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ly they remembered them now they had perished by his means. So he resolved by all the ways possible to get these . espousals dissolved.
4. Now he was afraid of going subtilely about this matter with his father, who was hard to be pleased, and was presently moved upon the least suspicion : so he ventured to go to him directly, and to beg of him before his face, not to deprive bim of that dignity which he had been pleased to bestow upon him, and that he might not have the bare name of a king, while the power was in other persons; for that he should never be able to keep the government, if Alexander's son was to bave both his grandfather Archelaus, and Pheroras for his curators; and he besought him earnestly, since there was so many of the royal family alive, that he would change those [iotended] marriages. Now the king had * nine wives, and children by seven of them; Antipater was himself born of Doris, and Herod (Philip] of Mariamne, the high priest's daughter; Antipas also and Archelaus were by Malthace, the Samaritan, as was his daughter Olympias, • which his brother Joseph's t son had married; by Cleopatra of Jerusalem he had Herod and Philip, and by Pallas, Phasaelus; he had also two daughters, Koxana and Salome, the one by Phedra, and the other by Elpis; he had also two wives that had no children, the one his first cousin, and the other his piece; and besides these he had two daughters, the sisters of Alexander and Aristobulus, by Mariamne. Since, therefore, the royal family was so numerous, Antipater prayed him to change these [intended] marriages.
5. When the king perceived what disposition he was in towards these orphans, he was angry at it, and a suspicion came into his mind, as to those sons whom he had put to death, whether that had not been brought about by the false
• Dean Aldrich takes notice here, that these nine wives of Herod were alive at the same time, and that if the celebrated Mariamne, who was now dead, be reckoned, those wives were in all ten. (Yet it is remarkable that he had no more than fifteen children by them all.)
f To prevent confusion, it may not be amiss, with Dean Aldrich, to distinguish between four Josephs in the history of Herod. 1. Jo. seph, Herod's uncle, and the [second] husband of his sister Salome, slain by Herod, on account of Mariamne 2. Joseph Herod's quæstor, or treasurer, slain on the same account. 3. Joseph, Herod's brother, slain in bat:le against Antigonus. 4. Joseph, Herod's new phew, the husband of Olympias, mentioned in this place.
tales of Antipater; so at that time he made Antipater a long and peevish answer, and bid him be gone. Yet was he afterwards prevailed upon cunningly by his flatteries, and changed the marriages; he married Aristobulus' daughter to him, and his son to Pheroras' daughter.
6. Now one may learn in this justance how very much this flattering Antipater could do, even what Salome in the like circumstances could not do; for when she who was his sister, and who, by the means of Julia, Cæsar's wife, earnestly desired leave to be married to Sylleus the Arabian, Herod swore he would esteem ber his bitter enemy, unless she would leave off that project: he also caused her against her own consent, to be married to Alexas, a friend of his, and that one of her daughters should be married to Alexas' son, and the other to Antipater's uncle by the mother's side. And for the daughters the king had by Mariamne, the one was married to Antipater, his sister's son, and the other to his brother's son, Phasaelus.
CHAP. XXIX. Antipater becomes intolerable. He is sent to Rome, and carries
Herod's testament with him. Pheroras leaves his brother, that he may keep his wife. He dies at home.
8.1. Now when Antipater had cut off the hopes of the. orphans, and had contracted such affinities as would be most for his own advantage, he proceeded briskly, as having a certain expectation of the kingdom, and as he had now as. surance added to bis wiekedness, he became intolerable; for not being able to avoid the hatred of all people, he built bis security upon the terror he struck into them. Pheroras al80 assisted him in his designs, looking upon him as already fixed in the kingdom. There was also a company of women in the court, which excited new disturbances; for Pheroras' wife, together with her mother and sister, as also Anti. pater's mother, grew very impudent in the palace. She also was so insolent as to affront the king's * two daughters, on which account the king hated her to a great degree ; yet al. though these women were hated by him, they domineered over others : there was only Salome who opposed their good : . These daughters of Herod whom Pheroras' wife affronted, were Salome and Roxana, two virgins, who were born to him of his two wives, Elpis, and Phedra. See Herod's genealogy, Antiq. Be xvii. ch. i. $ 3. vol. iy.
agreement, and informed the king of their meetings, as not being for the advantage of his affairs. And when these women knew what calamities she had raised against them, and how much Herod was displeased, they left off their public meetings, and friendly entertainments of one another; nay, on the contrary, they pretended to quarrel one with another when the king was within hearing. The like dissimulation did Antipater make use of, and when matters were public, he opposed Pheroras; but still they had private cabals, and merry-meetings in the night-time ; por did the observation of others do any more than confirm their mutual agreement. However, Salome knew every thing they did, and told every thing to Herod.
