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nitis, and Gerassa, and Pella, and Scythopolis, and after them Gadara, and Hippos; and falling upon Gaulanitis, some cities they destroyed there, and some they set on fire, and then went to Kedasa, belonging to the Tyrians, and to Ptolemais, and to Gaba, and to Cæsaiea, por was either Sebaste (Samaria,] or Askelon able to oppose the violence with which they were attacked; and when they had burut these to the ground, they entirely demolished Anthedon and Gaza; many also of the villages that were about every one of those cities were plundered, and an immense slaughter was made of the men who were caught in them. i

2. However, the Syrians were even with the Jews in the multitude of the men whom they slew ; for they killed those whom they caught in their cities, and that not only out of the hatred they bare them, as formerly, but to prevent the dan. ger under which they were from them ; so that the disor. ders in all Syria' wcre terrible, and every city was divided into two armies encamped one against another, and the preservation of one party was in the destruction of the other; so the day-time was spent in shedding of blood, and the night in fear, which was of the two the more terrible ; for when the Syriaus thought they had ruined the Jews they had Judaiz. ers ip suspicion also ; and as each side did not care to slay those whom they only suspected on the other, so did they greatly fear them when they were mingled with the other, as if they were certainly foreigners. Moreover, greediness of gain was a provocation to kill the opposite party, even to such of old as had appeared very mild and gentle towards them ; for they without fear plundered the effects of the slain, and carried off the spoils of those whom they slew to their own houses, as if they had been gained in a set battle ; and he was esteemed a man of honour who got the greatest share, as having prevailed over the greatest number of his cnemies. It was then common to see cities filled with dead bodies, still lying unburied, and those of old men, mixed with infants all dead, and scattered about together : women also lay amongst them, without any covering for their nakedness ; you might then see the whole province full of inexpressible calamities, while the dread of still more barbarous practices which were threatened, were every where greater ihan what had been already perpetrated.

4. And thus far the conflict had been between Jews and foreigners, but when they made excursions to Scythopolis,

they found Jews that acted as enemies ; for as they stood in battle array with those of Scythopolis, and preferred their own safety before their relation to us, they fought against their own countrymeu; nay, their alacrity was so very great, that those of Scythopolis suspected them. These were afraid, therefore, lest they should make an assault upon the city in the night time, and, to their great misfortune, should thereby make an apology for themselves to their own people for their revolt froin them. So they commanded them, that in case they would confirm their agreement, and demonstrate their fidelity to them, who were of a different nation, they should go out of the city, with their families to a neighbouring grove; aud when they had done as they were commanded, without suspecting any thing, the people of Scythopolis lay still for the interval of two days, to tempt them to be secure; but on the third night they watched their opportunity, and cut all their throats, some as they lay unguarded, and some as they lay asleep. The number that was slain was above thirteen thousand, and then they plundered them of all that they had.

4. It will deserve our relation what befell Simon; he was the son of one Saul, a man of reputation among the Jews.

This man was distinguished from the rest by the strength of his body, and the boldness of his conduct, although he abused them both to the mischieving of his countrymen ; for he. came every day and slew a great many of the Jews of Scy. thopolis, and frequently put them to flight, and became himself alone the cause of his army's conquering. But a just pun. ishment overtook him for the murders he had committed upon those of the same vation with him ; for when the people of Scy. thopolis threw their darts at them in the grove, he drew his sword, but did not attack any of the enemy; for he saw that he could do nothing against such a multitude ; but he cried out after a very moving manner, and said, “ O, you people of “ Scythopolis, I deservedly suffer for what I have done with 6 relation to you, when I gave you such security of my fidel« ity to you, by slaying so many of those that were related “ to me. Wherefore we very justly experience the perfid« iousness of foreigners, while we acted after a most 6 wicked manner against our own vation. I will therefore “ die, polluted wretch as I am, by mine own hands; for it is 6 not fit I should die by the hand of our enemies; and let " the same action be to me both a punishment for my great

* crimes, and a testimony of my courage to my commenda65 tion, that so no one of our enemies may have it to brag of, " that he it was that slew me, and no one may insult upon “ me as I fall.” Now when he had said this, he looked round about him upon his family with eyes of commiseration, and of rage, (that family consisted of a wife, and children, and his aged parents ;) so, in the first place, he caught his father by his grey hairs, and ran his sword through him, and after he did the same to his mother, who willingly received it ; and after them, he did the like to his wife and children, every one almost offering themselves to his sword, as desirous to prevent being slain by their enemies ; so when he had gone over all his family, he stood upon their bodies to be seen by all, and stretching out his right land, that his action might be observed by all, he sheathed his eutire sword into his own bow. els. This young man was to be pitied on account of the strength of his body and the courage of his soul; but since he lad assured foreigners of fidelity (against his own countrymen] he suffered deservedly.

