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Dissenters object against the Church of England, as the Cross in Baptism, Kneeling at the Lord's Supper, the wearing the surplice, and the like, I may again adduce the authority of Calvin : 72 "How perilous then, nay, how fatal the temptation, when we even entertain a thought of separating ourselves from that assembly in which we behold the signs and badges --the Word of God sincerely preached and heard, and the Sacraments administered according to the institution of Christ - which the Lord hath deemed sufficient to characterize his Church." In short as Calvin adds ; 73 “ We are not on account of every minute difference to abandon a Church."

I have not noticed * the peculiar tenet of the Anabaptists, in their denial of Infant Baptism ; which distinguishes or rather divides them, not only from our Church, but from their own brother Dissenters of other denominations :-it is sufficient to observe that 74 all the Reformers, 75 and the Universal Church in all ages, were opposed to them ; and, what is much more, 76 the command of the Saviour himself, the analogy and comparison of the two Dispensations, Mosaical and Christian, between Circumcision and Baptism ; as 77 Calvin 'also shews in his works, against the Anabaptists of his own days.

The separation of Dissenters from the Church of England, then, according to Calvin, is not only unten

72 Ibid., § 11, 23; $ 9, 21. 73 Ibid., $ 12, 24. * Bowden's Covenant Right of Infants, and the Mode of Christian Baptism. London. Seeleys.-Confessions of a Convert from Baptism in Water, to Baptism with Water. London, 1845, compared with Ridgley's Body of Divinity, II. Quest. clxvi. 408-420. London, 1731, &c. 74 Sylloge Confessionum, 83, 110, 134, 314, 344.

Oxon., 1804, compared with XXVIIth Article of the Church of Eng. land : Of Baptism.

75 Wall's History of Infant Baptism, Part II., viii. in Wall's Conference between two Men that had Doubts on Infant Baptism, 42. Printed for the Christian Knowledge Society, 1840.

76 Matthew, xix. 13 ; Calvin, ibid. xvi., § 7, 356.

77 Calvin, ibid. xvi., $ 3, 352, &c. Calvini Oper. viii. 357–359. Amst., 1667.

able, but contrary to the true interpretation of the Word of God, and the Unity of his Church : 78 but the separation of the Church of England from the Church of Rome, and especially, since the enactments of the Council of Trent, and the promulgation of its Creed, A.D. 1564, by Pius IV., the then principal Bishop of that Church, is not only lawful but necessary ; 79 arising, as it does, from her Tyranny in the Government of the Church ; Capital Errors in Doctrine ; and Idolatry in Worship. All these, in the fourth book of his Institutes, 80 near the commencement does Calvin luminously shew, and incontestably support. And if, in conclusion, I may hazard a few words, we consider only the assertions of the Trent Creed ;–81«a form of Faith extracted out of the Council of Trent,”-that the Roman Church is the Mother and Mistress of all other Churches ; that there are seven, truly and properly, Sacraments of the new law, instituted by Jesus Christ ; that there is offered in the Mass, a true, proper, and propitiatory Sacrifice for the living and the dead ; that the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ are truly, really, and substantially present in the Eucharist, together with his soul and Divinity ; that a conversion of the whole substance of the bread and wine is made into the body and blood (of our Lord), which conversion the (Roman) Catholic Church calls Transubstantiation ;-in short, that Christ is wholly present under each species, (the bread and wine ;) that the Saints reigning with Christ are to be venerated and invocated ; their images to have the accustomed honour and veneration bestowed upon them ; that the power of indulgences was bequeathed by Christ to his Church, and their use highly salutary to Christian

73 "Clagett's Difference of the Case between the Separation of Protestants from the Church of Rome, and the Separation of Dissenters from the Church of England ” in Gibson's Preser. vative against Popery, III. Title ix. 438—460. Stillingfleet's Unreasonableness of Separation, in his Works, II., 439-674. * Stillingfleet, ibid. 552-554. 5 Calvin's Instit., ii., § 1-12, 41–55. * Gibson, ibid. Title x., 3—59.

people ;—then, the Tyranny, Error, and Idolatry, of the Roman Church, are most evident and inexcusable. Against these, as a Church, we solemnly protest, and with that Church which maintains them, we can hold no communion.

In the language of Dr. Hammond : _82 - Our wellbeloved Mother, the Church of England, has, in the first place, founded her Reformation upon the Scriptures; and, in the second, upon the bishops, martyrs, and ecclesiastical writers of the first ages : therefore whatsoever the Scriptures have asserted concerning matters of Faith, whatsoever the Universal Church, in the times succeeding the Apostles, hath determined concerning its Ecclesiastical Government, that the Church of England has carefully placed, as settled and determined, among its Articles of Religion ; by no means permitting that what is thus placed, should, by any of its sons, undergo alteration or removal."

