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hard to be avoided, for the force with which these engines threw stones and darts, made them hurt several at a time, and the violent noise of the stoves that were cast by the engines was so great, that they carried away the pinnacles of the wall, and broke off the corners of the towers; for no body of men could be so strong as vot to be overthrown to the last rank by the largeness of the stones. And any one may learn the force of the engines by what happened this very night; for as one of those that stood round about Josephus was near the wall, his head was carried away by such a stone, and his scull was slung as far as three furlongs. In the day time al. 80, a woman with child had her belly so violently struck, as she was just come out of her house, that the infant was carried to the distance of half a furlong, so great was the force of that engine. The noise of the instruments themselves was very terrible, the sound of the darts and stoves that were ihrown by them was so also; of the same sort was that noise the dead bodies made wheu they were dashed against the wall; and indeed dreadful was the clamour which these things raised in the women within the city, which was echoed back at the same time by the cries of such as were slain; while the whole space of ground whereon they fought, ran with blood, and the wall might have been ascended over by the bodies of the dead carcasses; the mountains also contributed to increase the noise by their echoes, nor was there on that night any thing of terror wanting, that could either affect the hearing, or the sight; yet did a great part of those that fought so hard for Jotapata fall manfully, as were a great part of them wounded. However, the morning watch was come ere the wall yielded to the machines employed against it, though it had been battered without intermission. How. ever those within covered their bodies with their armour, and raised works over against that part which was thrown down, before those machines were laid, by which the Romans were to ascend into the city. '

24 In the morning Vespasian got his army together, in order to take the city [by storm,] after a little recreation upon the hard pains they had been at the night before ; and as he was desirous to draw off those that opposed him from the places where the wall had been thrown down, he had the most courageous of the horsemen get off their horses, and placed them in three ranks over against those ruins of the Wall, but covered with their armour on every side, and with

poles in their hands, that so these might begin their ascent as soon as the instruments for such ascent were laid; behind them he placed the flower of the footmen; but for the rest of the horse, he ordered them to extend themselves over against the wall, upon the whole hilly country, in order to prevent , any from escaping out of the city when it should be taken; and behind these he placed the archers round about, and commanded them to have their darts ready to shoot. The same command be gave to the slingers, and to those that managed the engines, and bid them to take up other ladders, and have them ready to lay upon those parts of the wall which were yet untouched, that the besieged might be engaged in trying to hinder their ascent by them, and leave the guard of the parts that were thrown down, while the rest of them shonld be overborne by the darts cast at them, and might afford his men an entrance into the city.

25. But Josephusunderstandingthe meaning of Vespasian's contrivance, set the old men, together, with those that were tired out, at the sound parts of the wall, as expecting no liarm from those quarters, but set the strongest of his men at the place where the wall was broken down, and before them all six men by themselves, among whom he took his share of the first and greatest (anger. He also gave orders, that, 6 when the legions made a shout they should stop their ears, « that they might not be affrighted at it, and that to avoid the a multitude of the enemy's darts, they should bend down on « their knees, and cover themselves with their shields, and so that they should retreat a little backward for a while, till 46 the archers should have emption their quivers; but that bi when the Romans should lay their instruments for ascend. "ing the walls, they should leap out on the sudden, and will 6 their own instruments should moet the enemy, and that ev“ ery one should strive to do his best, in order, not to de“ fend his own city, as if it were possible to be preserved, 66 but in order to revenge it, when it was already destroyed ; 6 and that they should set before their eyes how their old meni “ were to be slain, and their children and wives were to be 6 killed immediately by the enemy; and that they would be “ forehand spend all their fury on account of the calamities « just coming upon them, and pour it out on the actors."

26. And thus did Josephus dispose of both his bodies of men: but then for the useless part of the citizens, the women and children, when they saw their city encompassed by a

threefold army, (for none of the usual guards that had been fighting before were removed,) when they also saw not only the walls thrown down, but their enemies, with swords in their hands, as also the billy country above them shining with their weapons, and the darts in the hands of the Arabian archers, they made a final and lamentable outcry of des struction, as if the niiscry were not only threatend, but actifally conie upon them already. But Josephus ordered the women to be shut up in their houses, lest they should render the warlike actions of the men too eflemipate, by making then commiserate their condition, and commanded them to hold their peace, and threatened them if they did dot, while he came himself before the breach, where his allotment was; for all those who brought ladders to the other places, he took no potice of them, but earnestly waited for the shower of ar. vous that was coming.

