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fell in together with them : but when the Jews were endeayouriog to get again within their second wall, their fellow citizens shut them out, as being afraid that the Romans would force themselves in with them. It was certainly God, therefore, who brought the Romans to punish the Galileans, and then did expose the people of the city every one of thein manifestly to be destroyed by their bloody enemies; for they fell upon the gates in great crowds, and earnestly calling to those that kept them, and that by their names also, yet had they their throats cut in the very midst of their supplications ; for the enemy shut the gates of the first wall, and their own citizens shut the gates of the second, so they were enclosed between two walls, and were slain in great pumbers together; many of them were run through by swords of their own men, and many by their own swords, besides an immense number that were slain by the Romans. Nor had they any courage to revenge themselves; for there was added to the consterpation they were in from the enemy, their being betrayed by their own friends, which quite broke their spirits ; and at last they died, cursing, not the Romans, but their own citizens, till they were all destroyed, being in number twelve thousand. So Trajan gathered that the city was empty of people that could fight, and although there should a few of them be therein, he supposed that they would be too timorous to venture upon any opposition; so he reserved the taking of the city to the general. Accordingly he sent messengers to Vespasian, and desired him to send his son Titus to finish the victory he had gained. Vespasian hereupon imagining there might be some pains still necessary, sapt his son with an army of five hundred horsenien, and one thousand footmen. So he came quickly to the city, and put his army in order, and set Trajan over the left wing, while he had the right him. self, and led them to the siege; and when the soldiers brought Jadders to be laid against the wall on every side, the Gali. leans opposed them from above for a while, but soon afterwards they left the walls. Then did Titus's men leap into the city, and seized upon it presently ; but when those that were in it were gotten together, there was a fierce battle between them; for the men of power fell upon the Romans ia the parrow streets, and the women threw whatsoever came dext to hand at them, and sustained a fight with them for six hours time; but when the fighting men were spent, the rest of the multitude had their throats cut, partly in the open air, and
partly in their own houses, both young and old together. So There were no males now remaining besides infants, which, with the women, were carried as slaves into captivity ; so that the number of the slain both now in the city and at the former fight, was fifteen thousand, and the captives were two thousand one hundred and thirty. This calamity befell the Galileans on the twenty-fifth day of the month Desius, (Sivan.]
32. Nor did the Samaritans escape their share of misfortunes at this time ; for they assembled themselves together upon the mountain called Gerizzim, which is with them ao boly mountain, and there they remained : which collection of theirs, as well as the courageous miods they shewed, could not but threaten somewhat of war; dor were they rendered wiser by the miseries that had come upon their neighbouring cities. They also, notwithstanding the great success the Romans had, marched on in an unreasonable manner, depending on their own weakness, and were disposed for any tumult upon its first appearance. Vespasian, therefore, thought it best to prevent their motions, and to cut off the foundation of their attempts. For although all Samaria had ever garrisons settled among then, yet did the number of those that were come to mount Gerizzim, and their conspiracy together, give ground for fear what they would be at: he therefore sent thither Cerealis, the commander of the fifth legion, with six hundred horsemen, and three thousand foot. men, who did not think it safe to go up the niountain and give them battle because many of the enemy were on the higher part of the ground: so he encompassed all the lower part of the mountain with his army, and watched them all that day. Now it happened that the Samaritans, who were now destitute of water, were inflamed with a violent heat, (for it was: summer-time, and the multitude had not provided themselves with necessaries), insomuch that some of them died that very day with lieat, while others of them preferred slavery before such a death as that was, and fed to the Romans; by whom Cerealis understood, that those which still stayed there were very much broken by their misfortunes. So he went up the mountain, and having placed his forces round about the enemy, he, in the first place, exhorted them to take the security of his right hand, and come to terms with him, and there. by save themselves, and assured them, that, if they would lay down their arms, he would secure them from any harm;
but when he could not prevail with them he fell upon them and slew them all, being in number eleven thousand and six hundred. This was done on the twenty seventh day of the month Desius, (Sivan]. And these were the calamities that befell the Samaritans at this time.
33. But as the people of Jotapata still held out manfully, and bore up under their miseries beyond all that could be hoped for, on the forty-seventh day sof the siege] the banks cast up by the Romans were become higher than the wall; on which day a certain deserter went to Vespasian, and told him how few were left in the city, and how weak they were, and that they had been so worn out with perpetual watching, and as perpetual fighting, that they could not now oppose any force that came against them, and that they might be taken by stratagem, if any one would attack them; for that about the last watch of the night, when they thought they might have some rest from the hardships they were under, and when a morning sleep used to come ppon them, as they were thoroughly weary, he said the watch used to fall asleep; accordingly his advice was, that they should make their attack at that hour. But Vespasian had a suspicion about this deserter, as koowing how faithful the Jews were to one another, and how much they despised any puvishments that could be ioflicted on them; this last, because one of the people of Jotapata had undergone all sorts of torments, and though they made him pass through a fiery trial of bis enemies in his ex. amination, yet would he inform them nothing of the affairs within the city, and as he was crucified smiled at them. However, the probability there was in the relation itself did partly confirm the truth of what the deserter told them, and they thought he might probably speak truth. However, Vespasian thought they should be no great sufferers, if the report was a sham; so he commanded them to keep the mao in custody, and prepared the army for taking the city.
