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which is called * Cæsarea Philippi ; and there he refreshed his army for twenty days, and was himself leasted by king Agrippa where he also returned public thanks to God for the good success he had in bis undertakings. But as soon as he was informed that Tiberias was fond of innovations, and that Taricheæ had revolted, both which cities were parts of the kingdom of Agrippa, and was satisfied within himself that the Jews were every where perverted (from their obedience to their governors.] he thought it seasonable to make an espedition against these cities, and that for the sake of Agrippa, and in order to bring his cities to reason. So he sent away his son Titus to sthe other) Casarea, that he might bring the army that lay there to Scythopolis, which is the largest city of Decapolis, and in the neighbourhood of Tiberias, whither he came, and there he waited for his son. He then came with three legions, and pitched his camp thirty furlongs off Tiberias, at a certain station easily seen by the innovators; it is named Sennabris. He also sent Valerian, a decurion with fifty horsemen, to speak peaceably to those that were in the city, and to exhort them to give him as. surances of their fidelity; for he had heard that the people were desirous of peace, but were obliged by some of the seditious part to join with them, and so were forced to fight for them. When Valerian had marched up to the place, and was near the wall, he alighted off his horse, and made those that were with him do the same, that they might not be thought to come to skirmish with them ; but before they could come to discourse one with another, the most potent men among the seditious made a sally upon them armed; their leader was one whose name Jesus, the son of Saphat, the principal head of a band of robbers. Now Valerian, neither thinking it safe to fight contrary to the commands of the general, though he were secure of a victory, and knowing that it was a very hazardous undertaking for a few to fight with many, for those that are unprovided to fight those that were ready, and being on other accounts surprised at this unexpected onset of the Jews, be ran away on foot, as did five of the rest in like manner, and left their horses behind them; which horses Jesus led away into the city, and rejoiced as if they bad taken them in battle, and not by treachery.
• Ofthis Cæsarea Philippi (twice mentioned in our New Testa. ment, Matt. xvi. 13. Mark viii. 27) there are coins still extant, as Spanheim here informs us.
8. Now the seniors of the people, and such as were of principal authority among them, fearing what would be the issue of this matter, fled to the camp of the Romans; they then took their king along with them, and fell down before Vespasian to supplicate his favour, and besvught him not to overlook them, nor to impute the inadness of a few to the whole city, to spare a people that have been ever civil and obliging to the Romans ; but to bring the authors of this revolt to due punishment, who had hitherto so watched them, that though they were zealous to give them the security of their right hands of a long time, yet could they not accomplish the same. With these supplications, the general complied, although he were very angry at the whole city about carrying off his horses, and this because he saw that Agrippa was under a great concern for them. So when Vespasian' and Agrippa had accepted of their right hands by way of security, Jesus and his party thought it not safe for them to continue at Tiberias, so they ran away to Taricheæ. The next day Vespasian sent Trajan before with some horsemen to the citadel, to make trial of the multitude, whether they were all disposed for peace; and as soon as he knew that the people were of the same mind with the petitioner, he took his army, and went to the city ; upon which the citizens opened to him their gates, and met him with acclamations of joy, and called him their saviour and benefactor. But as the army was a great while in getting in at the gates, they were so narrow, Vespasian commanded the south wall to be broken down, and so made a broad passage for their entrance. However, he charged them to abstain from rapine and injustice, in order to gratify the king, and on his account spared the rest of the wall, while the king undertook for them that they should continue [faithful to the Romans] for the time to come. And thus did he restore this city to a quiet state, after it had been grievously afflicted by the sedition.
How Tarichæ was taken. A description of the river Jordan, and
of the country of Gennesareth. 8 1. And now Vespasian pitched his camp between this city and Taricheæ, but fortified his camp more strongly, as suspecting that he should be forced to stay there, and have a long war ; for all the innovators bad gotten together at Taricheæ, as relying upon the strength of the city, and on the lake that lay by it. This lake is called by the people of the country the lake of Gonnesareth. The city itself is situated like Tiberias, at the bottom of a mountain, and on those sides which are not washed by the sea bad been strongly fortified by Josephus, though not so strongly as Tiberias : for the wall of Tiberias had been built at the beginning of the Jews revolt, when he had great plenty of money, and great power, but Taricheæ partook only the remains of that liberality. Yet had they a great number of ships gotten ready upon the lake, that, in case they were beaten at land, they might retire to them ; and they were so fitted up, that they might undertake a sea fight also. But as the Romans were building a wall about their camp, Jesus and his party were neither affrighted at their number, por at the good order they were in, but made a sally upon them, and at the very first opset the builders of the wall were dispersed, and these pulled what lite tle they had before built to pieces; but as soon as they saw the armed men getting together, and before they had suffered any thing themselves, they retired to their own men. But when the Romans pursued them, and drove them into their ships, where they launched out as far as might give them the opportunity of reaching the Romans with what they threw at them, and then cast anchor, and brought their ships close, as in a line of battle, and thence fought the enemy from the sea, who were themselves at land. But Vespasian hearing that a great multitude of them were gotten together in the plain that was before the city, be thereupon sent his son, with six hundred chosen horsemen to disperse them.
