Osnabruck, which is covered with beautiful elms. Loch Lomond was long celebrated for its floating island ; it, however, can no longer boast of one, as it has long since subsided and become stationary. Floating islands are found in some lakes of Scotland, and also in Ireland, and consist for the most part of large floating masses of peat. Pennant gives a description of one which he saw in Breadalbane, the surface of which exhibited plenty of coarse grass, small willows, and even a little birch tree. More interesting to the scientific inquirer, as presenting a phenomenon not so easily explained, are those floating islands which from time to time appear and disappear in the same spot, of which there is one in the Lake of Derwentwater in Cum

berland, one in the Lake Ralang in the province of Floating Battery used in the Russian War, 1854–1855. Smalande in Sweden, and one in Ostrogothia. That

in Derwentwater is opposite to the mouth of a great thickness, and were covered with sloping roofs, the many theories which have been proposed to

stream called the Catgill; and the most probable of to cause the shot striking them to glance off inno- account for it is that which ascribes it to the waters cuously. But their solidity and strength were of the stream, when flooded by rains, getting beneath unavailing against the courage and adroitness of the the interlaced and matted roots of the aqnatic plants defenders, under the gallant General Elliot, who which there form a close turf on the bottom of the succeeded in destroying them with red-hot cannon-lake. This floating island, when it rises above the balls. Steam floating batteries of iron were con- water, is most elevated in the centre, and on its structed for the war with Russia in 1854, both by being pierced with a fishing-rod, water has spouted the British and French governments ; but, notwithKinburn, they have since been generally discarded particularly around the city of Cashmere, containing standing that they rendered good 'service before up to the height of two feet.

The marshy ground of the vale of Cashmere, and for other than purely defensive purposes, as too cumbrous for navigation, and too suffocating from many lakes, and liable to inundations, exhibits å the smoke that collected between their decks during FLOATING GARDENS, employed chiefly for the culti

i peculiar form of human industry in its numerous action. The iron-plated frigates now (1862) made vation of cucumbers, melons, and water-melons. (such as the Warrior) can scarcely be regarded as These floating gardens may be described as portions Hoating batteries, being rather frigates of splendid of the marshy ground artificially made to float, by build, rendered almost impenetrable by sheets of cutting through the roots of the reeds, sedges, and iron overlying their sides.

other plants about two feet below the surface, upon FLOATING ISLANDS exist in some lakes, which mud is then spread. The floating of the and more rarely in slow and placid rivers. Not garden secures the soil and crop from destruction unfrequently, they are formed by the detachment of by inundations. portions of the bank; the interlaced roots of plants Floating gardens existed on the Lake of Mexico forming a fabric sufficiently strong to endure the before the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards occasional buffeting of waves, and to support soil | The Mexicans had made great progress in the art for herbage or even trees to grow in. Floating of gardening, and particularly in the cultivation of islands are often formed by aggregation of drift- flowers, which were much used both in their festiwood in the creeks and bays of tropical rivers, and vities and in their worship. How they were induced being wafted into the channel of the river when it to attempt the formation of floating gardens, and at is flooded or by the wind, are carried down to the what period it was first done, are mere matters of sea, with the soil that has accumulated, and the conjecture. The shallowness of great part of the vegetation that has established itself upon them. lake was favourable to the success of the attempt, They are sometimes seen at a distance of 50 or 100 and perhaps the gradual receding of its waters may miles from the mouth of the Ganges, with living be reckoned among the reasons of the gradual trees standing erect upon them. Portions of the diminution of the number of the floating gardens, alluvial soil from the deltas of rivers, held together which have almost ceased to be reckoned among oy the roots of mangroves and other trees, are the wonders of the world. The Abbé Clavigero, in sometimes also carried out to sea after typhoons his History of Mexico, describes them as formed or hurricanes, and ships have, in consequence, of wicker-work, water-plants, and mud; as somebeen involved in unexpected dangers, as amongst times more than 20 poles in extent; the largest

