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which are also believed to be the last, are supposed on the legs. A marked distinction of the two to appear about the fiftieth year of the E.'s life. species is also found in the molar teeth; those of The molar teeth of the E. are remarkable for the Indian E. exhibiting wavy parallel transverse their great size, and for the extreme complexity of ridges; whilst those of the African species have the their structure, to which the nearest resemblance is found in some of the small rodents. They are composed of vertical plates of bony substance, separately enveloped with enamel, and cemented together by a third substance, called crusta petrosa, cortical, or cement, more resembling bone than enamel. Each succeeding tooth is not only more complex, but occupies a greater space in the jaw than its predecessor. Although formed from a single pulp, the molar tooth of an E. resembles an aggregation of teeth ; and in the earlier stages of its growth, when the cement is not yet deposited, it seems as if many separate teeth were soldered together. As the surface of the tooth is worn down by mastication, the harder enamel is exposed in elevated ridges. The whole of a tooth is not in employment at once. From the peculiar manner of its growth, the anterior part begins to be employed, and to be worn away, whilst the latter part is still in process of formation.

The digestive apparatus of the E. is similar to 1, head of African elephant ; 2, head of Asiatic elephant. that of the other pachydermata ; but the stomach, which is of a very lengthened and narrow form, divisions of the crown of the tooth fewer, broader, exhibits a peculiarity which assimilates it to that of and lozenge-shaped. the camel; the internal membrane, at the extremity Elephants live in herds, not generally numerous, beyond the cardiac orifice, forming thick wrinkles but several herds often congregate together in the and folds, the broadest of which, and nearest to the same forest or at the same place of drinking. Each gullet, seems to act as a valve, making that end of herd has a leader, generally the largest and most the stomach a reservoir for water, capable of con- powerful animal. The leader seems to exercise taining about ten gallons ; whilst a peculiar muscle, much control over the movements of the herd, gives connecting the windpipe and gullet, enables the the alarm in case of danger, and seems to examine animal to open this reservoir at pleasure, for the and decide for the whole herd as to the safety of regurgitation of the fluid, which is then sometimes proceeding in any particular direction. On account received into the trunk, and squirted over the body, of his tusks, the leader is very often the animal to free it from the nuisance of flies, or the heat of against which the efforts of the hunter are directed ; a tropical sun.

but the rest of the herd do their utmost to protect The female E. has only two teats, situated between him, and when driven to extremity, they place him the fore-legs. The young suck with the mouth, in the centre, and crowd so eagerly to the front of and not with the trunk. They are suckled for about him that some of them must often be shot ere he two years. The period of gestation is also nearly can be reached. A family resemblance is usually two years, and a single young one is produced at a very visible among the elephants of the same herd; birth.

some herds are distinguished by greater stature, and The skin of the E. is very thick, of a dark-brown others by more bulky form and stronger limbs; colour, and in the existing species, has scarcely any some by particularly large tusks, some by slight covering of hair. The tail does not reach to the peculiarities of the trunk, &c. In the East Indies, ground, and has a tuft of coarse bristles at the distinctions of this kind have long been carefully end. The feet have in the skeleton five distinct noticed, and particular names are given to elephants toes, but these are so surrounded with a firm according to them, some being considered as highhorny skin, that only the nails are visible exter. caste, and others as low-caste elephants. An E. which nally, as on the margin of a kind of hoof. The by any cause has been separated from its herd, foot of the E. is admirably adapted for steep and seems never to be admitted into another, and these rough ground, the protective skin which covers solitary elephants are particularly troublesome, in the toes allowing them considerable freedom of their depredations exhibiting an audacity whicb motion.