2. But he was inflamed with anger at them, and chiefly at Pheroras' wife ; for Salome bad principally accused her. So he got an assembly of his friends and kindred together, and there accused this woman of many things, and particular. ly of the affronts she had offered his daughters ; and that he had supplied the Pharisees with money, by way of rewards for what they had done against him, and had procured his
brother to become his enemy, by giving him love potions. - At length he turned his speech to Pheroras, and told him,
that “ he would give him his choice of these two things, whe“ther he would keep in with him bis brother, or with his 56 wife?” And when Pheroras said, that he would * die raihcr than forsake his wife, Herod not knowing what to do farther in that matter turned his speech to Antipater, and charged him to have no intercourse either with Pheroras' wife, or with Pheroras himself, or with any one belonging to her. Now though Antipater did not transgress that his injunction publicly, yet did he in secret come to their pight meeting; and because he was afraid that Salome observed what he did, he procured, by the means of his Italian friends, that he might
* This strange obstinacy of Pleroras in retaining his wife, who was one of a low family, and refusing to marry one nearly related to Herod, though he so earnestly desired it, as also that wife's admission to the counsels of the other great court ladies, together with Herod's own importunity as to Pheroras' divorce and other marriage, all so remarkable here or in the Antiquities. B xvii. ch ii. S 4. vol. iv. and ch iii 3 cannot be well accounted for, but on the supposal that Pheroras-believed, and Herod suspected, that the Pharisees prediction, as if the crown of Judea should be translated from Herod to Pheroras'posterity, and that most probably to Pheroras's posterity by this bis wife, also would prove true. See Antiq. B. xvii. ch.ij. 94 and ch. iii. § 1. vol. iv.
go and live at Rome : for when they wrote that it was proper for Antipater to be sent to Cæsar for some time, Herod made no delay, but sent him, and that with a splendid attendance, and a great deal of money, and gave him his testanient to carry with him, wherein Antipater had the kingdom bequeathed to him, and wherein Herod was named for Aptipater's successor, that Herod, I mean, who was the son of Mariampe, the high priest's daughter.
3. Sylleus also, the Arabian sailed to Rome, without any regard to Cæsar's injunction, and this in order to oppose An. tipater with all his might, as to that law-suit which Nicolaus had with him before. This Sylleus Trad also a great contest with Aretas his own king; for he had slain many others of Aretas' friends, and particularly Sohemus, the most potent man in the city Petra. Moreover, he had prevailed with Phabatus, who was Herod’s steward, by giving hini a great sum of money, to assist him against Herod ; but when Herou gave him more he induced him to leave Sylleus, and hy his means he demanded of him all that Cæsar had required of him to pay. But when Sylleus paid nothing of what he was to pay, and did also accuse Phabatus to Cat'sar, and said, that he was not a steward for Cæsar's advantage, but for Herod's, Phabatus was angry at him on that account, but was still in very great esteem with Herod, and discovered Sylleus' grand secrets, and told the king that Sylleus had corrupted Corin. thus, one of the guards of his body, by bribing him, and of whom he must therefore have a care. Accordingly the king coniplied, for this Corinthus, though he were brought up in Herod's kingdoin, yet was he by birth an Arabian : so the king ordered him to be taken up immediately, and not only him, but two other Arabians who were caught with him; the one of them was Sylieus' friend, the other the head of a tribe. The last being put to the torture, confessed that they had prevailed with Corinthuis, for a large sum of money, to kill Herod; and when they had been farther examinert · before Saturninus the president of Syria, they were séct to Rome.
4. However, Herod did not leave off importuning Plieroras, but proceeded to force him to put away his wife ; yet could he not devise any way by which he could bring the woman herself to punishment; although he had mapy causes of hatred to her; till at length he was in such great uneasi. Dess at her, that he cast both her and his brother out of hię. kingdom. Pheroras took this injury very patiently, and went away into his own tetrarchy, [Perea beyond Jordan, ] and sware that there should be but one end put to his flight, and that should be Herod's death; and that he would never l'eturn while he was alive. Nor iudeed would he retnrn when his brother was sick, although he earnestly sent for him to come to him, because he had a wind to leave some injunctions with him before he died; but Herod unes pectedly recovered. A little afterward Pheroras himself fell sick, when Herod shewed great moderation ; for he came to him and pitied his case, and took care of him ; but his affection for hiai did him no good, for Pheroras died a little alterward. Now though Herod had so great an affection for him to the last day of his life; yet was a report spread abroad that he had killed him by poison. However, he took care to have his dead body carried to Jerusalem, and appointed a very great mourning to the whole nation for him, and bestowed a most poinpous funeral upon him. And this was the end that one of Alexander's and Aristobulus' murderers came
CHAP. XXX. When Herod made inquiry about Pheroras' death, a discovery was made that Antipater had prepared a poisonous draught for liim, Herod casts Doris and her accomplices, as also Mariamne, out of the palace, and blots her son Herod out of his testament.
81. But now the punishment was transferred unto the original author Autipater, and took its rise from the death of Pheroras : for certain of his freed-men came with a sad countenance to the king, and told him, that "his brother had been " destroyed by poison, and that his wile had brought him
somewhat that was prepared after an unusual manner, and - that, upon his eating it, he presently fell into his distemper: “ that Antipater's mother and sister two days before, brought " a woman out of Arabia that was skilful in making such 6 drugs, that she might prepare a love-potion for Pheroras; s and that instead of a love-potion, she had given hin deadly " poison; and that this was done by the management of “ Sylleus, who was acquaioted with that woman.”
2. The king was deeply affected with so many suspicions, and had the maid-servants, and some of the free women also tortured ; one of which cried out in her agonies, “ May that * God that governs the earth and the heaven, punish this au