FLOATSTONE-FLOOR-CLOTH.

iner commonly having a small tree in the centre, to have left the field. On the Scottish right, the and sometimes a hut for the cultivator; and as clavsmen under Lennox and Argyle, goaled to employed for the cultivation both of flowers and fury by the English archers, rushed forward, heed. culinary plants. Humboldt contirms this descrip- less of order, and fell with the greatest violence tion, but states that the real floating gardens, upon their opponents, who, however, received them or chinampas, are rapidly diminishing in number. with wonderful intrepidity and coolness, and at The existing chinampas are in general not floating length put them to flight with great slaughter. gardens, but plots of ground with very wide ditches Meantime, a desperate resistance was being made between them, formed by heaping up earth from by the Scottish centre, where the king fought on the ditches in the swamps or shallows at the side foot among his nobles. Scottish history presents of the lake.

no instance in which the national valour burned Great part of Bangkok, the capital of Siam, con- with a purer flame than in this. Hemmed in by sists of floating houses. See BANGKOK.

outnumbering enemies, the king among his slender FLOATSTONE, a variety of quartz, consisting group of lords fought manfully until, when the of fibres-delicate crystals-aggregated so that the night was closing on Flodden, he fell pierced by whole mass is sponge-like, and so light, owing to hill was held during the night by the Scots ; but at

an arrow, and mortally wounded in the head. The the air confined in the interstices, as to float for a while on water. It is found in a limestone of the dawn, learning the state of matters, they abandoned chalk formation near Paris, in imbedded masses, or

their position. Their loss amounted to from 8000 to

10,000 men. • Scarce a Scottish family of eminence,' incrusting flint nodules.

says Scott, “but had an ancestor killed at Flodden.' FLOBE'CQ, a small town of Belgium, in the Besides the king, the Archbishop of St Andrews and province of Hainault, 20 miles north-east of Tournai. twelve earls were among the slain. The English It has extensive manufactures of linens, has loss amounted to about 6000 or 7000; but Surrey's breweries, salt-works, oil and flour mills, and has victory was so nearly a defeat that he was unable two fairs annually. Pop. 5258.

to prosecute the war with any vigour. The sixth FLO'DDEN, BATTLE OF. On the 24th January canto of Sir Walter Scott's poem of Marm on con. 1502, a perpetual peace' was concluded between tains a magnificent, and in the main an accurate England and Scotland. In the course of a few description of the battle. years, however, a series of petty quarrels had done

FLOGGING, ARMY AND NAVY.

Corpora) much to bring this peaceable arrangement to a termination ; and in 1513, on the invasion of France, punishment has existed from time immemorial in Scotland's ancient ally, by Henry of England, a inflicted upon slight occasion, and often with bar.

the British army and navy; formerly having been war broke out between the two countries. James barous severity. "In deference, however, to public IV., the chivalrous but rash king of Scotland, opinion, it has been much less resorted to during summoned the whole array of his kingdom to meet recent years, and promises almost to disappear on the Borough or Common Moor of Edinburgh, under a regulation of 1860. A man must now be which extended from the southern walls of the city convicted of one disgraceful offence against discip. to the foot of the Braid Hills, and which was then line before he can be liable to flogging for the next a field spacious, and delightful by the shade of such offence ; and even after one such degradation, many stately and aged oaks. Here an army, it is he may be restored to the non-liable class by a said, of 100,000 men assembled. With this force year's good conduct. The punishment of flogging, James crossed the border on the 221 August 15.3; which is generally administered with a whip or cat? but instead of advancing at once, and achieving of nine tails on the bare back, cannot, under existing a decisive success, he lingered in the neighbour- rules, exceed tifty lashes. hood of the Tweed until his army had become reduced by desertion to about 30,000 men.