the herds never exhibit; they are also savage and Only two existing species of E. are certainly much dreaded, whilst from a herd of elephants known, the Indian ( E. Indicus) and the African (7. danger is scarcely apprehended. The E. is generally Africanus), although differences have recently been one of the most inoffensive of animals, although in a observed in the E. of Sumatra, which may perhaps state of domestication, it shews, as is well known, entitle it to be ranked as a distinct species. Ele a power both of remembering and resenting an phants are found in all parts of Africa, from the injury. dahara southwards, where wood and water are The favourite haunts of wild elephants are in sufficiently abundant; also throughout India and the depths of forests- particularly in mountainous the south-eastern parts of Asia, and in some of the regions— where they browse on branches, and from tropical Asiatic islands. They extend northwards which they issue chiefly in the cool of the night to the Himalaya; and Chittagong and Tiperah to pasture in the more open grounds. They are vie with Ceylon in the superior excellence of the ready to plunder rice or other grain-fields, if not elephants which they produce. The Indian E. is deterred by fences, of which, fortunately, they have, distinguished by a comparatively high oblong head, in general, an unaccountable dread, even although with a concave forehead; whilst the African has rather imaginary than real. A fence of mere reeds a round head and convex forehead. The ears of will keep them out of fields, where, as soon as the the African E. are much larger than those of the grain is removed, they enter by the gaps of the Indian, covering the whole shoulder, and descending fence, and may be seen gleaning among the stubble. ELEPHANT.


When the E. eats grass, nothing can be more hunger, that the next steps are taken towards graceful than the ease with which, before convey taming him and making him a willing servant of ing it to his mouth, he beats the earth from its man. roots by striking it on his fore-leg.' A cocoa-nut is Still more wonderful is the capture of a wild E., first rolled under foot, to detach the outer bark, sometimes by not more than two hunters, who for then stripped of the fibrous husk, and finally this purpose will go into the woods, without aid or crushed between the grinders, when the fresh milk attendants, their only weapon a flexible rope of is swallowed with evident relish. The fruit of the hide. With this they secure one of the E.'s hind. palmyra palm is another favourite food of elephants, legs, following his footsteps when in motion, or and they seem to have an instinctive knowledge of stealing close up to him when at rest, or sometimes the time of its ripening. Sugar-canes are also a spreading the noose on the ground, partially confavourite food ; indeed, elephants are very fond of cealed by roots and leaves, beneath a tree on which sweet things. Those which are brought to Britain one of the party is stationed, whose business it is to are generally fed on hay and carrots. The amount lift it suddenly by means of a cord. When arrested of daily food necessary for the E. in a state of by the rope being coiled around a tree, the E. domestication may be stated, on an average, at about naturally turns upon the man who is engaged in two hundred pounds in weight.

making it fast, but his companion interferes on his Elephants delight in abundance of water, and behalf, by provoking the animal; and thus not enter it very freely, often remaining in it for a only is the first rope made fast, but noose after considerable time and with great evident enjoyment. noose is passed over the legs, until all are at last They sometimes swim with not only the body but tied to trees, and the capture is complete; upon the head under water, the only part elevated above which the hunters build a booth for themselves in it being the extremity of the trunk.

front of their prisoner, kindle their fires for cooking, The habits of the African E. appear in no import and remain day and night till the E. is sufficiently ant respect to differ from those of the Indian tamed to be led away. elephant. It is the latter only that is at the But these huge animals are not always captured present day domesticated ; but it is certain that singly; whole herds are often taken at once. This the African species was anciently domesticated, and is accomplished by means of an enclosure, towards the figures on many Roman medals attest it. which the elephants are driven by great numbers

