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the flesh pots, and when we did eat bread to the full; for ye have brought us forth into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger."

And Moses spake unto Aaron: "Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, Come near before the Lord: for he hath heard your murmurings." And it came to pass, as Aaron spake unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud. And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying: "I have heard the murmurings of the children of Israel: speak unto them, saying, In the morning ye shall be filled with bread; and ye shall know that I am the Lord your God."

And it came to pass, that in the morning the dew lay round about the host. And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground. And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another: "It is manna: "1 for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them: "This is the bread which the Lord hath given you to eat. This is the thing which the Lord hath commanded, Gather of it every man according to his eating, an omer 2 for every man, according to the number of your persons; take ye every man for them which are in his tents."

And the children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less. And when they did mete 3 it with an omer, he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating.

And Moses said, "Let no man leave of it till the morning." Notwithstanding they hearkened not unto Moses; but some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and stank: and Moses was wroth with them.

And they gathered it every morning, every man according to his eating and when the sun waxed hot, it melted. And it came to pass, that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses. And he said unto them: "This is that which the Lord hath said, To-morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the Lord: bake that which ye will bake to

1 It is manna. The Hebrew means, 'What is it?'

2 omer. A measure amounting to a little over seven pints.
8 mete. Measure.

day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning." And they laid it up till the morning, as Moses bade: and it did not stink, neither was there any worm therein. And Moses said: "Eat that to-day; for to-day is a sabbath unto the Lord: to-day ye shall not find it in the field. Six days ye shall gather it; but on the seventh day, which is the sabbath, in it there shall be none."

And it came to pass, that there went out some of the people on the seventh day for to gather, and they found none. And the Lord said unto Moses: "How long refuse ye to keep my commandments and my laws? See, for that the Lord hath given you the sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day." So the people rested on the seventh day.

And the manna was as coriander seed, and the color thereof as the color of bdellium. And the people went about, and gathered it, and ground it in mills, or beat it in a mortar, and baked it in pans, and made cakes of it: and the taste of it was as the taste of fresh oil. And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it. And Moses said: "This is the thing which the Lord commandeth, Fill an omer of it to be kept for your generations; that they may see the bread wherewith I have fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt." And Moses said unto Aaron : "Take a pot and put an omer full of manna therein, and lay it up before the Lord, to be kept for your generations." As the Lord commanded Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the Testimony, to be kept. And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they came to the land inhabited; they did eat manna, until they came unto the borders of the land of Canaan. And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys, according to the commandment of the Lord, and pitched in Rephidim.

And the mixed multitude that was among them fell a lusting: and the children of Israel also wept again, and said: "Who shall give us flesh to eat? We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions and the garlic: but now our soul is dried away: there is nothing at all, beside this manna, before our eyes."

Then Moses heard the people weep throughout their families,

every man in the door of his tent: and the anger of the Lord was kindled greatly; Moses also was displeased. And Moses said unto the Lord : "Wherefore hast thou afflicted thy servant? and wherefore have I not found favor in thy sight, that thou layest the burden of all this people upon me? Have I conceived all this people? have I begotten them, that thou shouldest say unto me, Carry them in thy bosom, as a nursing father beareth the sucking child, unto the land which thou swarest unto their fathers? Whence should I have flesh to give unto all this people? for they weep unto me, saying, Give us flesh, that we may eat. I am not able to bear all this people alone, because it is too heavy for me. And if thou deal thus with me, kill me, I pray thee, out of hand, if I have found favor in thy sight; and let me not see my wretchedness."

And the Lord said unto Moses: "Say thou unto the people, Sanctify yourselves against to-morrow, and ye shall eat flesh : for ye have wept in the ears of the Lord, saying, Who shall give us flesh to eat? for it was well with us in Egypt: therefore the Lord will give you flesh, and ye shall eat. Ye shall not eat one day, nor two days, nor five days, neither ten days, nor twenty days; but even a whole month, until it come out at your nostrils, and it be loathsome unto you: because that ye have despised the Lord which is among you, and have wept before him, saying, Why came we forth out of Egypt?"

