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rus, the chief of which was Simon, the son of Apapias; and others to Agrippa, among whom the most eminent were Saul, and Autipas, and Costobarus, who were of the king's kindred; and they desired of them both that they would come with an army into the city, and cut off the sedition before it should be too hard to be subdued. Now this terrible message was good news to Florus; and because his design was to have a war kindled, he gave the ambassadors no answer at all. But Agrippa was equally solicitous for those that were revolting, and for those against whom the war was to be made, and was desirous to preserve the Jews for the Romans, and the temple and metropolis for the Jews; he was also sensible that it was not for his own advantage that the disturbances should proceed; so he sent three thousand horsemen to the assistance of the people, out of Auranitis, and Batanae, and Trachopitis, and these under Darius the master of his horse, and Philip the son of Jacimus, the general of his army.
5. Upon this the men of power with the high-priests, as also all the part of the multitude that were desirous of peace, took courage, and seized upon the upper city, Mount Sion for the seditious part had the lower city, and the temple in their power; so they made use of stones and slings perpetually against one another, and threw darts continually on both sides, and sometimes it happened that they made incursions by troops, and fought it out hand to hand, while the seditious were superior in boldness, but the king's soldiers in skill. These last strove chiefly to gain the temple,and to drive those out of it who profaned it; as did the seditious, with Eleazar, besides what they had done already, labour to gain the upper city. Thus were there perpetual slaughters on both sides for seven days time; but neither side would yield up the parts they seized on.
6. Now the next day was the festival of Xylophory, upon which the custom was for every one to bring wood for the al. tar (that there might never be a want of fuel for that fire which was unquenchable, and always burning;) upon that day they excluded the opposite party from the observation of this "part of religion. And when they had joined to themselves many of the Sicarii, who crowded in among the weaker people, (that was the name for such robbers as had under their bosoms swords called Sicae,) they grew bolder and carried their undertaking farther; insomuch that the king's soldiers were overpowered by their multitude and boldness, and so they gave way, and were driven out of the upper city by force. The others then set fire to the house of Auanias the high priest, and to the palaces of Agrippa and Berenice; after which they carried the fire to the place where the archives were reposited, and made haste to burn the contracts belonging to their creditors, and thereby to dissolve their obligations for paying their debts; and this was done in order to gain the multitude of those who had been debtors, and that they might persuade the poorer sort to join their insurrection with safety against the more wealthy ; so the keepers of the records fled away, and the rest set fire to them. And when they had thus burot down the nerves of the city, they fell upon their enemies ; at which time some of the men of power, and of the high-priests went into the vaults under ground, and concealed themselves, while cthers fled with the king's soldiers to the upper palace, and shut the gates immediately; among whom were Ananias the bigh-priest, and the ambassadors that had been sent to Agrippa. And now the seditious were contented with the victory they had gotten, and the buildings they had burnt down, and had proceeded no farther.
7. But on the next day, which was the fifteenth of the month Lous, [Ab.) they made an assault upon Antonia, and besieged the garrison which was in it two days, and theu took the garrison and slew them, and set the citadel on fire; after which they marched to the palace, whither the king's soldiers were fled, and parted themselves into four bodies, and made an attack upon the walls. As for those that were within it, no one had the courage to sally out, because those that assaulted them were so numerous, but they distributed themselves into the breast-works and turrets, and shot at the beseigers, whereby many of the robbers fell under the walls ; nor did they cease to fight one with another either by night or by day, while the seditious supposed that those within would grow weary for want of food, and those without supposed that others would do the like by the tediousness of the siege.
8. In the mean time one Manahem, the son of Judas that was called the Galilean, (who was a very cuoning sophister, and had formerly reproached the Jews under Cyrenius, that after God they were subject to the Romans,) took some of the men of note with him, and retired to Masada, where he broke upon king Herod's armoury, and gave arms not only to his own people, but to the robbers also. These he made use of for a guard, and returned in tlie state of a king to Jerusalem; he became the leader of the sedition, and gave orders for cona tinuing the siege, but they wanted proper iostruments, and it was not practicable to undermine the wall, because the darts came down upon them from above. But still they dug a mine from a great distance under que of the towers, and made it totter, and having dove that, they set fire on what was combustible, and left it, and when the foundations were burnt below, the tower fell down suddeply. Yet did they then meet with another wall that had been built within, for the beseiged were sensible beforehand of what they were doing; and probably the tower shook as it was undermining ; so they provided themselves of another fortification ; wliich, when the besiegers unexpectedly saw, while they thought they had already gained the place, they were under some consternation. However, those tint were within sent to Mapahem, and to the other leaders of the sedition, and desired they might go out upon a tapitulation; this was granted to the king's soldiers, and their own countrymen only, who went out accordingly; but the Romans that were left alone were greatly dejected, for they were not able to force their way through such a multitude ; and to desire them to give them their right hand for their security, they thought it would be a reproach to them, and besides, if they should give it them, they durst not der pend upon it; so they deserted their camp, as easily taken, and ran away to the royal towers, that called Hippicus, that called Phasaelus, and that called Mariamne. But Manahem and his party fell upon the place whence the soldiers were fled, and slew as, many of them as they could catch, before they got up to the towers and plundered what they left behind them, and set fire to their camp. This was executed on the sixth day of the month Gorpieus, [Elul.] .