Elephants rarely breed in a state of domestication, of men encircling a considerable space, and conalthough, a few years ago, the birth of an elephant tracting the circle by slow degrees. Weeks, or took place in the Zoological Gardens of London, an even months, are spent in this operation, and at occasion of much interest not only to the scientifio last the elephants, hemmed in on every side except but to the general public. They are generally tamed the mouth of the enclosure, enter it, and the gate within a few months after they are captured; some is immediately closed. The modes of constructing degree of severity being employed at first, which, the enclosure are different in different parts of the however, as soon as the animal has begun to respect East. Tame elephants are sometimes sent into it, the power of man, is exchanged for kindness and and the captives are in succession made fast to trees gentleness of treatment. Elephants intended for there, in a way somewhat similar to that practised domestication are captured in various ways. It in capturing single elephants. was formerly common to take them in pitfalls, but The E. first became known in Europe from its in this way they were often much injured. Another employment in the wars of the East: 'in India, from method frequently practised is by the aid of tame the remotest antiquity, it formed one of the most elephants. Male elephants chiefly are captured in picturesque, if not of the most effective, features in this way, the decoy elephants employed being females, the armies of the native princes.' Elephants have trained for the purpose. With these the hunters been taught to cut and thrust with a kind of very cautiously approach the animal they mean to scimitar carried in the trunk, and it was formerly capture, and he generally permits them to come up usual for them to be sent into battle, covered with to him, and is so pleased to make the acquaintance of armour, and bearing towers on their backs, which the females, that he takes no notice of their riders contained warriors. But the principal use of the E. and other human attendants. Two of the females in war is for carrying baggage, and for dragging take their places, one on each side of him, and guns. An E. will apply his forehead to a cannon, whilst he is occupied with them, men, the profession and urge it through a bog, through which it would of whose lives it is, and who display a wonderful be almost impossible for men and cattle to drag it; expertness in the work, contrive to get beneath or he will wind his trunk round it, and lift it up, their bodies, and to pass ropes round the legs of the whilst horses or cattle drag it forwards. Elephants intended captive. His two hind-legs are fastened are used in the East for carrying persons on their together by six or eight ropes in the form of the backs, a number being seated together in a howdah, figure 8, another rope keeping them tight at the whilst the driver (mahout) sits on the E.'s neck, intersections, and a strong cable with a running directing it by his voice and by a small goad. noose is attached to each hind-leg. About twenty Elephants have always a conspicuous place in the minutes are usually spent in fixing the necessary great processions and state displays of eastern ropes, profound silence being maintained if the princes, and white elephants-albinos—are peculiarly process goes on unobserved, or some of the other valued. Elephants are also employed in many kinds hunters distracting the attention of the E. from of labour, and display great sagacity in comprehend. those who are engaged in this work; and when ing the nature of their task and adapting them. at last, becoming sensible of his danger, he tries selves to it. In piling timber, the E. 'manifests to retreat, an opportunity is soon found of tying an intelligence and dexterity which is surprising him, by means of the long cables which trail to a stranger, because the sameness of the operation behind him, to some tree strong enough for the enables the animal to go on for hours disposing of purpose. His fury then becomes ungovernable, and log after log, almost without a hint or direction he makes violent and prodigious efforts to get free, from his attendant.' throwing himself on the ground, and twisting him. Of the sagacity of the E., many interesting self into the most extraordinary positions. It is not anecdotes are on record, as every reader of books until he has thoroughly exhausted himself, and of travels and of natural history knows. But Cuviez


to it a degree of sagacity higher than that of skin. The head was covered with dry skin ; one of the dog. In a state of domestication, the E. is a the ears was well preserved; it was furnished with a delicate animal, requiring much watchfulness and tuft of hairs. Three-fourths of the whole skin were care, although naturally it has a very long life, procured, which was so heavy that ten persons and instances are on record of extreme longevity found great difficulty in transporting it to the in domestication, extending not only to more than one hundred, but almost to two hundred years.

The numbers of wild elephants in some parts both of the East Indies and of Africa, are being gradually reduced as cultivation extends, and many are shot for no other reason than a desire to reduce their Qumbers, and put an end to their ravages on cultivated grounds. A reward of a few shillings per head was claimed for 3500 destroyed in part of the northern province alone of Ceylon, in less than three years prior to 1848. It is for the sake of ivory that the greatest slaughter of elephants takes place. A ball of hard metal, skilfully planted in the eye, base of the trunk, or behind the ear, generally ends an E.'s life in an instant; and expert sportsmen have been known to kill right and left one with each barrel. Fossil Elephants.—The E. makes its appearance in