Corporal punishment is not recognised in the On

French army; but then the soldiers in that country the 6th September, James took up his position on Flodden Hill, the last and lowest eminence of the and have, on an average, a higher moral tone than

are drawn by conscription from all ranks of society, Cheviots toward the north-east. On the morning the British recruits, who, attracted by a bounty, of the 9th, the Earl of Surrey, lieutenant-general volunteer usually from the lowest orders. On the of the northern counties of England, at the head other hand, the discipline in the French army, and of an army of about 32,000 men, advanced from the south-east, crossed the Till by a skilful and especially during war on a foreign soil, is universally unexpected movement, and thus cut off all communi- admitted to be inferior to the strict rule preserved cation between King James and Scotland. While among British troops. Soldiers and sailors being

men unaccustomed to control their passions, and the English were crossing the Till, the Scots might have attacked them with every chance of success, exprit of a force, unless summarily repressed, it is

any breach of insubordination being fatal to the and their not taking advantage of this opportunity considered necessary to retain the power-how, was the first great mistake of the battle. Observing that the English were aiming at

ever rarely exercised—of inflicting the painful and tion to the north-west of Flodden Hill, and desirous soldier, though escaping the ignominy of personal a strong posi- humiliating punishment of flogging:

The French of preventing this, James, having ordered his chastisement, is governed by a code harsher than our tents to be set on fire, advanced against them in articles of war as actually administered ; and the battle-array. The two armies were drawn up in similar order, each consisting of a centre, a right punishment of death, scarcely known in the British and left wing, and a reserve placed behind the France upon offenders against discipline.

service during peace, is not unfrequently visited in centre. At about four o'clock on Friday, 9th September, the battle commenced with cannonading on FLOOR-CLOTH, a coarse

canvas coated on both sides. The Earls of Huntly and Home, who both sides, and partly saturated with thick oil-paint, commanded the left wing of the Scottish army, one side having usually a coloured pattern printed charged the English right, which was led by Sir upon it in oil-paint. The canvas basis for toorEdníund Howard, and entirely defeated it. Instead, cloth is chiefly manufactured in Dundee. As it is however, of following up their success, Home's required to be without seam, and of sufficient width borderers commenced pillaging the baggage of both to cover considerable spaces of flooring, special armies; and Huntly, after his first charge, is said | looms are required for weaving it. It " made

FLOOR-CLOTH-FLOORS.

from 18 to 24 feet in width, and in lengths from 100 order to secure the maximum of durability, floor. to 113 yards.

cloth should still be kept three or four years after it The first step towards converting this canvas has left the drying-room of the manufacturer, ana into floor-cloth consists in stretching it on a frame. I purchasers should always select those pieces whirla This is a work of some difficulty, on account of the they have reason to believe have been the longest great size of the pieces. Some of the frames are as in stock. Narrow floor-cloth, for stair-carpeting, much as 100 feet in length by 24 feet in height, passages, &c., is made as above, and then cut into and the canvas must be stretched over it as tight as the required widths, and printed. It usually has a a drum. The back or plain side of the cloth is large pattern in the middle, and a border of a smaller first operated upon, by priming it with a solution design. of size, and scouring it with pumice. The object The laying of lobbies and passages with encaustic of this is to prevent too much of the paint from tiles has lately led to the superseding of floor-cloth penetrating the canvas, and rendering it brittle, and in such situations, while for some other purposes, to make an even surface to receive the paint, which such as covering the floors of churches, readingis mixed with linseed oil, with very little or no rooms, and waiting-rooms at railway-stations, it is turpentine, and is consequently thicker than com- superseded by the newly invented material called mon paint. This is thrown or splashed upon the kamptulicon, or vulcanised India-rubber cloth, which surface with a brush; and then with a long steel is impervious to wet, soft and quiet to the tread, trowel the workman spreads the dabs of paint, and and warm to the feet. This new material is made produces a tolerably smooth surface. This trowel. plain or figured to resemble painted floor-cloth. colour is left for 12 or 14 days to dry, and then FLOORS, FLOORING, the horizontal partitions another coat is laid on in a similar manner; and this between the stories of a building, the upper part of completes the back or under side of the floor-cloth. which forms the floor of the apartments above, and