34. According to which resolution they marched with. out noise, at the hour that had been told to them, to the wall; and it was Titus himself that first got upon it, with one of his tribunes, Domitius Sabinus, and had a few of the fifteenth legion along with him. So they cut the throats of the watch, and entered the city very quietly. After these caine Cerealis the tribune, and Placidus, and led on those that were under them. Now when the citadel was taken, and the enemy were in the very midst of the city, and when it was already day, yet was not the taking of the city known by those that held it; for a great many of them were fast asleep, and a great mist, which then by chance fell upon the city, hindered those that got up from distinctly seeing the state they were in, till the whole Roman army was gotten in, and they were raised up ouly to find the miseries they were under; and as they were slaying, they perceived the city was taken. And for the Romans, they so well remembered what they had suffered during the siege, that they spared none, nor pitied any, but drove the people down the precipice from the citadel, and slew them as they drove them down; at which time the difficulties of the place hindered those that were still able to fight, from defending themselves; for as they were distressed in the parror streets, and could not keep their feet sure along the precipice, they were overpowered with the crowd of those that came fighting them down from the citadel. This provoked a great many, even of those chosen men that were about Josephus, to kill themselves with their own hands; for when they sair that they could kill none of the Romans, they resolved to prevent being killed by the Romans, and got together in great numbers in the utmost parts of the city, and killed themselves.
35. However, such of the watch as at the first perceived they were taken, and ran away as fast as they could, went up into one of the towers on the north side of the city, and for a while defended themselves there; but as they were en. compassed with a number of enemies, they tried to use their right bands when it was too late, at length they cheerfully offered their necks to be cut off by those that stood over them. And the Romans might have boasted, that the conclusion of that siege was without blood son their side), if there had not been a centurion, Antonius, who was slain at the taking of the city. His death was occasioned by the following treachery : for there was one of those that were fled into the cave erns, which were a great number, who desired that this Antonius would reach him his right hand for his security, and would assure him that he would preserve him, and give him his assistance in getting up out of the cavern; accordingly he incautiously reached him his right hand, when the other mau prevented him, and stabbed him under his loins with a spear, and killed him immediately.
36. And on this day it was that the Romans slew all the multitude that appeared, openly: but on the following days they searched the hiding places, and fell upon those that were under ground, and in the caverns, and went thus through evey age, excepting the iufants and the women, and of those there were gathered together as captives twelve hundred; and as for those that were slain at the taking of the city, and in the former fights, they were numbered at forty thousand.' So Vespasian gave order that the city should be entirely demolished, and all the fortifications burnt dowo. And thus was Jotapta taken, in the thirteenth year of the reign of Nere, on the first day of the month Panemus, [Tamuz.]
CHAP. VIII. How Josephus was discovered by a woman, and was willing to de.
liver himself up to the Romans; and what discourse he had with his own men when they endeavoured to hinder him ; and what he said to Vespasian when he was brought before him; and after vhat manner Vespasian used him afterward.
8 1. AND now the Romans searched for Josephus, both out of the hatred they bore him, and because their general was very desirous to have him taken; for he reckoned that if he were once taken, the greatest part of the war would be over. They then scarched among the dead, looked into the most concealed recesses of the city; but as the city was first taken, he was assisted by a certain supernatural providence; for he withdrew himself from the eneiny, when he was io the midst of them, and leaped into a certain deep pit, whereto there adjoined a large den at one side of it, which den could not be seen by those that were above ground: and here he met with forty persons of eminency that had concealed themselves, and with provisions enough to satisfy them for not a few days. So in the day-time he hid himself from the enemy, who had seized upon all places, and in the night-time he got up out of the den, and looked about for some way of escaping, and took exact notice of the watch : but as all places were guarded every where on his account, that there was no way of getting off unseen, he went down again into the den. Thus he concealed himself two days; bat on the third day, when they had taken a woman who had been with them, he was discovered. Whereupon Vespasian sent immediately and zealously two tribunes, Paulinus and Gallicanus, and ordered them to give Josephus their right hands as a security for his life, and to exhort him to come up.