Skeleton of Mammoth. the Pleistocene strata. Its near ally, the mastodon, whose remains are found associated with it, began shore, a distance of 150 feet; it was of a dark-gray life earlier ; it has left its traces in Miocene deposite. colour, and was covered with a reddish wool, and Ten species of fossil elephants have been described, long black hairs or bristles. The wool was short, the remains of three of which are found in Europe and curled in locks ; the bristles were of different The best known of these is the Elephas primigenius, lengths, varying from 1 to 18 inches. Some of this or Mammoth, the tusks of which are so little altered covering still remained attached to the skin, but the as to supply an ivory which, though inferior to great mass was entirely separated from it. Mr that of the living species, is still used in the Adams collected 36 pounds, although much of it arts, especially in Russia. Its tusks are, on this had been destroyed from the dampness of the place account, regularly searched for by ivory hunters' in where it had lain so long. The animal was a male, Siberia, where, in the superficial deposits of sand, and had a long mane on the neck. The entire gravel, and loam, the remains occur in enormous carcass was removed to St Petersburg, where it is abundance. They are also found in similar strata now preserved. The tusks were repurchased, and all over Europe. In Britain, the localities that have added to the animal. It measures from the foresupplied these remains are very numerous. They part of the skull to the end of the mutilated tail 16 are especially abundant in the Pleistocene deposits of feet 4 inches ; the height to the top of the dorsal the east and south-east of England. Woodward, in spines is 9 feet 4 inches; the length of the tusks his Geology of Norfolk, calculates that upwards of along the curve is 9 feet 6 inches. Portions of the 2000 grinders of this animal have been dredged up hairy covering have been brought to this country, by the fishermen off Happisburgh in thirteen years. and may be seen in the British Museum. The bone-caves also yield remains of this gigantic Taking the teeth as exhibiting clearly a marked animal.

difference in the recent species, the mammoth is The mammoth truly belongs to the geological easily separated from both by its broader grinders, history of the world ; it died out at the close of the which have narrower, and more numerous, and period represented by the Pleistocene beds. It is the close-set plates and ridges. The existence of the E. only fossil animal that has been preserved in a and other genera, whose representatives are now perfect condition for the examination of man. In all found only in the warmer regions of the earth, in other remains we have to deal with the hard portions the north of Europe and Asia, led to the belief, that only-the bones, teeth, scales, &c., and frequently at the recent period in the world's history when only with fragmentary portions, requiring the skiil they were its living inhabitants, a tropical temperaof a Cuvier or an Owen to make from them an ture existed in the temperate zone, and stretched approximation to the perfect animal. But the mam. further north towards the pole ; but the discovery moth has been preserved so that its flesh has been of this perfect animal shewed that these hugo eaten by dogs, bears, and wolves. In 1799, a Tungu- elephants were adapted by their clothing to enduro sian, named Schumachoff

, while searching along the a cold climate, and by the structure of their teeth shores of Lake Oncoul for mammoth tusks, observed were able to employ as food the branches and foliage among the blocks of ice a shapeless mass, but did of the northern pines, birches, willows, &c. There not at the time discover what it was. The heat of are few generalisations more plausible at first sight succeeding summers gradually melted the ice around than to predicate of an unknown species of a genus it, and, in 1803, the mammoth fell on a bank of sand. what is ascertained regarding the known members In March of the following year, the hunter visited of the same genus. It required a striking case, such it, cut off, and carried away the tusks, which he as that supplied by the discovery of the mammoth, sold for fifty rubles. In 1806, Mr Adams visited to shew clearly the fallacy of deductions which were the locality, and examined the animal, which still almost universally received by scientific men not remained on the sand-bank where it had fallen, many years ago, which still occasionally mislead, but in a greatly mutilated condition. The Jakutski and which may even now be met with in some of the neighbourhood had cut off the flesh to feed popular hand-books of science. their dogs, and the wild beasts had almost entirely ELEPHANT. An order of the elephant was cleared the bones. The skeleton was, however, instituted in Denmark, by King Frederick II. The entire, excepting one of the fore-legs, and some of badge was a collar of elephants towered, supporting the bones of the tail. Many of the bones were still the king's arms, and having at the end the picture of held together by the ligaments and by parts of the the Virgin Mary.


