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the midst of Egypt: and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maid-servant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of the beasts. And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more. But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move its tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that the Lord doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel. And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out." And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger.
Institution of the Passover (Ex. xii. 21-36). Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel, and said unto them: "Draw out and take you a lamb according to your families, and kill the passover. And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop,1 and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning. For the Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the blood upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, the Lord will pass over the door, and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto your houses to smite you. And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever. And it shall come to pass, when ye be come to the land which the Lord will give you, according as he hath promised, that ye shall keep this service. And it shall come to pass, when your children shall say unto you, What mean ye by this service? that ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of the Lord's passover, who passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses."
And the people bowed the head and worshipped. And the children of Israel went and did so; as the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, so did they. And it came to pass, that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and 1 hyssop. Probably wild marjoram.
all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead. "Rise
And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said: up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as ye have said. Also take your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me also." And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might send them out of the land in haste; for they said, "We be all dead men." And the people took their dough before it was leavened, their kneadingtroughs being bound up in their clothes upon their shoulders. And the children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of the Egyptians jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment and the Lord gave the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they lent unto them such things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians.
The Exodus (Ex. xii. 37-39; xiii. 17-22; xiv. 1-16, 19-31; xv. 1-4, 20, 21.) And the children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children. And a mixed multitude' went up also with them; and flocks, and herds even very much cattle. And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough which they brought forth out of Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, neither had they prepared for themselves any victual.
And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said: "Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt." But God led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea: and the children of Israel went up harnessed out of the land of Egypt. And Moses took the bones of Joseph with him: for he had straitly sworn the children of Israel, saying: "God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hence with you." And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the
1 mixed multitude. That is, the non-Israelites with whom the Hebrews had intermarried, and the children of these marriages.
2 harnessed. R. V., armed.
edge of the wilderness. And the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire,1 to give them light; to go by day and night: he took not away the pillar of cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from before the people.
And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying: "Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea. For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilder ness hath shut them in. And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honored upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the Lord."
And they did so. And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said: "Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?" And he made ready his chariot, and took his people with him, and all the chariots of Egypt, for the children of Israel went out with an high hand. But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pihahiroth, before Baal-zephon.
And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians marched after them; and they were sore afraid: and the children of srael cried out unto the Lord. And they said unto Moses: "Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt? Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness."
And Moses said unto the people: "Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord, which he will shew you today for the Egyptians whom ye have seen today, ye shall see
1 It is customary to-day for a caravan in the Arabian desert to have the leader carry aloft a brazier of coals, so that its smoke by day, and its glow by night, may be a guide to stragglers.
2 with a high hand. Boldly; defiantly.
them again no more for ever. The Lord shall fight for ye shall hold your peace.
And the Lord said unto Moses: "Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward : but lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea.'
And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud went from
Egyptian Chariot (Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh)
before their face, and stood behind them: and it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave light by night to these: so that the one came not near the other all the night. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen.
And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians. And he bound their chariot wheels, that they drave them heavily: so that the Egyptians said: "Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the Lord fighteth for them against the Egyptians." And the Lord said unto Moses: "Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen." And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea. And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them.
Thus the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore. And Israel saw that great work which the Lord did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the Lord, and believed the Lord, and his servant Moses.
Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the Lord, and spake, saying:
"I will sing unto the Lord, for he hath triumphed
The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea.
The Lord is my strength and song,
And he is become my salvation :
He is my God, and I will praise him;
My father's God, and I will exalt him.
The Lord is a man of war:
Jehovah is his name.
Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he cast into
And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a tim brel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances. And Miriam answered them:
"Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed
The horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea."