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The bottom of the ditch should slope from both higher than the general interior, with a view to sides towards the centre, to carry off the water; guns being fired from it over the parapet. and obstacles should be scattered about to prevent There are certain fixed rules in all fortification, an enemy from forming his troops in the ditch. such as :-1. The length of lines must never exceed

EARTHWORKS IN FIELD FORTIFICATION.-As the musketry range, or the flanking works woull becorre most readily constructed, earthworks naturally ineffective for their object. 2. The angles of defence recommend themselves to the engineer, who, in should be about right angles. 3. Salient angles the field, is called upon to defend the position of should be as obtuse as possible. 4. Ditches should an army against sudden attack. Their utility has have the best possible flanking. 5. The relief of the been shewn in their employment from the earliest Hanking-works must be determined by the length times; and modern experience tends to prove that of the lines of defence. 6. The value of almost earth-parapets are of all fortifications among the every detached work depends on the support it can inost difficult to overcome. An army maneuvring give to or receive from an army or other work or before a superior force, can scarcely hope to avoid works. 7. The reduction of every fortified work battle being thrust upon it, unless, strengthened is merely a question of time ; and a work fairly by fieldworks, it be rendered more nearly equal surrounded is sure to fall, unless relieved from to the adversary. Napoleon, Marlborough, Eugene, without. Wellington, have given their names as witnesses to Fieldworks, which, it must be borne in mind, are the indispensability of such works. The Russian intended merely to support or strengthen an army, parapets at Borodino made the French victory so may either have a complete circuit of parapets, or sanguinary a triumph that it was useless to the may be open at the gorge in the rear. The latter victors. A few redoubts at Pultowa saved Peter are, of course, the simplest; but the Great from_total defeat by his formidable they are only available in posiSwedish rival. The world-famed lines of Torres tions which the enemy cannot Vedras enabled Wellington with 50,000 troops, half turn, or where protected by the of whom were untried Portuguese, to withstand for sweeping fire of other works five months, and ultimately to drive back, the behind. Of this class the Redan, hitherto victorious army of 70,000 French, under a mere salient angle (see fig. 9), Fig. 9.-Redan. such commanders as Masséna, Ney, and Junôt. is the simplest and the repreThe earthworks surrounding Sevastopol partook sentative form. Of the closed forts, there are greatly of the nature of fieldworks for the protec. Redoubts, usually square; Star forts, now considered tion of a large army, and history will not forget to objectionable; bastioned forts, as in fig. 10, which recount the resistance they offered for almost a fank their own ditches almost perfectly, while year to the best troops of the civilised world. scarcely susceptible of

For a line, whether of earth or masonry, to be being Hanked them. efficient, it must combine artillery fire with that of selves. To undermusketry. The guns will generally be so placed as stand the nature of to command some specific line of approach, such as a single bastion, see a ravine, a line of abattis, or some portion of the A (fig. 10), which glacis. They should themselves be as little exposed represents one at the as possible, nor should the gunners be uncovered corner of a square more than is absolutely requisite. To effect this, work; ab is the left the gun is generally made to tire through an embra- Nank, bc the left face, sure (q. y.) in the parapet, instead of over the latter. cd the right face, de The embrasure is a cutting through the solid para- the right flank; ae is pet, 20 inches wide at its inner extremity, and the gorge; af, fe are outwards half as much as the width of the parapet. the demi-gorges, being

Fig. 10.–Bastioned Fort. In cases where it is necessary, for proper coinmand, continuations of the that the line of fire should not be lower than the sides, or curtains, of the work; a and e are the top of the parapet, the embrasure is made through left and right curtain angles ; b and d, the left and an additional parapet-raised, as in the previous right shoulder angles, and c is the flanked angle. case of the bonnet, above the original one. The Continued lines are simple parapets, either con. bottom of the embrasure is called the sole, and necting fortified posts, or covering the front or flank slopes downward sufficiently to allow of a certain of an army, Redans depression being given to the gun. The remainder joined by curtains (as in of a parapet below the sole is the genouillerè (from tig. 11) are those most genou, a knee), and in field fortitication should be easily constructed; but Fig. 11.—Continued line of three and a half feet high; the portion between as the ditches can only be