27. And now the trumpeters of the several Roman legions sounded together, and the army made a terrible shout, and the daris, as by order, flew so fast, that they intercepted the light. However, Josephus' men remembered the charges he bad given them, they stopped their ears at the sounds, and covered their bodies against the darts; and as to the engines that were set ready to go to work, the Jews ran out upon them, before those that should have ased them were gotten upon them. And now, on the ascending of the soldiers, there was a great conflict, and many actions of the hands, and of the soul, were exhibited, while the Jews did earnestly endeavour, in the extreme danger they were in, not to show less courage than those who, without being in danger, fought so stoutly against them; nor did they leave struggling with the Romans till they either fell down dead themselves, or killed their antagonists. But the Jews grew weary with defending themselves continually, and had not enow to come in their places and succour them; while on the side of the Romans fresh men still succeeded those that were tired, and still new men soon got upon the machines for ascent, in the room of those that were thrust down, those encouraging one another, and joining side to side with their shields, which were a protection to them, they became a body of men not to be broken, and as this band thrust a way the Jews, as though they were themselves but one body, they began already to get upon the wall.

28. Then did Josephus take necessity for his counsellor in this utmost distress, (which necessity is very sagacious in invention, when it is irritated by despair,) and gave orders to pour scalding oil upon those whose shields protected them. Whereupon they soon got it ready, being many that brought it, and what they brought being a great quantity also, and poured it on all sides upon the Romans, and threw down up. on them their vessels as they were still hissing from the heat of the fire; this so burnt the Romans, that it dispersed that united band, who now tumbled down from the wall, with horrid paiós, for the oil did easily run down the whole body from head to foot, under their entire armour, and fed upon their flesh like flanie itself, its fat and unctuous nature rens dering it soon heated, and slowly cooled; and as the men were cooped up in their head-pieces, and breast-plates, they could no way get free from this burning oil, they could only leap and roll about in their pails, as they fell down from the bridges they had laid. And as they thus were beaten back, and retired to their own party, who still pressed them for: ward, they were easily wounded by those that were behind theni.

29. However, in this ill success of tie Romans, their courage did not fail them, nor did the Jews want prudence to oppose them; for the Romans, although they saw their own men thrown down, and in a miserable condition, yet were they vehemently bent against those that poured the oil upon them, while every one reproached the man before him as a eoward, and one that hinderell him from exerting himself; and while the Jews made use of another stratagem to pre. vent their ascent, and poured boiling senegreek upon the boards in order to make them slip and fall down; by which means neither could those that were coming up, nor those that were going down stand on their feet; but some of them sell backward, upon the machines on which they ascended, and were trodden upon; many of them fell down on the bank they had raised, and when they were fallen upon it were slain by the Jews; for when the Romans could not keep their feet, the Jews being freed from fighting hand to hand, had leisure to throw their darts at them. So the ge-peral called off those soldiers in the evening that had suffered so sorely, of whom the number of the slain was not a few, while that of the wounded was still greater ; but of the peo

ple of Jotapata no more than six men were killed, although more than three hundred were carried off wounded. This fight happened on the twentieth day of the month Desius, [Sivan.]

30. Hereupon Vespasian comforted his army on occasion of what happened, and as he found them angry indeed, but rather wanting something to do than any farther exhortations, he gave orders to raise the banks still higher, and to erect three towers, each fifty feet high, and that they should cover them with plates of iron on every side, that they might be both firm by their weight, and not easily liable to be set on fire. These towers he set upon the banks, and placed upon them such as could shoot darts and arrows, with the lighter engines for throwing stones and darts also; and besides these he set upon them the stoutest men among the slingers, who not being to be seen by reason of the height they stood upon, and the battlenients that protected them, might throw their weapons at those that were upon the wall, and were easily seen by them. Hereupon the Jews, not being easily able to escape those darts that were thrown down upon their heads por to avenge themselves on those whom they could not see, and perceiving that the height of the towers was so great, that a dart which they threw with their hand could hardly reach it, and that the iron plates about them made it very hard to come at them by fire, they ran away from the walls, and fled hastily out of the city, and fell upon those that shot at them. And thus did the people of Jotapata resist the Romans, while a great number of them were every day killed, without their being able to retort the evil upon their enemies, por could they keep them out of the city without danger to themselves.

31. About this time it was that Vespasian sent out Trajan against a city called Japha, that lay near to Jotapata, and that desired ionovations, and was puffed up with the unexpected length of the opposition of Jotapata. This Tra jan was the commander of the tenth legion, and to him Vespasian committed one thousand horsemen, and two thousandl footmen. When Trajan came to the city he found it hard to be taken, for besides the natural strength of its situation, it was also secured by a double wall; but when he saw the people of this city coming out of it, and ready to fight him, he joined battle with them, and after a short resistance which they made, he pursued after them; and as they fled to their first wall, ibe Romans followed them so closely, that they

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