ELEPHA'NTA, an island of six miles in circuit, leaves, to a genus of plants of the natural order stands in the harbour of Bombay (q. v.), about Compositæ, sub-order Corymbifera, one species of BEV.'n miles to the east of that city, and about five which (E. scaber) is common in elevated dry situamuk:s to the west of the mainland. It takes this its tions in all parts of India, anů s used in Indian European name from a huge figure of an elephant medicine in affections of the urinary organs. near its principal landing-place, which, however, ELETTA'RIA. See CARDAMOM. appears to have gradually crumbled away. This

1 ELETZ. See IELETZ. colossal animal has been cut out of a detached rock, which is apparently of basaltic origin. Further

ELEUSINE, a genus of Grasses, chiefly natives towards the interior, three temples, dug out of the of li

temples Lug out of the of India and other warm climates, several of which living mountain, present themselves--the roofs are cultivated as grains. This is especially the case being supported by curiously wrought pillars of with E. corocana, an Indian species, called Natchnee various forms and magnitudes, and the walls being and Nagla Ragee, also Mand and Murwa, which thickly sculptured into all the varieties of Hindu

has aggregated digitate spikes finally incurved. mythology. The largest of the three excavations

The Tibetans make a weak sort of beer, much in is nearly square, measuring 133 feet by 1304 feet: use amongst them, from this grain. E. stricta is and immediately fronting its main entrance stands

cultivated as a grain-crop in the same parts of the a bust or third-length of a three-headed deity, with world, and is, like the former, extremely productive. a height of 18 feet, and a breadth of 23. These

The grain called Tocusso in Abyssinia is also a monuments of superstition, like the quadruped species of this genus, E. Tocu880.-A decoction of which guards, as it were, the approaches to them, E. Agyptiaca is used in

E. Ægyptiaca is used in Egypt for cleansing ulcers ; are said to be rapidly decaying-a state of things

and a drink made from the seeds is regarded as which, besides in some measure accounting for the

useful in diseases of the kidneys and bladder. A execution of such works, seems to be inconsistent

decoction of E. Indica is also administered to infants with any very high antiquity. The island is in lat.

in Demerara, to prevent or cure convulsions. 18° 57' N., and long. 73° E.

ELEUSI'NIAN MY'STERIES, the sacred rites

with which the annual festival of Ceres was celeELEPHANTI'NÉ, a small island of the Nile, lying opposite to Assouan (q. v.), the ancient Syene,

brated at Eleusis. Many traditions were afloat in on the confines of Egypt and Nubia, in 24° 5' N.

ancient times as to the origin of this festival. Of lat., and 32° 34' E. long. From this island, the

these, the most generally accepted was to the effect Greek mercenaries were sent by Psammitichus I. to

that Ceres, wandering over the earth in quest of her

daughter Proserpine, arrived at Eleusis, where she recall the Egyptian deserters, and it was garrisoned

took rest on the sorrowful stone beside the well in the time of the Pharaohs, Persians, and Romans.

Callichorus. In return for some small acts of kind. The island was anciently called Abu, or the 'ivory island,' from its having been the entrepôt of the

ness, and to commemorate her visit, she taught trade in that precious material. The most import

Triptolemus the use of corn on the Rharian plain ant ruins are a gateway of the time of Alexander,

near the city, and instituted the mystic rites pecuand a small temple dedicated to Khnum, the

liarly known as hers. The outward method of the god of the waters, and his contemplar deities,

celebration of these mysteries is known with con. Anucis and Sate. This temple was founded by

siderable accuracy of detail. Their esoteric signiAmenophis III., and embellished by Rameses III.

ficance is very variously interpreted. The ancients Another remarkable edifice is the ancient Nilometer,

themselves generally believed that the doctrines formerly mentioned by Strabo, and which appears

revealed to the initiated gave them better hopes to have been built in the time of the Cæsars; and

than other men enjoyed, both as to the present life several remaining inscriptions record the heights of

and as to a future state of existence. Modern specu. inundation from the time of Augustus to Severus.

lation has run wild in the attempt satisfactorily to This island had the honour of giving a dynasty

explain these mysteries. As reasonable a solution as (the 5th) to Egypt, and was evidently an important

any other seems to be that of Bishop Thirlwall, who

finds in them place, the inscriptions on the rocks attesting the

the remains of a worship which pre. adoration paid by Sethos I., Psammitichus II., and

ceded the rise of the Hellenic mythology and its other monarchs, to the local deities. Other interest

attendant rites, grounded on a view of nature, less ing monuments have been found on this island;

fanciful, more earnest, and better fitted to awaken amongst which may be cited part of a calendar

both philosophical thought and religious feeling.' recording the rise of the Dog-star in the reign of