9. But on the next day the high-priest was caught, where he had concealed himself in an aqueduct; he was slain, together with Hezekialı, his brother, by the robbers : hereupon the seditious besieged the towers, and kept them guarded, lest any one of the soldiers sliould escape. Now the overthrow of the places of streugth, and the death of the highpriest Ananias, so puffed up Manahem, that he became barbarously cruel, and, as he thought he had no antagonist to dispute the management of affairs with him, he was no better than an insupportable tyrant; but Elcazar and liis party, when words had passed between, how “It was not proper “when they revolted from the Romans, out of the desire of “liberty, to betray that liberty to any of their own people, " and to bear a lord, who though he should be guilty of no ó violence, was yet meaner than themselves : as also, that, in “ case they were obliged to set some one over their public “affairs, it was fitter they should give that privilege to any “one rather than to him, they made an assault upon him in the temple ; for he went up thither to worship in a pompous manner, and adorned with royal garments, and had his followers with him in their armour. But Eleazar and his par. ty fell violently upon him, as did also the rest of the people, and taking up stones to attack him withal, they threw them at the sophister, and thought that if he were once ruined, the entire sedition would fall to the ground. Now Manahem and his party made resistance for a while, but when they percei. ved that the whole multitude were falling upon them, they fied which way every one was able : those that were caught were slain, and those that hid themselves were searched for. A few there were of them who privately escaped to Masada, among whom was Eleazar, the son of Jairus, who was of kin to Manahem and acted the part of a tyrant to Masada afterward; as for Manahem himself, he ran away to the place called Ophelit, and there lay skulking in private ; but they took liim alive, and drew him out before them all; they then tortured him with many sorts of torments, and after all slew him, as they did by those that were captains under him also, and particularly by the principal instrument of his tyranny, whose name was Apsalom.
10. And, as I said, so far truly the people assisted them, while they hoped this might afford some amendment to the seditious practices ; but the others were not in haste to put an end to the war, but hoped to prosecute it with less danger now they had slain Manahem. It is true, that when the people earnestly desired that they would leave off besieging the soldiers, they were the more earnest in pressing forward, and this till Metellius, who was the Roman general, sent to Eleazar, and desired that they would give them security to spare their lives only, but agreed to deliver up their arms, and what else they had with them. The others readily complied with their petition, sent to them Gorion, the son of Nicodemus, and Ananias the son of Sadduk, and Judas, the son of Jonathan, that they might give them the security of their right hands,
and of their oaths; after which Metellius brought down bis soldiers, which soldiers, while they were in arms, were not meddled with by any of the seditious, nor was there any appearance of treachery; but as soon as, according to the articles of capitulation, they had all laid down their shields, and their swords and were under no further suspicion of any harm, but. were going away, Eleazar's men attacked them after a violent manner,and encompassed them round, and slew them, while they peither defended themselves, nor entreated for mercy, but only cried out upon the breach of their articles of capitulation, and their oaths. And thus were all these men barbarously murdered, excepting Metellius : for when he entreated for mercy, and promised that he would turn Jew, and be circumcised, they saved him alive, and pone else. This loss to the Romaos was but light, there being no more than a few slain out of an immense army : but still it seemed to be a prelude to the Jews own destruction, while men made publick lamen. tation when they saw that such occasions were afforded for a war as were incurable; that the city was all over polluted with such abominations from which it was but reasonable to expect some vengeance, even though they should escape reverence from the Romaos; so that the city was filled with *sadness, and every one of the moderate men in it were under great disturbance, as likely themselves to undergo punishment for the wickedness of the seditious; for indeed it so happened, that this murder was perpetrated on the Sabbath day, on which day the Jews have a respite from their whole works on account of divine worship.
CHAP. XVIII The calamities and slaughters that came upon the Jews. 3 1. Now the people of Cæsarea had slain the Jews that were among them on the very same day and hour (when the soldiers were slain, which one would think must have come to pass by the direction of Providence; ipsomuch that in one hour's time above twenty thousand Jews were killed, and all Cæsarea was emptied of its Jewish iphabitants; for Florus Baught such as ran away and sent them in bonds to the gal. deys. Upon which stroke that the Jews received at Cæsarea, the whole nation was greatly enraged; so they divided them, selves into several parties, and laid waste the villages of the Syrians, and their neighbouring cities, Philadelphia, and Sehar