Redans. two embrasures is the merlin (Ital. merlone, battle- defended by an oblique ment); and an embrasure need not cut the parapet fire, the curtains are occasionally so broken as to perpendicularly, an angle being admissible, when form nearly right angles with the faces of the an oblique fire is necessary. When, however, the redan, as in the dotted line; they then become

obliquity would lines of tenailles.
exceed 70°, it is Lines en Crémaillière have long faces with per-
usual, in order pendicular flanks. Lines with intervals are often
that the thick.
ness of the para-
pet should not
be too much

diminished, to
Fig. 8.

form a project

ing angle in it, through which the embrasure is cut (as in fig. 8).

Fig. 12.-Line with intervals. The sides of the embrasures are cheeks, and require revêting.

as effective as continued lines. They consist of A barbette is a platform raised behind a parapet, detached works, in two lines, within musketry



fire of each other. The re-entering angle, abc (fig. emperor to the introduction of cannon for breaching 12), should as nearly as practicable be a right purposes. Then the square and round towers, which angle. The celebrated lines of Torres Vedras, before had formed sufficient flanking defence against adverted to, consisted of 150 detached ferts. arrows, proved useless when cannon-balls, fired from

Tête-du-pont, is a work constructed to cover the a distance, were the instruments of assault. At the approaches to a bridge, and will be found described same me, the walls, which had resisted battering, under BRIDGE-HEAD.

rams, crumbled to atoms under the strokes of A tenaille is the reverse of a redan, and consists of artillery. two faces forming a re-entering angle: it can only Fortunately, however, the art of defence has be wsed in connection with some other work. always made equal progress with that of attack;

A flèche is a breastwork of two faces, forming a and, early in the 15th, if not late in the 14th c., salicnt angle, constructed on the exterior of a glacis, the Italians had commenced to flank their walla usually at its foot, in order to defend the ground with small bastions. The bastions at Verona, built before a bastion or ravelin.

by Micheli in 1523, are usually looked upon as the Having now explained the principal forms which oldest extant specimen of modern fortification. elemental works of fortification are made to assume, Tartaglia and Albert Dürer, painter and engineer, we proceed to describe-very briefly, of course- were early in the field. In most of the earlier systems the systems into which these have been incorpor- the face of the bastion was perpendicular to its flank. ated for the defence of fortresses, towns, and other The first principles were successively improved by permanent purposes. It will merely be necessary Marchi, an Italian, who died 1599, by Errard Boisto state, in addition to what has been already le-Duc, and De Ville, under Henry IV. and Louis written, that a rampart is a raised structure of XIII. of France. The Count de Pagan, whose earth or stone, above the mean level of the country, treatise appeared in 1645, did much towards demolon which the parapets, &c., can be thrown up, and ishing previous errors, and laid the basement of that which affords to the town or space protected the science which Vauban subsequently wrought almost extra cover of its height, while it elevates the to perfection. Born in 1633, Vauban had a genius inner works sufficiently to enable them to command which penetrated in every direction, equally in the and fire over those situated exteriorly to themselves. ways of war and in those of peace. He might posIt need scarcely be said that a line which can be sibly have taught how fortresses could be rendered made of earth may equally be constructed of any impregnable, had not the restless ambition of his other material which circumstances may render master, Louis XIV., led him to demonstrate, first, desirable, the maximum resistance and minimum that the reduction of any work was a mere question liability to splinter being the qualities to be chiefly of time and powder. His talent so improved the considered.

