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that had stolen the things had an indignation at him, both because they gained no share of it for themselves, and because they perceived beforehand what was Josephus' intention, aud that he would freely deliver up what had cost them so much paios, to the king and queen. These ran away by night to their several villages, and declared to all men that Josephus was going to betray them : they also raised great disorder in all the neighbouring cities, insomuch that in the morning an hundred thousand armed men came running together; which multitude was crowded together in the hippodrome at Taricleæ, and made a very peevish clamour against him ; while some cried out, that “they should de“ pose the traitor;" and others, that “they should burn him." Now Joho irritated a great many, as did also one Jesus, the son of Sapphias, who was then governor of Tiberias. Then it was that Josephus' friends, and the guards of his body, were so affrighted at this violent assault of the multitude, that they all fled away but four ; and as he was asleep they awaked him, as the people were going to set fire to the house. And although those four that remained with him persuaded him to run away, he was neither surprised at his being himself de. serted, por at the great multitude that came against him, but leaped out to them with his clothes rent, and ashes sprinkled on his head, with his hands behind him, and his sword hanging at his neck. At this sigiii ?is friends, especially those of Taricheæ, commiserated his condition; but iijose at came out of the country, and those in their neighbourhood to whom his government seemed burdensome, reproached him, and bid him produce the money wbich belonged to them all immediately, and to confess the agreement he had made to be. tray them; for they imagined, from the habit in which he appeared, that he would deny nothing of what they suspected concerning him, and that it was in order to obtain pardon that he had put himself entirely into so pitiable a posture. But this humble appearance was only designed as preparatory to a stratagem of his, who thereby contrived to set those that were so angry at him at variance with another about the things they were angry at. However, he promised he would confess all : hereupon he was permitted to speak, when he said, “I did neither intend to send this mo“ney back to Agrippa, nor to gain it myself; for I did never 6 esteem one that was your enemy to be my friend, nor did I “ look upon what would tend to your disadvantage, to be my " advantage. But, O you people of Taricheæ, I saw that “ your city stood in more need than others of fortifications “ for your security, and that it wanted money in order for o the building it a wall. I was also afraid lest the people of * Tiberias and other cities should lay a plot to seize upon « these spoils, and therefore it was that I intended to retain " this money privately, that I might encompass you with a 6 wall. But if this does not please you, I will produce what

was brought me, and leave it to you to plunder it; but if “ I have conducted myself so well as to please you, you " may, if you please, punish your benefactor.”

4. IIereupon the people of Taricheæ loudly commended him, but those of Tiberias, with the rest of the company, gave him hard names, and threatened what they would do to him ; so both sides left off quarrelling with Josephus, a od fel! op quarrelling with one another. So he grew bold upon the dependence he had on his friends, which were the people of Taricheæ,and about forty thousand in number, and spake more freely to the whole multitude, and reproached them greatly for their rashness, and told them, that 6 with this money he s would build walls about Taricheæ, and would put the “ other cities in a state of security also ; for that they should “ not want money, if they would but agree for whose benefit " it was to be procured, and would not suffer themselves to “ be irritated against him sio procured it for them."

5. Hicreupon the rest of the multitude wbo had been deluded, retired; but yet so that they went away angry, and two thousand of them made an assault upon him in their armour; as he was already gone to his owo house, they stood without, and threatened him. On which occasion Josephus again used a second stratagem to escape them; for he got upon the top of his house, and with his right hand desired them to be silent, and said to them, “I cannot tell what you would have, “ nor can hear what you say, for the confused noise you make: " but he said that he would comply with all their demands, “ in case they would but send some of their number ip to “ him, that might talk with him about it.” And when the principal of them, with their leaders, heard this, they came into the house. He then drew them to the most retired part of the house, and shut the door of that halt where he put them, and then had them whipped, till every one of their in. ward parts appeared naked. In the mean time the multitude stood round the house, and supposed that he had a long dis

course with those that were gone in, about what they claim. ed of him. He had then the doors set open immediately, and sent the men out all bloody, which so terribly affrighted those that had before threatened him, that they threw down their arms, and ran away.

6. But as for John, his envy grew greater (upon this escape of Josephus,] and he framed a new plot against him ; he pretended to be sick, and by a letter desired that Josephus would give him leave to use the hot baths that were at Ti. berias, for the recovery of his health. Hereupon Josephus, who hitherto suspected nothing of John's plots against him, wrote to the governors of the city, that they would provide a lodging and necessaries for John; which favours, when he had made use of, in two days time he did what he came about ; some he corrupted with delusive frauds, and others with money, and so persuaded them to revolt from Josephus. This Silas, who was appointed guardian of the city by Josephus, wrote to him immediately, and informed him of the plot against him ; which epistle when Josephus had received, he marched with great diligence all night, and came early in the morning to Tiberias ; at which time the rest of the multitude met him. But John, who suspected that his coming was not for his advantage, sept however one of his friends, and pretended that he was sick, and that being confined to his bed he could not come to pay him his respects. But as snon as Josephus had got the people of Tiberias together in the Stadium, and tried to discourse with them about the letters that he had received, John privately sent some armed men, and gave them orders to slay him. But when the people saw that the armed men were about to draw their swords, they cried out; at which cry Josephus turned himself about, and when he saw that the swords were just at his throat, he marched away in great haste to the sea shore, and left off that speech which he was going to make to the people, upon an elevation of six cubits high. He then seized on a ship which lay in the haven, and leaped into it, with two of his guards, and fled away into the midst of the lake.