The festival itself consisted of two parts, the greater Thothmes III. (1445 B. c.), and numerous fragments

and the lesser mysteries. The less important feast, of pottery-principally receipts in the Greek lan

serving as a sort of preparation for the greater, was

held at Agræ, on the Ilissus. The celebration of guage-given by the farmers of the taxes in the reign of the Antonines. The island is at present

the great mysteries began at Eleusis on the 15th inhabited by Nubians.— Wilkinson, Topography of

day of Boëdromion, the third month of the Attio Thebes, p. 460; Champollion, Notice Descriptive,

year, and lasted over nine days. On the first day p. 215; Champollion, Lettres Ecrites, pp. 111, 157,

(called agurmos, the assembling), the neophytes, 171, 382.

already initiated at the preparatory festival, met,

and were instructed in their sacred duties. On the ELEPHANT'S FOOT, or HOTTENTOT'S second day (called Haladé, mystä, To the sea, ye BREAD (Testudinaria elephantipes), a plant of the initiated !), they purified themselves by washing in natural order Dioscoreaceae, of which the root-stock the sea. On the third day, sacrifices, comprising, forms a large fleshy mass, curiously truncate, or among other things, the mullet-fish, and cakes made abruptly cut off at the end, so as somewhat to of barley from the Rharian plain, were offered with resemble an elephant's foot, and covered with a special rites. The fourth day was devoted to the soft, corky, rough, and cracked bark. From this procession of the sacred basket of Ceres (the Kala. springs a climbing stem, which bears the leaves thion). This basket, containing pomegranatos, salt, and flowers. The root-stock is used as food by poppy-seeds, &c., and followed by bands of women the Hottentots. The plant is not unfrequently to carrying smaller baskets similarly filled, was drawn be seen in hothouses in Britain.

in à consecrated cart through the streets, amid The name ELEPHANT'S Foot (Elephantopus) is shouts of Hail, Ceres!' from the onlookers. The


was thou, ht to symbolise the wanderings of Ceres in the whole chain. Including its dependent cayre in quest oi her daughter. On it the mystä, led by or keys, E., in 1851, contained 4610 inhabitants. It the dadnchus,' the torch-bearer, walked two by two is more fertile than most of its neighbours, more to the teraple of the goddess, and seem to have spent especially surpassing all of them in the growth of the night there. The sixth day, called Iacchus, fruit, such as the pine-apple, the orange, and the in honour of the son of Ceres, was the great day of lemon. the feast. On that day the statue of lacchus was ELEUTHE'RIA BARK, a name not unfre. borne in pomp along the sacred way from the quently given to the bark of the Croton Eleutheria Ceramicus at Athens to Eleusis, where the votaries also known as Cascarilla Bark. See CASCARILLA. spent the night, and were initiated in the last mys. It is called Eleutheria (or Eleuthera) Bark, because teries. Till this stage of the proceedings, they had it is chiefly gathered on the island of Eleuthera. been only mystæ; but on the night of the sixth day they were admitted into the innermost sanctuary of

E'LEVATED. Wings turned upwards are the temple, and, from being allowed to behold the

described in heraldry as elevated. sacred things, became entitled to be called ' epoptæ,