system of attack, that even he himself could not SYSTEMATIC FORTIFICATION FOR PERMANENT construct a rampart that should withstand the fire WORKS. - Adverting to the most ancient fortifica- conjured up against it by his discoveries. He contions mentioned in history, we find Greek cities structed 33 new fortresses, improved above 100, and surrounded with walls of brick and rubble, and occa- conducted personally more than 50 sieges. To sionally of stone in huge blocks. Babylon had a him are soldiers indebted for the sweeping fire of wall of prodigious circuit—100 feet high, 32 feet ricochet, and to him in a degree for the traverses thick, and surmounted by towers. Jerusalem, at the which endeavour to render it harmless. Coehoorn, time of Vespasian's siege, had similar walls with director-general of the fortresses of the United masonry of enormous solidity. These seem to repre- Provinces, was the contemporary, rival, and opponent sent fortification as it stood from the time of that of Vauban ; his master-piece is Bergen-op-Zoom.


Fig. 13.—Vauban's First System ; Ground-plan : A, bastion ; B, curtain; C, tenaille; D, caponnière; E, ditch ; F, ravelin; G, covert-way; H, salient place of arms;

1, re-entering place of arms; K, glacis.

Cormontaigne, Belidor, Montalembert, Bousmard, | drawn. Each side of this is a face of defence, and and Carnot may also be mentioned as conspicuous the length of a side is rarely made greater than 360 masters in the science.

yards. Irrespective of irregularities in the form of the Vauban's first system is shewn in fig. 13 as regards place to be defended, a particular polygon is selected the outline of its ground-plan; fig. 14'displaying the


In this instance, the polygon taken is an octagon. tively mark off ad, bg, each equal to ab, for the Let ab (fig. 13) be a side of this polygon; bisect faces of the bastions. Next, from a and b as centres, this in c, and draw a perpendicular to ab. On this, with radius, ag, describe arcs cutting aC, 1C, proinwards, mark off cc one-sixth of ab; join aC, bc, duced in f and e; join de, fg, for the flanks of and produce the lines ; then from a and b respec- | bastions, and ef for the curtain of the work. The

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first line of defence is then complete, the necessary faces of the bastions and the curtain command more parapets, &c., being of course raised on the site laid or less the entire front, while the bastion flanks sweep out. From an examination of this, it will be seen along the faces of adjoining bastions and along the that the whole space in the front is covered. The curtain. In front, however, of the apex of each

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bustion, the line of advance is only covered by an | the same time, forms an outwork capable of assistextremely oblique fire. To obviate this, a ravelin, ing in the general scheme of defence. To trace the P, is constructed on the further side of the main main ditch, describe from the flanked angle of the ditch, whicb commands the doustful fronts, and, at bastion, a or b, an arc with radius 30 yards (if dry


ditah, 36 if wet), and from these arcs draw tangents that the striking ease and fluency of Ariosto, to the shoulders, d and g, of the opposite bastions. Berni, and other poets of a similar school, were but Th :se tangents, meeting in the line cc, form the apparent, and in reality the fruit of deep art and counterscarp line of the main ditch. From h, the severe labour. F., in a few hours threw off an re-entering angle of the counterscarp, set off 100 entire canto of n Ricciardetto, strikingly in imitayards along the perpendicular to i, which will be tion of the above poets, and continued the work at the apex of the flanked angle of the ravelin. From random much beyond its originally designed limits. į, draw lines to points situated in the faces of the It was published in 1738, two years after his death, bastions, 10 yards from the shoulder angles ; these and met with unequivocal favour, notwithstanding lines to the points intersecting the counterscarp the incredible incidents and licentious images with give the faces of the ravelin. The ditch of the wbich it is replete. F. died 7th February 1735. ravelin is 20 yards wide, with counterscarp parallel FORTROʻSE, or FORTROSS, a parliamentary to the escarp. The zigzag line now arrived at gives and royal burgh, seaport, and watering place in the the inner side of the covert-way-10 yards wide east of Ross-shire, on the west side of the Moray -behind the glacis, which last slopes gradually Firth, opposite Fort George, ten miles north-north. towards the country, and is ordinarily the outer east of Inverness. Pop. (1861) 928. It unites with work of all. The tenaille is a comparatively low Inverness, Forres, and Nairn in sending a member parapet sweeping the depressed interior of the ravelin, to parliament. F. had a fine cathedral and a and commanded by the bastions and curtain.

