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king of the Scythians, at the time of Darius, was called Ariantes. A cotemporary of Xerxes is known by the name of Aripithes (i. e. Sanskrit, aryapati ; Zend, airyapaiti); and Spargapithes seems to have some connection with the Sanskrit svargapati, lord of heaven.

We have thus traced the name of Arya from India to the west, from Âryâvarta to Ariana, Persia, Media, more doubtfully to Armenia and Albania, to the Iron in the Caucasus, and to some of the nomad tribes in Transoxiana. As we approach Europe the traces of this name grow fainter, yet they are not altogether lost.

Two roads were open to the Aryans of Asia in their • westward migrations. One through Chorasan to the

north, through what is now called Russia, and thence to the shores of the Black Sea and Thrace. Another from Armenia, across the Caucasus or across the Black Sea to Northern Greece, and along the Danube to Germany. Now on the former road the Aryans left a trace of their migration in the old name of Thrace which was Aria ;2 on the latter we meet in the eastern part of Germany, near the Vistula, with a German tribe called Ari. And as in Persia we found many proper names in which Arya formed an important ingredient, so we find again in German history names such as Ariovistus.3

Though we look in vain for any traces of this old national name among the Greeks and Romans, late researches have rendered it at least plausible that it has i Qairizam in the Zend-avesta, Uvårazmis in the inscriptions of Darius. 2 Stephanus Byzantinus. 1.8 Grimm, Rechts alterthümer, p. 292, traces Arii and Ariovistus back to the Gothic harjë, army. If this is right, this part of our argument must be given up

been preserved in the extreme west of the Aryan migrations, in the very name of Ireland. The commor. etymology of Erin is that it means “island of the west," iar-innis, or land of the west, iar-in. But this is clearly wrong. The old name is Ériu in the nominative, more recently Éire. It is only in the oblique cases that the final n appears, as in regio, regionis. Erin therefore has been explained as a derivative of Er or Eri, said to be the ancient name of the Irish Celts as preserved in the Anglo-Saxon name of their country, Íraland.? It is maintained by O'Reilly, though denied by others, that er is used in Irish in the sense of noble, like the Sanskrit ârya.3

1 Pictet, Les Origines Indo-Européennes, p. 31. “Iar, l'ouest, ne s'écrit jamais er ou eir, et la forme larin ne se rencontre nulle part pour Erin.” Zeuss gives iar-rend, insula occidentalis. But rend (recte rind) makes rendo in the gen. sing.

2 Old Norse îrar, Irishmen, Anglo-Saxon ira, Irishman.

3 Though I state these views on the authority of M. Pictet, I think it right to add the following note which an eminent Irish scholar has had the kindness to send me: — “The ordinary name of Ireland, in the oldest Irish MSS., is (h ériu, gen. (h)érenn, dat. (h)érinn. The initial h, is often omitted. Before etymologizing on the word, we must try to fix its Old Celtic form. Of the ancient names of Ireland which are found in Greek and Latin writers, the only one which hėriu can formally represent is Hiberio. The abl. sing. of this form - Hiberione - is found in the Book of Armagh, a Latin MS. of the early part of the ninth century. From the same MS. we also learn that a name of the Irish people was Hyberionaces, which is obviously a derivative from the stem of Hiberio. Now if we remember that the Old Irish scribes often prefixed h to words beginning with a vowel (e. g. h-abunule, h-arundo, h-erimus, h-ostium), and that they also often wrote b for the v consonant (e.g. bobes, fribulas, corbus, fabonius); if, moreover, we observe that the Welsh and Breton names for Ireland – Ywerddon, Iverdon point to an Old Celtic name beginning with IVER —, we shall have little difficulty in giving Hiberio a correctly latinized form, viz. Iverio. This in Old Celtic would be Iveriu, gen. Iverionos. So the Old Celtic form of Fronto was Frontû, as we see from the Gaulish inscription at Vieux Poitiers. As v when flanked by vowels is always lost in Irish, Iveriû would become ieriu, and then, the first two vowels running together, ériu. As regards the double n in the oblique cases of ériu, the genitive érenn (e. g.) is to Iverionos as the Old Irish anmann 'names' is to the Skr. nâmâni, Lat.

Some of the evidence here collected in tracing the ancient name of the Aryan family, may seem doubtful, and I have pointed out myself some links of the chain uniting the earliest name of India with the modern name of Ireland, as weaker than the rest. But the principal links are safe. Names of countries, peoples,

rivers, and mountains, have an extraordinary vitality, • and they will remain while cities, kingdoms, and na

tions pass away. Rome has the same name to-day, and will probably have it forever, which was given to it by the earliest Latin and Sabine settlers, and wherever we find the name of Rome, whether in Wallachia, which by the inhabitants is called Rumania, or in the dialects of the Grisons, the Romansch, or in the title of the Romance languages, we know that some threads would lead us back to the Rome of Romulus and Remus, the stronghold of the earliest warriors of Latium. The ruined city near the mouth of the Upper Zab, now nomina. The doubling of the n may perhaps be due to the Old Celtic accent. What then is the etymology of Iveriû? I venture to think that it may (like the Lat. Aver-nus, Gr. 'Afop-vos) be connected with the Skr. avara, 'posterior,'

So the Irish des, Welsh deheu, “right,' 'south,' is the Skr. dakshiņa, 'dexter,' and the Irish air (in an-áir), if it stand for páir, east,' is the Skr. púrva, 'anterior.'