5. Besides this murder at Scythopolts, the other cities rose up against the Jews that were among them ; those of Askalon slew two thousand five hundred, and those of Ptolemais two thousand, and put not a few in bonds; those of Tyre also put a great number to death, but kept a great number in prison; moreover, those of Hippos, and those of Gadara did the like while they put to death the boldest of the Jews, but kept those of wliom they were not afraid in custody ; as did the rest of the cities of Syria, accordivg as they every one either bated them, or were afraid of them; only the Antiochians, the Sidonians anrl Apamians, spared those that dwelt with them, and would not endure either to kill any of the Jews, or to put them in boods. And perhaps they spared them, because thieir own number was so great that they despised their attempts ; but I think the greatest part of this faveur was owing to their conimiseration of those whom they saw to make no innovations. As for the Gerasans, they did no liarm to those that abode with them, and for those who had a miod to go away, they conducted them as far as their borders reached.

6. There was also a plot laid against the Jews in Agrippa's kingdom : for he himself was gone to Cestins Gallus, to Antioch, but had left one of his companions, whose name was Noarus, to take care of the public affairs; which Noarus

was of kin to king Sohemus. * Now there came certain men, seventy in number, out of Batanea, who were the most considerable for their families and prudence of the rest of the people; these desired to have an army put into their hands, ihat if any tumult should happen, they might have about them a guard sufficient to restrain such as might rise up against them. This Noarus sent out some of the king's armed men by night, and slew all those [seventy) men; which bold action he ventured upon without the consent of Agrippa, and was such a lover of money, that he chose to be so wicked to his own countrymen, though he brought ruin on the king dom thereby; and thus cruelly did he treat that nation, and this contrary to the laws also, until Agrippa was informed of it, who did not indeed dare to put him to death, out of regard to Sohemus, but still he put an end to his procuratorship immediately. But as to the seditious, they took the citadel which was called Cypros, and was above Jericho, and cut the throats of the garrison, and utterly demolished the fortifications; this was about the same time that the multitude of the Jews that were at Macherus persuaded the Romans who were in garrison, to leave the place, and deliver it up to them. These Romans being in great fear, lest the place should be taken by force, made an agreement with them to depart upon certain conditions ; and when they had obtained the security they desired, they delivered up the citadel, into which the people of Macherus put a garrison for their own security, and held it in their own power,

7. But for Alexandria, the sedition of the people of the place against the Jews was perpetual, and this from that very time when Alexander (the Great,] upon finding the readiness of the Jews in assisting him against the Egyptians, and as a reward for such their assistance, gave them equal privileges in this city with the Grecians themselves. Which honorary reward continued among them under his successors, who also set apart for them a particular place, that they might live without being polluted by the Gentiles,] and were thereby not so much intermixed with foreigners as before : they also gave them this farther privilege, that they should be called Macedonians. Nay, when the Romans got pos.

* Of this Sobemis we have mention made by Tacitus. We also learn from Dio, that his father was king of the Arabians of Iturea, (which Iturea is mentioned by St. Luke iii. 1.) both whose testi. monies are quoted here by Dr. Hudson. See Noldius, No. 371.

session of Egypt, neither the first Cæsar, nor any one that came after him, thought of diminishing the honours which Alexander had bestowed on the Jews. But still conflicts perpetually arose with the Grecians : and although the go. vernors did every day punish many of them, yet did the sedition grow worse ; but at this time especially when there were tumults in other places also, the disorders among them were put into a greater flame; for when the Alexandrians had once a public assembly, to deliberate about an embassage they were sending to Nero, a great number of Jews came flocking to the theatre ; but when their adversaries saw them, they immediately cried out, and called them their enemies, and said they came as spies upon them ; upon which they rushed out, and laid violent hands upon thenı; and as for the rest they were slain as they ran away; but there were three men whom they caught, and hauled them along, in order to have them burnt alive ; . but all the Jews came in a body to defend them, who at first threw stones at the Grecians, but after that they took lamps, and rushed with violence' into the theatre, and threatened that they would burn the people to a man: and this they had soon done, unless Tiberius Alexander, the governor of the city, had restrained their passious. However, this man did not begin to teach them wisdom by arms, but sept among them privately some of the pripcipal men, and thereby entreated them to be quiet, and not provoke the Roman army against them ; but the seditious made a jest of the entreaties of Tiberius, and re. proached him for so doing.

8. Now when he perceived that those who were for inno. vations would not be pacified till some great calamity should overtake them, he sent out upon them those two Roman legions that were in the city, and together with them five thousand other soldiers, who, by chance, were come together out of Libya, to the ruin of the Jews. They were also permitted not only to kill them, but to plunder them of what they bad, and to set fire to their houses. These soldiers rushed violently into that part of the city that was called Delta, where the Jewish people lived together, and did as they were bidden, though not without bloodshed on their own side also ; for the Jews got together, and set those that were the best armed among them in the forefront, and made resistance for

a great while, but when once they gave back they were de* stroyed unmercifully ; and this their destruction was com

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