bishop's palace ; but both of these buildings were The caponier, forming a communication between partially destroyed under Cromwell, and the stones the tenaille and the ravelin, consists of a passage sent to Inverness, to be used in building a fort there. between two low parapets, each with a glacis It has a good trade in various kinds of produce, as sloping towards the ditch, which is swept from the pork, eggs, all sorts of grain, and potatoes. In the work.

16th c., F. had a considerable trade, and is said Nine feet clear are allowed round the traverses to have been the seat of arts, science, and divinity on the covert-way; at the re-entering angles of the in the north of Scotland. Chanonry, with which covert-way, places of arms are formed by setting off it was united in 1444, was formerly the see of the 30 yards on each side, and with this as gorge, bishops of Ross. advancing faces inclined to each other at 100°. If

FO'RTS AND FORTALICES. The military the polygon had been a square, cC would have been tab; if a pentagon, 4 ab; and for any polygon of power of the state is intrusted by the constitution more sides than seven, Ġ ab.

of this country to the sovereign. After having been Vauban's second and third systems were those in in the time of Charles I., it was again vindicated for

unconstitutionally claimed by the Long Parliament which he aclapted old walls to his modern improve the crown by 2 Car. II. c. 6. This branch of the ments. Availing himself of the works already royal prerogative extends not only to the raising formel, he added counterguards in front of the armies and the construction of Heets, but to the corner-towers, thereby making hollow bastions, and building of forts and other places of strength. Sir

Cochoorn's system had counterguards in front of Edward Coke lays it down (1 Inst. 5), that no subject the bastions and parallel to them. The flanked the licence of the king; and it was enacted by 11

can build a house of strength embattled without angle of his ravelin had a fixed value -- viz., 70°.

Cormontaigne widened the gorge of his ravelin, Henry VII. c. 18, that no such place of strength thereby reducing the length of the bastion face could be conveyed without a special grant. available for breaching from without. He also FORTU'NA, called by the Greeks, Tyche, was revived the step-like formation of the covered way, in classical mythology the Goddess of Chance. originally seen in Speckle in the 16th c., and which According to Hesiod, she was a daughter of gives defenders a continued line of fire from each Oceanus ; according to Pindar, a sister of the Parce. traverse along the covert-way.

She differed from Destiny or Fate, in so far that The modern system differs but little from that of she worked without law, giving or taking away at Cormontaigne. The re-entering places of arms have her own good pleasure, and dispensing joy or circular fronts instead of angular; the angle of the sorrow indifferently. She had temples at Smyrna, ravelin is fixed at 60, and all the best points of Corinth, and Elis. In Italy, she was extensively older styles are associated.

worshipped from a very early period; and had many Fig. 15 is intended to present at one view a repre- names, such as Patricia, Plebeia, Equestris, Virilis

, sentation of the systems in force since artillery Primigenia, Publica, Privata, Muliebris, Virginensis

, came into common use, as well as the gradual &c., indicating the extent and also the minuteness of transition from square towers on castle walls to her superintendence. Particular honours were paid flanked bastions on modern lines. The elements of to her at Antium and Præneste; in the temple of the fortifying against shipping will be found under former city, two statues of her were even consulte! Marine FORTIFICATION; the principles of attack as oracles. Greek poets and sculptors generally ing fortresses generally, under SIEGE, and Mines, represented her with a rudder, as a symbol of her MILITARY.