M. Pictet regards Ptolemy's 'lovepvia (Ivernia) as coming nearest to the Old Celtic form of the name in question. He further sees in the first syllable what he calls the Irish ibh, 'land,'' tribe of people,' and he thinks that this ibh may be connected not only with the Vedic ibha, 'family,' but with the Old High German eiba, 'a district. But, first, according to the Irish phonetic laws, ibha would have appeared as eb in Old, eabh in Modern-Irish. Secondly, the ei in eiba is a diphthong=Gothic ái, Irish ói, be, Skr.ê. Consequently ibh and ibha cannot be identified with eiba. Thirdly, there is no such word as ibh in the nom. sing., although it is to be found in OʻReilly's dictionary, along with his explanation of the intensive prefix er, as 'noble,' and many other blunders and forgeries. The form ibh is, no doubt, producible, but it is a very modern dative plural of úa, 'a descende ant.' Irish districts were often called by the names of the occupying clans. These clans were often called descendants (hui, hi, i) of such an one.' Hence the blunder of the Irish lexicographer." — W. S.


usually known by the name of Nimrud, is called Athur by the Arabic geographers, and in Athur we recognize the old name of Assyria, which Dio Cassius writes Atyria, remarking that the barbarians changed the Sigma into Tau. Assyria is called Athurâ in the inscriptions of Darius. We hear of battles fought on the Sutledge, and we hardly think that the battle field of the Sikh was nearly the same where Alexander fought the kings of the Penjáb. But the name of the Sutledge is the name of the same river as the Hesudrus of Alexander, the Satadru of the Indians, and among the oldest hymns of the Veda, about 1500 B. C., we find a warsong referring to a battle fought on the two banks of the same river.

No doubt there is danger in trusting to mere similarity of names. Grimm may be right that the Arïi of Tacitus were originally Harii, and that their name is not connected with Arya. But the evidence on either side being merely conjectural, this must remain an open question. In most cases, however, a strict observation of the phonetic laws peculiar to each language will remove all uncertainty. Grimm, in his “ History of the German Language” (p. 228), imagined that Hariva, the name of Herat in the cuneiform inscriptions, is connected with Arii, the name which, as we saw, Herodotus gives to the Medes. This cannot be, for the initial aspiration in Hariva points to a word which in Sanskrit begins with 8, and not with a vowel, like årya. The following remarks will make this clearer.

Herat is called Herat and Heri,2 and the river on

i See Rawlinson's Glossary, s. V.

2 W. Quseley, Orient. Geog. of Ebn. Haukal. Burnouf, Yasna, Notes, p. 102.

which it stands is called Heri-rud. This river Heri is called by Ptolemy Apelas,1 by other writers Arius; and Aria is the name given to the country between Parthia (Parthuwa) in the west, Margiana (Marghush) in the north, Bactria (Bakhtrish) and Arachosia (Harauwatish) in the east, and Drangiana (Zaraka) in the south. This, however, though without the initial h, is not Ariana, as described by Strabo, but an independent country, forming part of it. It is supposed to be the same as the Haraiva (Hariva) of the cuneiform inscriptions, though this is doubtful. But it is mentioned in the Zend-avesta, under the name of Harôyu,2 as the sixth country created by Ormuzd. We can trace this name with the initial h even beyond the time of Zoroaster. The Zoroastrians were a colony from northern India. They had been together for a time with the people whose sacred songs have been preserved to us in the Veda. A schism took place, and the Zoroastrians migrated westward to Arachosia and Persia. In their migrations they did what the Greeks did when they founded new colonies, what the Americans did in founding new cities. They gave to the new cities and to the rivers along which they settled, the names of cities and rivers familiar to

i Ptol. vi. c. 17.

2 It has been supposed that harðyüm in the Zend-avesta stands for haraê. vem, and that the nominative was not Harôyu, but Haraêcô. (Oppert, Journal Asiatique, 1851, p. 230.) Without denying the possibility of the correctness of this view, which is partially supported by the accusative vidôyum, from vidaévo, enemy of the Divs, there is no reason why Harôyûm should not be taken for a regular accusative of Harôyu. This Harôyu would be as natural and regular a form as Sarayu in Sanskrit, nay even more regular, as harôyu would presuppose a Sanskrit sarasyu or saroyu, from saras. M. Oppert identifies the people of Huraiva with the 'Apeiol, but not, like Grimm, with the 'Aploi.

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