2. But when Titus perceived that the enemy was very numerous, he sent to his father, and informed him, that he should want more forces. But as he saw a great many of the horsemen eager to fight, and that before any succours could come to them, and that yet some of them were privately under a sort of consternation at the multitude of the Jews, he stood in a place whence he might be heard, and said to them, « My brave Romans ! for it is right for me to put you in “mind of what nation you are, in the beginning of my speech, “ that so you may not be ignorant who you are, and who " they are against whom we are going to fight. For as to “us Ronans, no part of the habitable earth hath been able to s'escape our hands hitherto; but as for the Jews that I may
“ speak of them too, though they have been already beaten, “yet do they not give up the cause ; and a sad thing it " would be for us to grow weary under our good success, “ when they bear up under their misfortunes. As to the a6 lacrity which you shew publicly, I see it, and rejoice at “ it ; yet I am afraid lest the multitude of the enemy should “ bring a concealed fright upon some of you: let such an one 4 consider again, who we are that are to fight; and who those u are against whom we are to fight. Now these Jews, thougļi “they be very bold, and great despisers of death are but a “ disorderly body, and unskilful in war, and may rather be “ called a rout than an army; while I need say nothing of “ our skill and our good order; for this is the reason why 6 ve Romans alone are exercised for war iu time of peace, " that we may not thick of number for number, when we come 6 to fight with our enemies : for what advantage should we 16 reap for our continual sort of warfare, if we must still be 6 equal in number to such as have not been used to war ? 66 Consider farther, that you are to have a conflict with men -- in effect unarmed, while you are well armed ; with foot" men, while you are horsemev; with those that have to 65 good general, while you have one ; and as these advanta" ges make you in effect manifold more than you are, so do " their disadvantages mightily diminish their number. Now " it is not the multitude of men, though they be soldiers, that “manages wars with success, but it is their bravery that does 6 it, though they be but a few; for a few are easily set in “ battle array, and can easily assist one another, while over 5 numerous armies are more hurt by themselves than by their 6 enemies. It is boldness and rashness, the effects of niad"ness, that conduct the Jews. Those passions indeed make 56 a great figure when they succeed, but are quite extinguish66 ed upon the least ill success : but we are led on by coll66 rage, and obedience, and fortitude, which shews itself in6 deed in our good fortune, but still does not for ever desert “ us in our ill fortube. Nay, indeed your fighting is to be son greater motives than those of the Jews; for although they “ run the hazard of war for liberty, and for their country, “ yet what can be a greater motive to us than glory ; and " that it may never be said that after we have got dominion s of the habitable earth, the Jews are able to confront us. “ We must also reflect upon this, that there is no fear of orir
** suffering any incurable disaster in the present case ; for “those that are ready to assist us are many, and at hand al“so: yet is it in our power to seize upon this victory our. “ selves, and I think we ought to prevent the coming of those “my father is sending to us for our assistance, that our suc“cess may be peculiar to ourselves, and of greater reputa. " tion to us. And I cannot but think this an opportunity “ wherein my father, and I, and you shall be all put to the trial,
whether he be worthy of his former glorious performances, “ whether I be his son in reality, and whether you be really " my soldiers : for it is usual for my father to conquer; and “ for myself I should not bear the thoughts of returning to “ him if I were once taken by the enemy. And how will 6 you be able to avoid being ashamed, if you do not shew « equal courage with your conimander, when he goes before “ you into danger; for you know very well that I shall go in.. « to the danger first, and make the first attack upon the ene“my. Do not thou therefore desert me but persuade your“selves that God will be assisting to my onset. Know this 5 also before we begin, that we shall now have better success “than we should have, if we were to fight at a distance." .
3. As Titus was saying this, an extraordinary fury fell upon the men; and as Trajan was already come before the fight began, with four hundred horsemen, they were uneasy at it, because the reputation of the victory would be dimillished by being common to so many. Vespasian had also sent both Antonius and Silo, with two thousand archers, and had given it them in charge to seize upon the mountain that was over against the city, and repel those that were upon the wall; which archers did as they were commanded, and prevented those that attempted to assist them that way. And now Titus made his own horse march first against the enemy, as did the others with a great noise after him, and extended themselves upon the plain as wide as the enemy which confronted them, by which means they appeared much more numerous than they really were. Now the Jews, although they were surprised at their onset, and at their good order, made resistance against their attacks for a little while; but when they were pricked with their long poles, and overborne by the violent noise of the horsemen, they came to be trampled under their feet; many also of them were slain on every side, which made them disperse themselves and run to the city, as fast as every one of them were able. So Titus presse