guiding power; or with a ball, or wheel, or wings, FORTIGUERRA, Nicolo, an Italian poet, was

as a symbol of her mutability. The Romans proudly born at Pistoja, November 7, 1674. Destined from affirmed that when she entered their city, she threw youth for the church, he proceeded to Rome at an away her globe, and put off her wings and shoes, early period, where the power of the prelate Carlo to indicate that she meant to dwell with them for A. Fabroni, who was his relative, speedily secured him advancement, and where he was ultimately

FORTUNATE ISLANDS. See CANARIES. raised to the dignity of prelate and papal cham- FORTUNATUS is the title of one of the best berlain by Clement XI. An ardent cultivator and people's books (Volksbücher) ever written. It protector of letters, it must be owned that F.'s own originated about the middle of the 15th c., though compositions are more prized for a certain rich many of the tales and legends included in it are of joviality of imagery, and profuse facility of language, much older date. The opinion that it was worked than for any salient beauty of style or conception, up into German from a Spanish or English original His chief work, Il Ricciardetto, was originally com- may be considered as set aside. The substance of menced in confutation of friends, who maintained the book is that F., and his sons after him, are the



possessors of an inexhaustible purse of gold and a banquets for the populace, and the combats of the wishing-cap, which however, in the end, prove the gladiators, were, in the time of the republic, usually cause of their ruin. The moral is, that worldly held in the great forum, which also contained prosperity alone is insufficient to produce lasting monuments of various kinds, of which may be happiness. The oldest printed edition of the book mentioned the famous Columna Rostrata of c. now extant bears the date Frankfurt am Maine, Duilius, erected in memory of his victory over the 1509. Later German editions mostly bear the title, Carthaginians. The rostra, or platforms from which Fortunatus, von Seinem Seckel und Wunsch-hütlein public orations were delivered, forined the boundary (Fortunatus : Story of his Purse and Wishing-cap. between the forum in its narrower usage and the Augsb. 1530 ; Nürnb. 1677; and Basel, 1699). It comitium. After the time of Julius Cæsar and has been reprinted in Simrock's Deutsche Volksbücher Augustus, the Forum Romanorum lost the import (3 vols., Frankt. am Maine, 1846). Various French ance it had previously derived from being the versions of the German story have appeared from central point of Roman political life. The other time to time, as the Histoire de Fortunatus (Rouen, two fora judicialia were the Forum Julii and the 1670); which served as the groundwork of the Forum Augusti. Compare Becker, Handbuch der Italian Arennimenti de Fortunatus e de Suoi Figli Röm. Alterthümer (1 vol., Leipsic, 1843). (Naples, 1676). From the German original, have FORUM COMPETENS, in Law, is the court to also sprung, among others, the Dutch version. Een the jurisdiction of which the party is amenable. Nieure Histerie van Fortunatus Borse en van Zijnen Wensch hoed (Amst. 1796); later, the English History 1423 to 1457, a brilliant period of conquest and

FOSCARI, FRANCESCO, Doge of Venice from of Fortunatus and his Two Sons (London, no date); the Danish Fortunati pung og önskehat (Kopen. prosperity to his country, and of unexampled afflic1664, 1672, 1695, 1756, 1783); the Swedish Fortu- tion to himself and family. Born about 1370, his natus (1694); and about 1690, two Icelandic versions, aspiring ambition soon tired him with passionate one in verse and another in prose.

