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Iceland, later history of, 193. Jews, and from the fourth to the
Icelandic language, 190.

tenth centuries, 277.
Iconium, Turkish, sultans of, 307.

their adoption of Arabic, 277.
Illumination of Manuscripts, lost art their return to a kind of nod.
of, 20.

ernized Hebrew, 277.
Illyrians, Greek and Roman writers Jones, Sir William, his remarks on

on the race and language of the, the affinity between Sanskrit and
126 note.

Greek, 159.
Illyrian language, the ancient, 196 Julien, M. Stanislas, his notes on the

Chinese language, 118 note.
Illyrian languages, 200.

Justinian, the Emperor, sends an
India, the Mulla Abdu-l-Kádir Ma embassy to the Turks, 302.

luk's general history of, 151

- origin of the name of India,

“KALEWALA,” the, the “ Iliad "
Indian Philosophers, difficulty of ad of the Finns, 318.

mitting the influence of, on Greek Kalmuks, the, 296, 300.
philosophers, 94 note.

Kapchakian empire, the, 297.
Indies, East and West, historical Kara-Kalpak tribes near Aral-Lake,
meaning of the names, 227.

Indo-European family of languages. Karelian dialect of Finnic, 318.
See Aryan.

Karians, Greek authors on the, 125
Inflectional stage of language, 324. note.
Instrumental, formation of the, in Kempe, André, his notion of the
Chinese, 119 note, 218.

languages spoken in Paradise,
Interjectional theory of roots, 367. 135 note.
Interpreters, first encouragement Kepler, quoted, 129 note.
given to, by trade, 93.

Khi-nie, the Chinese pilgrim, his
Irán, modern name of Persia, origin travels into India, 149.
of the, 242.

Kirgis tribe, the, 305.
Iranic class of languages, 205. Kirgis Hordes, the three, 305.
Iron, name for, in Sanskrit and Kirgis-Kasak, tribe of the, 305.
Gothic, 236.

Kumüks, tribe of the, in the Cau-
Iron, the Os of the Caucasus calling
themselves, 243.

Kuthami, the Nabatean, his work on
Italian dialects, number of, 58, 197.

“Nabatean Agriculture,” 280.
natural growth of, 67.

period in which he lived, 280
real sources of, 69.

Italians, the, indebted to the Greeks

for the very rudiments of civiliza-

tion, 101.
Italic class of languages, 196. Laban, language of, 278.
Italy, dialects spoken in, before the Language, science of, one of the
rise of Rome, 197.

physical sciences, 11, 31.
Its, as a possessive pronoun,

intro modern date of the science of,
duction of, 46.

names of the science of, 14.
meaning of the science of, 14.

little it offers to the utilitarian
JEROME, Sr., his opinion that He spirit of our age, 20.

brew was the primitive language modern importance of the sci-
of mankind, 132.

ence of, in political and social
Jews, literary idiom of the, in the questions, 22.

century preceding and following the barrier between man and
the Christian era, 277.

beast, 23.

casus, 303.

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Language, importance of the science Language, glance at the modern
of, 33.

history of language, 173.
realm of, 35.

distinction between the radical
the growth of, in contradistinc and formal elements of, 215.
tion to the history of, 38.

constituent elements of, 250.
Dr. Whewell on the classifica morphological classification,
tion of, 38 note.

275, 286.
examination of objections the inflectional stage of, 324.
against the science of, as a consideration of the problem
physical science, 39.

of a common origin of lan-
considered as an invention of guages, 326 et see
mani, 39.

former theories, 345.
the science of, considered as a proper method of inquiry, 347.
historical science, 42.

man and brutes, faculties of, 350.
historical changes of, 44.

the difference between man and
almost stationary amongst brute, 354.

highly civilized nations, 45. the inward power of which lan-
growth of, 47.

guage is the outward sign and
the idea that man can change manifestation, 355.

or improve language exam universal ideas, 356.
ined, 48.

general ideas and roots, 356.
causes of the growth of, 50.

the primum cognitum and pri-
processes of the growth of:-

mum appellatum, 370.
1. phonetic decay, 51.

knowing and naming, 378.
2. dialectical regeneration, 58. language and reason, 383.
laws of change in, 73.

sound and thought, 384.
futile attempts of single gram natural selection of roots, 386.
marians and purists to im nothing arbitrary in language,
prove, 75.

connection between language origin and confusion of tongues,
and history, 77.

independent of historical events, the radical stage of language,

285, 286.
no possibility of a mixed, 82. the terminational stage, 285,
the Empirical Stage in the his-

torical progress of the science the infectional stage, 285.
of, 87.

Languages, number of known, 35.
speculations of the Brahmans teaching of foreign languages
and Greeks, 87.

comparatively a modern in.
the classiticatory stage of, 115.

vention, 91.
empirical or formal grammar, reason why the ancient Greeks

never learned foreign lan-
genealogical classification of,

guages, 91.