While the first coat of the back is drying, the the lower portion the ceiling of those below. front is primed and pumiced, and a coat of trowel Floors are variously constructed, according to colour laid on. As more care is required on this their dimensions, and to the weight they have to side, this coat of colour is scoured quite smooth with sustain. Single-joisted floors are the simplest and pumice, and two more trowel-colours are added, and

most cheaply constructed, and are used for ordinary each scoured like the first. Another coat is now | buildings, where the distance between the bearings carefully laid on with a brush, and is called a brush. I does not exceed 20. or at most 24 feet. colour. This forms the ground upon which the The annexed figure represents a section of a singlepattern is to be printed.

I joisted floor, in the line of the flooring-boards, and The printing is done by means of wood-blocks. l'across the joists. These joists are beams laid edge The pattern is first drawn and painted, in its complete form and colours, upon a piece of paper ; another piece of paper is now laid under this, and the outlines of that portion of the pattern included in one colour are pricked through to the lower paper. In like manner, pricked outlines of each of the other colours are prepared. Each of these

a, b, c, d, the joists ; e, f, the flooring-boards; eg and dh, pricked sheets is laid upon a block of pear-tree

berring-bone strutting. wood, and dusted over with powdered charcoal or lampblack, aud thus the pattern is drawn in dots upwards, and resting at their ends upon wall-plates upon the wood; the carver cuts away the wood built into the walls. Their width should not be surrounding the pattern, and leaves it standing in less than two inches, for if narrower, they would be relief.

liable to split with the nailing of the flooring-boards. The pear-tree blocks are backed by gluing them They are placed edge upwards, in order to economise to a piece of deal, and this piece again to another, timber, as the strength of a beam to bear a transwith the fibres at right angles, to prevent warping. verse strain varies simply with the breadth and

The colours are spread by boys upon padded with the square of the depth. See STRENGTH OF cushions covered with floor-cloth, and each printer MATERIALS. When a deep and long joist is used, dabs his block upon that containing the required there is danger of its twisting or turning over ; this colour, and then places it upon the floor-cloth, is prevented by strutting, that is, nailing cross and striking it with the handle of a short heavy pieces of wood between them, as shewn between the hammer, prints his portion of the pattern. He joists c and d of the figure, or less effectually, by then proceeds with a repetition of this, and as he driving pieces of planking between them. Strutting advances, he is followed in order by the printers is required when the length of the joists exceeds of the other colours, who place their blocks accur- eight feet. The laths for the ceiling of the room ately over the pattern the first has commenced. below are nailed to the bottom of the joists. In The first printer's chief care is to keep the repeti- good substantial work, the distance between the tions of the pattern accurately in line.

joists from centre to centre is about 12 inches, but The quality of floor-cloth depends mainly upon this is often exceeded in cheaply built houses. the number of coats of paint, the kind of medium Double-joisted floors are constructed by lo ying used for the colour, and the time given to drying. strong timbers, called binding-joists, from wall to wall, For the best qualities, a fortnight must elapse be- at a distance of about six feet apart ; and a double tween the laying on of each coat, and finally, several set of joists, one above for the floor, and one below months' exposure in the drying-room is necessary. for the ceiling, are laid across these, and notched As the rental of the space thus occupied, and the down upon them. These latter, when thus placed, interest of the capital left stagnant during this time, are called bridging-joists, as they bridge over the amount to a considerable sum, there is a strong interval between the larger binding-joists. This is inducement to manufacturers to hasten the pro- I adopted when a more perfect ceiling, free from cesses, which may easily be done by using gold size cracks, produced by the yielding of the floor, is or boiled linseed oil, or other rapid dryers,' instead required, or where there is a difficulty in obtaining of raw linseed oil; but just in proportion as the a sufficient amount of long timber for single joisting drying is hastened by these means, the durability the whole of the floor. and flexibility of the floor-cloth are deteriorated. In! The framed floor is ope degree more complex

