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supposed all the ships were full of armed men, and threw down their arms, and by sigoals of intercession they besought him to spare the city.

9. Upon this Josephus threatened them terribly, and reproached them, that when they were the first that took up arms against the Romans, they should spend their force beforehand in civil dissensions, and do what their enemies desired above all things; and that besides they should endeavour so hastily to seize upon him, who took care of their safety, and had not been ashamed to shut the gates of their city against him that built their walls; that, however, he would admit of any intercessors from them that might make some excuse from them, and with whom he would make such agreements as might be for the city's security. Hereupon ten of the most potent men of Tiberias came down to him presently and when he had taken them into one of his vessels, he ordered them to be carried a great way off from the city. He then commanded that Gifty others of their senate, such as were men of the greatest eminence, should come to him, that they also might give him some security on their behalf. After which, under one new pretence or another, he called forth others, one after another, to make the leagues between them. He then gave order to the masters of those vessels which he had thus filled, to sail away immediately for Taricheæ, and to confine those men in the prison there ; till at length he took all their senate, consisting of six hundred persons, and about two thousand of the populace, and carried them away to Ta. richeæ.

10. And when the rest of the people cried out, that it was one Clitus that was the chief author of this revolt, they desired him to spend bis anger upon him [only ;] but Josephus, whose intention it was to slay nobody, commanded one Levius, belonging to his guards, to go out of his vessel, in order to cut off both Clitus' hands ; yet was Levius afraid to go out by himself alone, to such a large body of enemies, and refused to go. Now Clitus saw that Josephus was in a great passion in the ship, and ready to leap out of it, in order to execute the punishment himself; he begged therefore from the shore, that he would leave him one of his hands, which Josephus agreed to, upon condition that he would himself cut off the other hand ; accordingly he drew his sword, and with his right hand cut off his left, so great was the fear he was in of Josephus himself. And thus he took the people of Tiberias prisoners, and recovered the city again with empty ships* and seven of his guard. Moreover, a few days afterward he retoook Gischala, which had revolted with the people of Sepphoris, and gave his soldiers leave to plunder it ; yet did he get all the plunder together, and restored it to the inhabi. tants, and the like he did to the inhabitants of Sepphoris, and Tiberias. For when he had subdued those cities, he had a mind, by letting them be plundered, to give them some good instruction, while at the same time he regained their good will by restoring them their money again.

CHAP. XXII. The Jews make all ready for the war. And Simon the son of Gioras

falis to plundering: : § 1. And thus were the disturbances of Galilee quieted, when, upon their ceasing to prosecute their civil dissention, they betook themselves to make preparations for the war with the Romans. Now in Jerusalem the high priest Ananus, and as many of the men of power as were not in the interest of the Romans, both repaired the walls, and made a great many warlike instruments, insomuch that in all parts of the city, darts and all sorts of armour were upon the anvil. Al. though the multitude of the young men were engaged in exercises, without any regularity, and all places were full of tumultuous doings; but the moderate sort were exceedingly sad, and a great many there were who, out of the prospect they had of the calamities that were coming upon them, made great lamentations. There were also suich onens observed as were understood to be forerunners of evils,by such as loved peace, but were by those that kindled the war interpreted so as to suit their own inclinations; and the very state of the city, even before the Romans came against it, was that of a place doomed to destruction. However, Ananus' concern was this, to lay aside, for a while, the preparations for the war, and to persuade the seditious to consult their own interest, and to restrain the madness of those that had the name of sealots; but their violence was too hard for him, and what end he came to we shall relate hereafter.

* I cannot but think this stratagem of Josephus, which is relas ted both here, and in his life, $ 32, 33. vol. iv. to be one of the fi. vest that ever was invented and executed by any warrior whatso: ever.

2. But as for the Acrabbene toparchy, Simon, the son of Gioras, got a great number of those that were food of innovations together, and betook himself to ravage the country; nor did he only barass the rich men's houses, but tormented their bodies, and appeared openly and beforehand to affect tyranuy in his government. And when an army was sent against him by Ananus, and the other rulers, he and his band retired to the robbers that were at Masada, and staid there, and plundered the country of Idumea with them till both Apanus, and his other adversaries were slain, and until the rulers of that country were so afflicted with the multitude of those that were slain, and with the continual ravage of what they had, that they raised an army, and put garrisons into the villages, to secure them from those insults; and in this state were the affairs of Judea at that time.

BOOK III. CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF ABOUT ONE

YEAR.

[From Vespasian's coming to subdue the Jews,

to the taking of Gamala.]

CHAP. I.

Vespasian is sent into Syria by Nero, in order to make war with the

Jews. ,

$ 1. When Nero was informed of the Romans' ill success in Judea, a concealed consternation and terror, as is usual in *-such cases, fell upon him; although he openly looked very big, and was very angry, and said, that what had happened was rather owing to the negligence of the commander, than to any valour of the enemy: and as he thought it fit for him, who bare the burden of the whole empire, to despise such misfortunes, he now pretended so to do, and to have a soul superior to all such sad accidents whatsoever. Yet did the disturbance that was in his soul plainly appear by the solicitude he was in (how to recover his affairs again.]

2. Aod as he was deliberating to whom he should commit the care of the east, now it was in so great a commotion, and who might be best able to punish the Jews for their rebellion, and might prevent the same distemper from seizing upon the neighbouring nations also; he found no one but Vespasian equal to the task, and able to undergo the great burden of so mighty a war, seeing he was grown an old man already in the camp, and from his youth had been exercised in warlike exploits : he was also a man that had long ago pacified the west, and made it subject to the Romans, when it had been put into disorder by the Germans; he had also recovered to them Britain by his arms, which had been little known before ;* whereby he procured to his father Claudius to have a triumph bestowed on him, without any sweat or labour of his own.

3. So Nero esteemed these circumstances as favourable omens, and saw that Vespasian's age gave him sure experience, and great skill, and that he had his sons as hostages for his fidelity to himself, and that the flourishing age they were in mould make them fit instruments under their father's prudence. Perhaps also there was some interposition of providence, which was paving the way for Vespasian's being emperor himself afterwards. Upon the whole, he sent this man to take upon him the command of the armies that were in Sy. ria; but this not without great encomiums and flattering compellations, such as necessity required, and such as might mollify him into compliance. So Vespasian sent his son Titus from Achaia, where he had been with Nero, to Alexandria, to bring back with him from thence the fifth and the tenth legions, while he himself, when he had passed over the Hellespont, carne by land into Syria, where he gathered together the Roman forces, with a considerable number of auxiliaries from the kings in that neighbourhood.

CHAP. IT. A great slaughter of the Jews about Ascalon. Vespasian comes to

Ptolemais. § 1. Now the Jews, after they had beaten Cestius, were so much elevated at their unexpected success, that they could not govern their zeal, but like people blown up into a flame by their good fortune, carried the war to remoter places. Accordingly they presently got together a great multitude of all their most hardy soldiers, and marched away for Ascalon. This is an ancient city that is distant from Jerusalem five hundred and twenty furlongs, ard was always an enemy to the Jews; on which account they determined to make their

• Take the confirmation of this in the words of Suetonius, here produced by Dr. Hudson “In the reign of Claudius,” says he, «« Vespasian for the sake of Narcissus, was sent as a lieutenant of a « legion into Germany Thence he remored into Britain, and fought " thirty battles with the enemy" in Vesp. 94. We may also liere note from Josephus, that Claudius the emperor, who triumphed for the conquest of Britain, was enabled so to do by Vespasian's con. duct and bravery, and that he is here styled the the father of Vespe. stan,

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