ELEVA'TION, in Architectural Drawing, is a or "ephori; ' i. e., spectators, or contemplators. Î'hey representation of the flat side of a building, drawn were once more purified, and repeated their original with mathematical accuracy, but without the oath of secrecy with an imposing and awful cere. slightest attention to effect. In Art, again, elevamonial, somewhat resembling, it is believed, the tion is a raising of the subject beyond its ordinary forms of modern free-masonry. On the seventh character in real life. A very good instance of day, the votaries returned to Athens with mirth elevation in this sense is given by Fairholt in and music, halting for a while on the bridge over his Dictionary of Terms in Art, in Rembrandt's the Cephisus, and exercising their wit and satire Adoration of the Shepherds.' The whole of the against the spectators. The eighth day was called objects and surroundings of the infant Saviour are Epidauria, and was believed to have been added to of the most homely description; and still the light the original number of the days for the convenience which is represented as issuing from his person of those who had been unable to attend the grand gives an elevation to the scene which takes off from ceremonial of the sixth day. It was named in it entirely the character of being commonplace or honour of Æsculapius, who arrived on one occasion vulgar. from his native city of Epidaurus too late for the ELEVATION, in Astronomy and Geography, solemn rites, and the Athenians, unwilling to dis- means generally the height above the horizon of an appoint so distinguished a benefactor of mankind, object on the sphere, measured by the arc of a added a supplementary day. On the ninth day vertical circle through it and the zenith. Thus, the took place the ceremony of the Plemochoæ,' in elevation of the equator is the arc of a meridian which two earthen vessels filled with wine were intercepted between the equator and the horizon of turned one towards the east, and the other towards the place. The elevation of the pole is the com. the west. The attendant priests, uttering some plement of that of the equator, and is always equal mystic words, then upset both vessels, and the wine to the latitude of the place. The elevation of a so spilt was offered as a libation.

star, or any other point, is similarly its height Initiation into the Eleusinian mysteries was above the horizon, and is a maximum when the compulsory on every freeborn Athenian ; but slaves, star is on the meridian. prostitutes, and persons who had forfeited their

ELEVENTH, in Music, is the interval of the citizenship were excluded from the rites. During octave above the fourth. the period of the festival, none of those taking part in it could be seized or arrested for any offence.

ELF, a fairy, pl. ELVES. See FAIRIES, Lycurgus, with a view to destroying distinctions of ELF-ARROW-HEADS, ELFIN. ARROWS, class, forbade any woman to ride to the Eleusinia ELF-BOLTS, ELF-DARTS, ELF-SHOT, and in a chariot, under a penalty of 6000 drachmæ. The ELF-STONES, names popularly given in the mysteries were celebrated with the most scrupu- British Islands to the arrow-heads of flint which lous secrecy, No initiated person might reveal were in use at an early period among the barbarous what he had seen under pain of death, and no tribes of this country and of Europe generally, as uninitiated person could take part in the ceremonies they are still in use among the American Indians, under the same penalty. The priests were chosen the Esquimaux of the Arctic regions, and the inha. from the sacred family of the Eumolpidæ, whose bitants of some of the islands in the Pacific Ocean. ancestor, Eumolpus, had been the special favourite It was believed that elves or fairies, hovering in of Ceres. The chief priest was called the 'Hiero- the air, shot these barbs of flint at cattle, and phant,' or ' Mystagogue;' next in rank to him was occasionally even at men. Thus, Robert Gordon the Daduchus, or Torch-bearer ; after whom came of Straloch, an accomplished country gentleman of the · Hiero-Ceryx,' or Sacred Herald, and the priest the north of Scotland, writing in at the altar. Besides these leading ministers, there 1654, tells how one of his friends, was a multitude of inferior priests and servants. travelling on horseback, found an ELEU'SIS, a celebrated town in ancient Attica,

elf-arrow-head in the top of his stood near the northern shore of the Gulf of Salamis, boot, and how a gentlewoman of and not far from the confines of Megaris. It was discovered one in the breast of her

his acquaintance, when out riding, famous as the chief seat of the worship of Ceres, habit. He remarks that, although whose mystic rites were here performed with great they are got by chance in the pomp and solemnity from the earliest authentic times till the era of Alaric. See ELEUSINIAN Mys- fields and on the highways, one The temple of the goddess, designed by

who goes to look for them on Ictinus, the architect of the Parthenon, was the purpose will search in vain. He argest sacred edifice in Greece. The site of the adds that they are most com- Elf-Arrow-Head. old Eleusis is now occupied by the little village circumstance which probably helped them in

monly met with after showers-a of Lefsina or Lepsina.

Germany to their names of thunder-bolts' and ELEU'THERA, one of the Bahamas (q. v.), is, thunder-stones,' and is easily enough explained, Dext to New Providence, the most populous island The rain, by washing away the earth in which they



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