FLOATSTONE-FLOOR-CLOTH.

liner commonly having a small tree in the centre, to have left the field. On the Scottish right, the 8.nd sometimes a but for the cultivator; and as clansmen under Lennox and Argyle, goaded to employed for the cultivation both of flowers and fury by the English archers, rushed forwari, heedculinary plants. Humboldt contirms this descrip- less of order, and fell with the greatest violence tion, but states that the real floating gardens, upon their opponents, who, however, received them or chinampas, are rapidly diminishing in number. with wonderful intrepidity and coolness, and at The existing chinampas are in general not floating length put them to flight with great slaughter. gardens, but plots of ground with very wide ditches Meantime, a desperate resistance was being made between them, formed by heaping up earth from by the Scottish centre, where the king fought on the ditches in the swamps or shallows at the side foot among his nobles. Scottish history presents of the lake.

no instance in which the national valour burned Great part of Bangkok, the capital of Siam, con- with a purer flame than in this. Hemmed in by sists of floating houses. See BANGKOK.

outnumbering enemies, the king among his slender FLOA'TSTONE, a variety of quartz, consisting group of lords fought manfully uutil

, when the of fibres – delicate crystals-aggregated so that the night was closing on Flodden, he fell pierced by whole mass is sponge-like, and so light, owing to will was held during the night by the Scots ; but at

an arrow, and mortally wounded in the head. The the air confined in the interstices, as to float for a while on water. It is found in a limestone of the dawn, learning the state of matters, they abandoned chalk formation near Paris, in imbedded masses, or

their position. Their loss amounted to from 5000 to

10,000 men. "Scarce a Scottish family of eminence, incrusting flint nodules.

says Scott, “but had an ancestor killed at Flodden.' FLOBE'CQ, a small town of Belgium, in the Besides the king, the Archbishop of St Andrews and province of Hainault, 20 miles north-east of Tournai

. twelve earls were among the slain. The English It has extensive manufactures of linens, has loss amounted to about 6000 or 7000; but Surrey's breweries, salt-works, oil and flour mills, and has victory was so nearly a defeat that he was unable two fairs annually. Pop. 5258.

to prosecute the war with any vigour. The sixth FLO'DDEN, BATTLE OF. On the 24th January canto of Sir Walter Scott's poem of Marm on cune 1502, a perpetual peace' was concluded between tains a magnificent, and in the main an accurata England and Scotland. In the course of a few description of the battle. years, however, a series of petty quarrels had done

FLOGGING, ARMY AND NAVY,

Corporal much to bring this peaceable arrangement to a ter- punishment has existed from time immemorial in mination ; and in 1513, on the invasion of France, the British army and navy; formerly having been Scotland's ancient ally, by Henry of England, a inflicted upon slight occasion, and often with barwar broke out between the two countries. James barous severity. °în deference, however, to public IV., the chivalrous but rash king of Scotland, opinion, it has been much less resorted to during summoned the whole array of his kingdom to meet on the Borough or Common Moor of Edinburgh, under a regulation of 1860.

recent years, and promises almost to disappear

A man inust now be which extended from the southern walls of the city convicted of one disgraceful offence against discip. to the foot of the Braid Hills, and which was then line before he can be liable to flogging for the next a field spacious, and delightful by the shade of such offence; and even after one such degradation, many stately and aged oaks. Here an army, it is he may be restored to the non-liable class by a said, of 100,000 men assembled. With this force year's good conduct

. The punishment of Hogging; James crossed the border on the 22d August 1513; which is generally administered with a whip or cat' but instead of advancing at once, and achieving of nine Sails on the bare back, cannot, under existing a decisive success, he lingered in the neighbour- rules, exceed fifty lashes. hood of the Tweed until his army had become reduced by desertion to about 30,000 men.