Wherefore, let us conclude in the words of Moses, the man of God, as set forth in Holy Scripture : 83 « And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day?-And thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and thou shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.'

& Hammond, I. xiv., § 13, 50,

863 Deuteronomy, iv. 8 ; vi. 7.


Is reference to the Introduction of Christianity into Britain, as stated in Sect. I., 6, we may speak of

ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST. The name of St. John the Evangelist has been, by some, connected with the apostolic history of the British Churches. The Rev. Peter Roberts, in his Dissertation on the History of the Ancient British Church, Appendix, No. VI., 294, attached to the Chronicle of the Kings of Britain, London, 1811, is very earnest on this point. * For,” says he, “in the controversy between Colman and Wilfrid, Colman asserts that the doctrines he held were received from St. John.” After speaking of St. John's being at Rome, and of the conversion of certain “ Britons,” which “ may have been effected by

Roberts adds: “ One circumstance, at least, affords a presumption that it was so, viz., in the Triad of Oaths, one form is the swearing upon, or by the Gospel of St. John, as the established form, and it marks a preference of it."

I have, in the present Tract, 31, and note 30, noticed the conference, and indeed “controversy," just insisted on. Bede, as there quoted, states: “ Then Colman said, “This Easter which I keep, I received from my elders, who sent me bishop hither; all our forefathers, men beloved of God, are known to have kept it after the same manner; and that the same may not appear to any contemptible or worthy to be rejected, it is the same which St. John the Evangelist, the disciple beloved of our Lord, with all the churches over which he presided, is recorded to have observed.'”

Perhaps, however, I may add, from another and larger undertaking of mine, which, should encouragement be afforded, may, some day, be published, that, besides Roberts, "others have supposed, and it should seem their arguments are more convincing, that Irenæus, 'Bishop of Lyons in Gaul, who succeeded Pothinus upon his martyrdom, having, in his youth, been a hearer of Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, a disciple of St. John, might render, either by himself, or his contemporaries, that assistance in the superstructure of the British Churches, which gained for this apostle, St. John, no ordinary veneration in these islands."

Ledwich's Antiquities of Ireland, Essay 6, 55. Sect. 8, 100. Dublin, 1804. Mosheim's Commentary on the Affairs of the Christians before Constantine, Cent. II. Sect. III., 18, 20-22, under note e; besides many older and later writers.

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ST. PAUL. The words of * Clement, in reference to St. Paul, given in this 'Tract, I., 7, have a remarkable affinity with those of the Collect of the Church of England on the Conversion of St. Paul. "O God, who, through the preaching of the blessed Apostle St. Paul, hast caused the light of the Gospel to shine throughout the world; Grant, we beseech thee, that we, having his wonderful conversion in remembrance, may shew forth our thankfulness unto thee for the same, by following the holy doctrine which he taught; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen."

CLAUDIA. I have, in this Tract, I., 8, spoken of Claudia, as the daughter of Caractacus; in favour of which opinion, Francis Monceaux especially distinguished himself ; wherein he is partly followed by Alford, besides later and Protestant writers. But when, 'in the year 1723, a Roman Inscription was discovered at Chichester, and upon which Gale and Stukeley, the antiquaries, bestowed much attention, an opinion arose that Claudia was the daughter, not of Caractacus, but of Cogidunus, a British prince, in alliance with the Romans, and ruling over the modern Sussex and some adjoining country. And in favour of this opinion, the Rev. John Williams, the present Archdeacon of Cardigan, has written an interesting pamphlet, entitled Claudia and Pudens; published during the last year. The subject, however, needs further consideration; and Monceaux's work more attention than has yet been bestowed on it;-as do, also, the false inferences of several of our older and later writers.

POMPONIA GRÆCINA. That this lady, spoken of at the same time with Claudia, in this Tract, 1., 8, and note 19, “ was a Christian, appears very probable from the account Tacitus gives of her;" for,

* Stillingfileet, I., 55, note f, as included in this Tract, 7, note 11, and Henry Burton's Notes, given in Le Clerc's edition of Cotelerius's SS. Patrum qui temporibus Apostolicis floruerunt, II., 470, 471, 473– 476. Amst., 1724, deserve consulting.

Moncaii Eccles. Christ. vet. Britan. Incunab. Regia: sive de Claudia Rufina, &c. Tornaci, 1614. Stillingfleet's Orig. Brit., or the Antiquities of the British Churches, 1., 65, and notes v, y. Hughes's "Horæ Britannicæ, or Studies in Ancient British History, I., 28. London, 1819. Bowles's Pudens and Claudia of St. Paul ;printed by Gutch and Martin, Bristol.

3 Horsley's Britannia Romana, or the Roman Antiquities of Britain, II. iii., 332–337, and plate 76. London, 1732. Stillingfleet, 93, and note d. Carte, in his General History of England, I. ii. viii., 134, published in 1747, agrees with Gale and Stukeley.

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