“The Mountain of Languages,"
Hervas's catalogue of works 93.
published during the 16th genealogical classification of,
century on the science of lan-

guage, 131 note.

tests for reducing the principal
Leibniz, 135 et seq.

dialects in Europe and Asia to
Hervas, 139.

certain families of languages,.
Adelung, 142.
Catherine the Great, 143.

genealogical classification not
importance of the discovery of applicable to all languages,
Sanskrit, 146, 170.

value of comparative grammar, radical relationship, 176.

comparative grammar, 214.


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tion, 68.

Languages, formal and radical ele- Locative, formation of the, in all the
ments of, 216.

Aryan languages, 219.
all formal elements of language in Chinese, 119 note, 218.
originally substantial, 228.

in Latin, 220.
degrees of relationship of, 284. Locke, John, on language as the
all languages reducible in the barrier between

end to roots, 286.

brutes, quoted, 24.
Langue d'Oil, ancient song in the,

universal ideas, quoted,

Laps, or Laplanders, 319.

his opinion on the origin of
their habitat, 319.

language, 40.
their language, 319.

Lord, origin of the word, 122.
Latin, what is meant by, 67.

Lord's Prayer, number of languages
changes in, according to Poly in which it was published by va-
bius, 67.

rious authors in the 16th century,
the old Salian poems, 67.

131 note.
provincialisms of Cicero, 67. Lucilius, his book on the reform of
stagnation of Latin when it be Latin orthography, 109.
came the language of civiliza- Lucina, a name of the moon, 21.

Luna, origin of the name, 21.
Latin genitives, 117.

Lusatia, language of, 200.
similarity between Gothic and Lycurgus, his travels mythical, 94.

Latin, 127.
geneal gical relation of Latin
to Greek, 172.
the future in Latin, 230.

MACEDONIANS, ancient authors on
Leibniz, the first to conquer the pre the, 125 note.

judice that Hebrew was the Madam, origin of word, 226.
primitive language of man- Mago, the Carthaginian, his book on
kind, 135.

agriculture in Punic, 91 note.
and the first to apply the prin- Man, ancient words for, 381.

ciple of inductive reasoning Man and brutes, faculties of, 349.
to the subject of language, difference between man and

brutes, 354.
- his letter to Peter the Great, Mandshu tribes, speaking a Tungu-
quoted, 136.

sic language, 296.
his labors in the science of lan-

grammar of, 323.

imitative sounds in, 366 note.
his various studies, 138. Manetho, his study and cultivation
on the formation of thought of'the Greek language, 95.

and language, quoted, 373. his work on Egypt, 95.
Lesbos, dialects of the island of, his knowledge of hieroglyphics,

Lettic language, the, 199.

Manka, the Indian, his translations
Lewis, Sir Cornewall, his criticisms from Sanskrit into Persian, 149.

on the theory of Raynouard, 171. Masora, idiom in which it was writ-
Linnæus, his system, although im-

perfect, important to science, 26. Maulana Izzu-d-din Khalid Khani,
Literary languages, origin of, 65. his translations from Sanskrit into
inevitable decay of, 68.

Persian, 150.
Lithuanian language, thé, 199. Même, origin of the French word, 57.

the oldest document in, 199. Menander, his study and cultivation
Livius Andronicus, 104.

of the Greek language, 95.
his translation of the Odyssey his work on Phenicia, 95.
into Latin verse, 104.

Mendaïtes, or Nasoreans, the “Book
Livonians, dialect of the, 318.

of Adam” of the, 279

guage, 137.

ten, 277.

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Ment, origin of the termination in Nebuchadnezzar, his name stamped
French adverbs, 55.

on all the bricks made during his
Mescheräks, tribe of the, their pres reign, 283.
ent settlements, 304.

Neo-Latin dialects, 196.
Milton, John, number of words used Nemét5101, the, of Constantinus
by, in his works, 267.

Porphyrogeneta, 91 note.
Ming-ti, the Emperor of China, al- Nestorians of Syria, forms and pres-

lows the introduction of Bud ent condition of their language,

dhism inte bis empire, 147. 276, note.
sends officials to India to study Nicopolis, battle of, 307.

the doctrines of Buddha, 148. No and nay, as used by Chaucer, 225.
Missionaries, their importance in Nobili, Roberto de, 155.

elucidating the problem of the his study of Sanskrit, 155.

dialectical life of language, 62. Nogái tribes, history of the, 303.
Moallakat, or "suspended poems," Nomad languages, 230.
of the Arabs, 281.

indispensable requirements of
Motsat, Rev. Robert, on the dialects a nomad language, 292.
of Southern Africa, 64.

wealth of, 71.
Monboddo, Lord, on language as the nomadic tribes and their wars,
barrier between man and

brutes, quoted, 24.

their languages, 316.
his “ Ancient Metaphysics" Nominalism and Realism, contro-
quoted, 160 and note.

versy between, in the Middle Ages,
Mongolian dialects, entering a new 22.

phase of grammatical life, 64. Norman words in the English lan-
Mongolian class of languages, 296. guage, proportion of, to Saxon
grammar of, 323.

words, 81.
Mongols, their original seat, 296. Norway, poetry of, 192.
three classes of them, 296.

the hliod or quida, 193.
their conquests, 297.

the two Eddas, 191-194.
dissolution of the empire, 299. Norwegian language, stagnation of
their present state, 300.

the, 70.
their language, 300.

Number of known languages, 35.
Moon, antiquity of the word, 16.
Moravia, devastated by the Mon-

gols, 299.
Mortal, origin of the word, 382. OBSOLETE words and senses since
Much and Very, distinction between, the translation of the Bible in

1611, 45.
Muhammed ben Musa, his translation Onomatopoieia, theory of, 358.

of the Indian treatise on algebra Ophir of the Bible, 203.
into Arabic, 149.

Origen, his opinion that Hebrew was
Mythology, real nature of, 21, 237. the primitive language of man-

kind, 132.
Origin of language, consideration

of the problem of the common,
NABATEANS, the, supposed to have

been descendants of the Ormuzd, the god of the Zoroastrians,
Babylonians and Chaldeans, mentioned by Plato, 207.

discovery of the name Aura-
the work of Kuthami on “Na-

mazda in the cuneiform in-
batean Agriculture," 280.

scriptions, 207.
National languages, origin of, 64.

origin of the name Auramazda
Nature, immutability of, in all her or Ormuzd, 207.
works, 42.

Os, the, of Ossethi, calling them-
Dr. Whewell quoted, 42.

selves Iron, 243.

326 et seq.

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Oscan language and literature, the, Persian, subsequent history of Per-

sian, 210.
Osmanli language, the, 301, 306. Peshito, meaning of the word, 276
Ostiakes, dialects of the, 63.

Owl-glass, stories of, 260.

Philolaus, the Pythagorean, his

guess on the motion of the earth

round the sun, 29.

Philology, comparative, science of
Pâli, once the popular dialect of 31.
Behar, 146.

a historical science, 32.
Panatius, the Stoic philosopher at aim of the science, 81.
Rome, 107.

Phænician, closely allied to Hebrew,
Pâņini, Sanskrit grammar of, 116. 280.
Pantomime, the, and the King, story Plato, his notion of the origin of the
of, 368.

Greek language, 126.
Paolino de San Bartolomeo, Fra, on Zoroaster, quoted, 206 note.

first Sanskrit grammar published Plautus, Greek words in the plays
by, 142, 158.

of, 104.
Paradise, languages supposed by all his plays mere adaptations

various authors to have been of Greek originals, 104.
spoken in, 135, 136.

Pleiades, the, origin of the word, 17.
Parsi, period when it was spoken in Poland invaded by the Mongols,
Persia, 210.

Parsis, or fire-worshippers, the an- Polish, oldest specimens of, 200.
cient, 205.

Polybius, on the changes Latin had
their prosperous colony in Bom undergone in his time, 67.
bay, 205.

Pons, Father, his report of the liter-
their various emigrations, 205 ary treasures of the Brahmans,

their ancient language, 205, Pott, Professor, his “Etymological

Researches,'' 167.
Pascatir race, the, 320.

his advocacy of the polygenetic
Pater, origin of the Latin word, 57. theory, 312 note.
Pay, to, origin of the word, 124. Prâkrit idioms, the, 146.
Pedro, Padre, the missionary at Prâtiśâkhyas, the, of the Brahmans,
Calicut, 15+

Pehlevi, or Huzvaresh language, Priest, origin of the word, 122.

Priscianus, influence of his gram-
Pelasgi, Herodotus on the, 125 note. matical work on later ages, 114.

Dionysius of Halicarnassus on Protagoras, his attempt to change
the, 125 note.

and improve the language of
Percussion, etymology of, 53.

Homer, 48.
Perion, his work on language, 131 Provençal, the daughter of Latin,

Permian tribes and language, 320. not the mother of French, Ita-
Permic branch of the Finnic class of lian, Spanish, and Portuguese
languages, 319.

the name of Perm, 319.

the earliest Provençal poem,
the Permic tribes, 320.

Persia, origin of the Turkman, or Prussian, the old, language and liter-
Kisilbash of, 302.

ature of, 200.
Persian language, 83.

Ptolemy, his system of astronomy,
influence of the, over the Turk although wrong, important to sci-

ish language, 83.
the ancient Persian language. Ptolemy Philadelphus and the Sep-
See Zend, Zend-avesta.

tuagint, 96 note.

ence, 26.

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