And Moses said: "The people, among whom I am, are six hundred thousand footmen; and thou hast said, I will give them flesh, that they may eat a whole month. Shall the flocks and the herds be slain for them, to suffice them? or shall all the fish of the sea be gathered together for them, to suffice them?" And the Lord said unto Moses: "Is the Lord's hand waxed short? Thou shalt see now whether my word shall come to pass unto thee or not."

And Moses gat him into the camp, he and the elders of Israel. And there went forth a wind from the Lord, and brought quails from the sea, and let them fall by the camp, as it were a day's journey on this side, and as it were a day's journey on the other side, round about the camp, and as it were two cubits high upon the face of the earth. And the people stood up all that day, and all that night, and all the next day, and they gathered the quails: he that gathered least gathered ten homers: 1 and

1 A homer is about ten bushels.

they spread them all abroad for themselves round about the camp. And while the flesh was yet between their teeth, ere it was chewed, the wrath of the Lord was kindled against the people, and the Lord smote the people with a very great plague. And he called the name of that place Kibroth-hattaavah : 1 because there they buried the people that lusted. And the people journeyed from Kibroth-hattaavah unto Hazeroth; and abode at Hazeroth.

Then came the children of Israel, even the whole congregation, into the desert of Zin in the first month: and the people abode in Kadesh; and Miriam died there, and was buried there.

Water from the Rock (Num. xx. 2-13). And there was no water for the congregation and they gathered themselves together against Moses and against Aaron. And the people chode with Moses, and spake, saying: "Would God that we had died when our brethren died before the Lord! And why have ye brought up the congregation of the Lord into this wilderness, that we and our cattle should die there? And wherefore have ye made us to come up out of Egypt, to bring us unto this evil place? it is no place of seed, or of figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates; neither is there any water to drink." And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and they fell upon their faces: and the glory of the Lord appeared unto them.

And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying: "Take the rod, and gather thou the assembly together, thou, and Aaron thy brother, and speak ye unto the rock before their eyes; and it shall give forth its water, and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock: so thou shalt give the congregation and their beasts. drink."

And Moses took the rod from before the Lord, as he commanded him. And Moses and Aaron gathered the congregation together before the rock, and he said unto them: "Hear now, ye rebels; must we fetch you water out of this rock?" And Moses lifted up his hand, and with his rod he smote the rock twice and the water came out abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their beasts also.

And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron: "Because ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of 1 Kibroth-hattaavah. 'The graves of lusting.'

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Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them." This is the water of Meribah;1 because the children of Israel strove with the Lord, and he was sanctified in them.

The Fight with Amalek (Ex. xvii. 8-16). Then came Amalek," and fought with Israel in Rephidim. And Moses said unto Joshua: "Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek: to-morrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in mine hand." So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek: and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed: and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed. But Moses' hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun. And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.

And the Lord said unto Moses: "Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven." And Moses built an altar; and called the name of it Jehovahnissi: for he said: "Because the Lord hath sworn that the Lord will have war with Amalek from generation to generation."

3

Discouragement at the Report of the Spies (Num. xiii. 1, 2, 17–33; xiv. 1–10, 25–45). And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying: Send thou men, that they may search the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel: of every tribe of their fathers shall ye send a man, every one a ruler among them."

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And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan, and said unto them: "Get you up this way southward, and go up into the hill country: and see the land, what it is; and the people that dwelleth therein, whether they be strong or weak, few or

1 Meribah. 'Strife.'

2 Amalek. The Amalekites, a nomadic tribe on the southern borders of Canaan, would naturally dispute their occupation of the pasture lands about Kadesh. 8 Jehovah-nissi. Jehovah my banner.'

4 In Deut. i. 22 the proposal to send spies into Canaan is recounted as having come from the people.

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