The first to eagerness to exalt his reign by the glory of condramatise the subject was Hans Sachs, in his Der quest, and speedily involved the state in a severe Fortunatus mit dem Wunschseckel (1553), after conflict with the Dukes of Milan ; which, how. whom comes the English Thomas Decker with his ever, the doge's great military ability in the end Pleasant Comedie of Old Fortunatus (1600), a work turned into a source of glory and aggrandisement to which had the honour to make its reappearance in

Venice. His triumph was embittered by the sucGerman about the year 1620. The most poetical cessive loss of three sons; and the one who remained edition of the story is that given by Tieck in his to transmit the name, and succeed to the inheritance Phantasu: (3 vols., Berlin, 1816). See Grässe's Die of the family, was, in 1445, denounced for having Sagenkreise des Mittelalters (Dresd. and Leip. 1842), received bribes from the hostile generals, to use his and Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopædie (tirst sect., influence with the doge in procuring less rigorous FOL. 46).

terms. Tried for this grave crime before the Tribu

nal of the Ten, and racked cruelly in view of his FORTUNE-TELLER. Under the designation father, Giacopo Foscari was banished for life, under Vagabonds, in the Scottish Act 1579 c. 74, are pain of death should he attempt to revisit his native included all who go about pretending to foretell land. In 1450, the assassination of one of the fortunes. The punishment inflicted on them by the Council of Ten,' Hermolao Donati, was impnted, on statute is scourging and burning on the ear. | what seem most unfounded grounds, to Giacopo,

FO’RUM, a Latin word, which originally signified who was consequently summoned from his exile, am 'open place,' and is probably connected with tried, tortured, and banished a second time on stili foras, out-of-doors.' The Roman fora were places more rigorous terms to the island of Candia. Grown where the markets and courts of justice were held. reckless through suffering, and longing to see his The former were termed fora venalia, and the latter the Duke of Milan to intercede in his behalf with

home and country on any terms, Giacopo petitioned fora juilicialia. Of the fora juulicialia, the most ancient and celebrated was the forum Romanorum, the senate, a step which, by Venetian law, was or, par excellence, the forum magnum, occupying the punished as a hich crime, and led to the unforquarter now k own as the campo vaccino (or cattle- tunate Giacopo being for the third time subjected market). It stretched from the foot of the Capito- to torture and renewed banishment, on entering line Hill, where the arch of Septimius Severus stands, into which he died of grief. The doge had vainly to the temple of the Dioscuri, was seven jugera in besought permission to resign a dignity grown loathextent, and was surrounded by streets and houses.

to him, from its imposing the barbarous The boundary on the east and north was the Sacra obligation of witnessing his son's torture ; but in via, of which the side nearest the forum was left the end he was deposed, and ordered to vacate the open ; while on the other were corridors and halls, palace in three days. At the age of 87, decrepit such as those of the argentarii (bankers or money. Francesco F., supported by his venerable brother,

from years, and bowed by sorrow and humiliation, changers). At a later period, the site of these was, for the most part, occupied by basilicas and temples descended the Giant's Staircase, and passed out for In the eastern portion of this space, 'were held the ever from the ducal palace, the scene of such vain earliest Comitia (q. v.) of the Romans--the comitia pomp and bitter misery. Pasqual Malapieri was curinta ; hence this part took the name of the comi. elected in his stead in 1457, and at the first peal tium, and was distinguished from the forum strictly of the bells in honour of his elevation, F. expired 80 called. Here were hung up for the benetit of the from the rupture of a blood vessel. Byron has public the laws of the Twelve Tables; and, aiter 304 written a tragedy on the subject, entitled The T'wo B.C., the Fasti written on white tables to inform

Foscari. the citizens when the law-courts were open.

FOʻSCOLO, UGO, an Italian author, was born Forum, in the narrower usage of the word, probably about 1778, at Zante, one of the Ionian isles, and ceased to be employed as a market-place about 472 proceeded to Venice in his 16th year, where for B.C., when it became the place of assembly of the a time he pursued his studies, repairing later to Comitia Tributa. Of the later fora venalia, the prin- Padua to enjoy Melchiore Cesarotti's noble course cipal were the forum boarium (the cattle-market), of classic literature. His earliest efforts at poetical the forum suarium (pig-market), piscatorium (fish- composition were strictly modelled on his favourite market). olitorium (vegetable-market), &c. Public Greek classics ; and, as early as 1797, his tragedy,



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