7. But now the soldiers he had with him took up their arms immediately, and marched against the plotters; but Josephus was afraid lest a civil war should be raised by the envy of a few men, and bring the city to ruin ; so he sent some of his party to teli them, that they should do no more than provide for their own safety, that they should not kill any body, nor accuse any for the occasion they had afforded (of a disorder.] Accordingly these men obeyed his orders, and were quiet; but the people of the neighboring country, when they were informed on this plot, and of the plotter, they got together in great multitudes to oppose John. But he prevented their attempt, and tied away to Gischala, bis pative city, while the Galileans came running out of their several cities to Jose phus; and as they were now become many ten thousands of armed men, they cried out that they were come against Joba the common ploiter against their interest, and would at the same tinie burn bim, and that city which had received him. Hereupou Josephus told them that he took their good will to bin kindly, but still he restrained their fury, and intended to subdue his enemies by prudent conduct, rather than by slaying them ; so he excepted those of every city which had joined in this revolt with John, by name, who had readily been shewed hiin by those that came from every city, and caused public proclamation to be made, that he would seize upon the effects of those that did not forsake John within five days time, and would burn both their houses and their families with fire. Whereupon three thousand of John's party lelt him inmediately, who came to Josephus, and threw their arms down at his feet. Johd then betook hinself, together with his two thousand Syrian runagates, from open attempts, to more seeret ways of treachery. Accordingly he privately sent messengers to Jerusalen; to accuse Josephus, as hav. ing too great power, and to let them know that he would soon come, as a tyrant to their metropolis, unless they prevented him. This accusation the people were aware of beforehand, but had no regard to it. However, some of the grandees, out of envy, and some of the rulers also, sent money to John privately, that he might be able to get together mercenary soldiers, in order to fight Josephus ; they also made a decree of theniselves, and this for recalling him from his government, yet did they not think that decree sufficient ; so they sent withal two thousand five hundred armed men, and four persons of the highest rank among them; Joaza the son of Nomicus, and Ananias the son of Sadduk, as also Simon and Juidas, the sons of Jonathan, all very able men in speaking, that these persons might withdraw the good will of the people from Josephus. These had it in charge, that if he would voluntarily come away, they should permit bim to come and] give an account of his conduct, but if he obstinately insisted

upon continuing in his government, they should treat bim as an enemy. Now Josephus' friends had sent him word that an army was coming against him, but they gave him no notice beforehand what the reason of their coming was, that being only known among some secret councils of his enemies; and by this means it was, that four cities revolted from him immediately, Sepphoris, and Gainala, and Gischala, and Ti. berias. Yet did he recover these cities without war, and when he had routed those four commanders by stratagems, and had taken the most potent of their warriors, he sent them to Jerusalem; and the people of Galilee) had great indignation at them, and were in a zealous disposition to slay, not only these forces, but those that sent them also, had not these forces prevented it by running away.

8. Now Joho was detained afterward within the walls of Gischala, by the fear he was in of Josephus ; but within a few days Tiberias revolted again, the people within it inviting king Agrippa [to return to the exercise of his authority there. And when he did not come at the time appointed and when a few Roman horsemen appeared that day, they expelled Josephus out of the city. Now this revolt of theirswas presently known at Taricheæ ; and as Josephus had sent out all the soldiers that were with him to gather corn, he knew not how either to march out alone against the revolters, or to stay where he was, because he was afraid the king's sol diers might prevent him if he tarried, and might get into the city ; for he did not intend to do any thing on the next day, because it was the Sabbath day, and would hinder his pra. ceeding.' So he contrived to circumvent the revolters by a stratagem; and in the first place he ordered the gates of Taricheæ to be shut, that nobody might go out and inform (those of Tiberias,7 for whom it was intended, what stratagem he was about : be then got together all the ships that were upon the lake, which were found to be two hundred and thirty, and in each of them he put no more than four mariners. So he sailed to Tiberias with haste, and kept at such a distance from the city, that it was not easy for the people to see the vessels, and ordered that the empty vessels should float up and down there, while himself, who had but seven of his guards with him, and those unarmed also, went so near as to be seen ; but when his adversaries, who were still reproaching him, saw him from the walls, they were so astonished that they

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