On

Corporal punishment is not recognised in the French army ;

but then the soldiers in that country the 6th September, James took up his position on Flodden Hill, the last and lowest eminence of the and have, on an average, a higher moral tone than

are drawn by conscription from all ranks of society, Cheviots toward the north-east. On the morning the British recruits, who, attracted by a bounty, of the 9th, the Earl of Surrey, lieutenant-general volunteer usually from the lowest orders. On the of the northern counties of England, at the head other hand, the discipline in the French army, and of an army of about 32,000 men, advanced from especially during war on a foreign soil, is universally the south-east, crossed the Till by a skilful and admitted to be inferior to the strict rule preserved unexpected movement, and thus cut off all communication between King James and Scotland. While among British troops. Soldiers and sailors being the English were crossing the Till, the Scots might any breach of insubordination being fatal to the

men unaccustomed to control their passions, and have attacked them with every chance of success, exprit of a force, unless summarily repressed, it is and their not taking advantage of this opportunity considered necessary to retain the power-how, was the first great mistake of the battle. Observing ever rarely exercised—of inflicting the painful and that the English were aiming at a strong posi- humiliating punishment of flogging:

The French tion to the north-west of Flodden Hill, and desirous soldier, though escaping the ignominy of personal, of preventing this, James, having ordered his tents to be set on fire, advanced against them in chastisement, is governed by a code harsher than our battle-array. The two armies were drawn up in articles of war as actually administered ; and the similar order, each consisting of a centre, a right punishment of death, scarcely known in the British and left wing, and a reserve placed behind the service during peace, is not unfrequently visited in

France upon offenders against discipline. centre. At about four o'clock on Friday, 9th September, the battle commenced with cannonading on FLOOR-CLOTH, a coarse canvas coated on both sides. The Earls of Huntly and Home, who both sides, and partly saturated with thick oil-paint, commanded the left wing of the Scottish army, one side having usually a coloured pattern printed charged the English right, which was led by Sir upon it in oil-paint. The canvas basis for floor. Edníund Howard, and entirely defeated it. Instead, cloth is chiefly manufactured in Dundee. As it is however, of following up their success, Home's required to be without seam, and of sufficient width borderers commenced pillaging the baggage of both to cover considerable spaces of flooring, special armies; and Huntly, after his first charge, is said looms are required for weaving it. It is

made

FLOOR-CLOTH-FLOORS.

h

9

from 18 to 24 feet in width, and in lengths from 100 order to secure the maximum of durability, floorto 113 yards.

cloth should still be kept three or four years after it The first step towards converting this canvas has left the drying-room of the manufacturer, aro into fluor-cloth consists in stretching it on a frame. purchasers should always select those pieces whirde This is a work of some difficulty, on account of the they have reason to believe have been the longest great size of the pieces. Some of the frames are as in stock. Narrow toor-cloth, for stair-carpeting, much as 100 feet in length by 24 feet in height, passages, &c., is made as above, and then cut into and the canvas must be stretched over it as tight as the required widths, and printed. It usually has a a drum.

The back or plain side of the cloth is large pattern in the middle, and a border of a smaller first operated upon, by priming it with a solution design. of size, and scouring it with pumice. The object The laying of lobbies and passages with encaustic of this is to prevent too much of the paint from tiles has lately led to the superseding of floor-cloth penetrating the canvas, and rendering it brittle, and in such situations, while for some other purposes, to make an even surface to receive the paint, which such as covering the floors of churches, realing is mixed with linseed oil, with very little or no rooms, and waiting-rooms at railway stations, it is turpentine, and is consequently thicker than com- superseded by the newly invented material called mon paint. This is thrown or splashed upon the kamptulicon, or vulcanised India-rubber cloth, which surface with a brush; and then with a long steel is impervious to wet, soft and quiet to the tread, trowel the workman spreads the dabs of paint, and and warm to the feet. This new material is made produces a tolerably smooth surface. This trowel. plain or figured to resemble painted Hoor-cloth. colour is left for 12 or 14 days to dry, and then another coat is laid on in a similar manner; and this between the stories of a building, the upper part of

FLOORS, FLOORING, the horizontal partitions completes the back or under side of the floor-cloth.

which forms the floor of the apartments above, and While the tirst coat of the back is drying, the the lower portion the ceiling of those below. front is primed and pumiced, and a coat of trowel.

Floors are variously constructed, according to colour laid on. As more care is required on this their dimensions, and to the weight they have to side, this coat of colour is scoured quite smooth with sustain. Single-joisted floors are the simplest and pumice, and two more trowel-colours are aulded, and most cheaply constructed, and are used for ordinary each scoured like the first. Another coat is now buildings, where the distance between the bearings carefully laid on with a brush, and is called a brush- does not exceed 20, or at most 24 feet. colour. This forms the ground upon which the

The annexed figure represents a section of a singlepattern is to be printed.

joisted floor, in the line of the flooring-boards, and The printing is done by means of wood-blocks. across the joists. These joists are beains laid edye The pattern is first drawn and painted, in its complete form and colours, upon a piece of paper; another piece of paper is now laid under this, and the outlines of that portion of the pattern included in one colour are pricked through to the lower paper. In like manner, pricked outlines of each of the other colours are prepared. Lach of these

a, b, c, d, the joists; e, f, the flooring-boards; eg and dh, pricked sheets is laid upon a block of pear-tree

herring-bone strutling. wood, and dusted over with powdered charcoal or lampblack, aud thus the pattern is drawn in dots upwards, and resting at their ends upon wall-plates upon the wood; the carver cuts away the wood built into the walls. Their width should not be surrounding the pattern, and leaves it standing in less than two inches, for if narrower, they would be relief.

liable to split with the nailing of the flooring-boards. The pear-tree blocks are backed by gluing them They are placed edge upwards, in order to economise to a piece of deal, and this piece again to another, timber, as the strength of a beam to bear a transwith the fibres at right angles, to prevent warping. verse strain varies simply with the breadth and

The colours are spread by boys upon padded with the square of the depth. See STRENGTH OF cushions covered with floor-cloth, and each printer MATERIALS. When a deep and long joist is used, dabs his block upon that containing the required there is danger of its twisting or turning over ; this colour, and then places it upon the floor-cloth, is prevented by strutting, that is, nailing cross and striking it with the handle of a short heavy pieces of wood between them, as shewn between the hammer, prints his portion of the pattern. He joists c and d of the figure, or less effectually, by then proceeds with a repetition of this, and as he driving pieces of planking between them. Strutting advances, he is followed in order by the printers is required when the length of the joists exceeds of the other colours, who place their blocks accur- eight feet. The laths for the ceiling of the room ately over the pattern the first has conmenced. below are nailed to the bottom of the joists. In The first printer's chief care is to keep the repeti. good substantial work, the distance betweer the tions of the pattern accurately in line.

joists from centre to centre is about 12 inches, but The quality of floor-cloth depends mainly upon this is often exceeded in cheaply built houses. the number of coats of paint, the kind of medium Double-joisted floors are constructed by laging used for the colour, and the time given to drying. strong timbers, called binding-joists, from wall to wall, For the best qualities, a fortnight must elapse be at a distance of about six feet apart ; and a double tween the laying on of each coat, and finally, several set of joists, one above for the floor, and one below months' exposure in the drying-room is necessary. for the ceiling, are laid across these, and notched As the rental of the space thus occupied, and the down upon them. These latter, when thus placed, interest of the capital left stagnant during this time, are called bridging-joists, as they bridge over the amount to a considerable sum, there is a strong interval between the larger binding-joists. This is inducement to manufacturers to hasten the pro- adopted when a more perfect ceiling, free from cesses, which may easily be done by using gold size cracks, produced by the yielding of the floor, is or boiled linseed oil, or other rapid dryers,' instead required, or where there is a difficulty in obtaining of raw linseed oil; but just in proportion as the a sufficient amount of long timber for single joisting drying is hastened' by these means, the durability the whole of the floor. and flexibility of the floor-cloth are deteriorated. In The framed floor is ope degree more compiux

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