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he suspected the people of the country would thereby he come his enemies; for that to be sure they would never bear it, that so many that had been supplicants to him should be killed, and to offer violence to them, after he had given them. assurances of their lives, he could not himself bear to do it. However, his friends were too hard for him, and pretended that nothing against Jews.could be any impiety, and that he ought to prefer what was profitable before what was fit to be done, where both could not be made consistent. So he gave them an anbiguous liberty to do as they advised, and permitted the prisoners to go along no other road than that which led to 'Tiberias oply. . So they readily believed what they desired to be true, and went along securely, with their effects, the way which was allowed them, while the Romans seized upon all the road that led to Tiberias, that none of them might go out of it and shut them up in the city. Then came Vespasian and ordered them all to stand in the stadium, and commanded them to kill the old men, together with the sthers that were useless, which were in number a thousand and two hundred. Out of the young men he chose six thousand of the strongest, and sent them to Nero, to dig through the Isthmus, and sold the remainder for slaves, being thirty thousand and four hundred, besides, such as he made a present of to Agrippa; for as to those that belonged to his king. dom, he gave him leave to do what he pleased with them : however, the king sold these also for slaves; but for the rest of the multitude, who were Trachopites, and Gaulanites, and of Hippos, and some of Gadara, the greatest part of them were seditious persons, and fugitives, who were of such shameful characters, that they preferred war 'before peace, These prisoners were taken on the eighth day of the month Gorpieus, [Elul.] sistent, advantage must prevail over Justice. Admirable court doctrines these!
CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF ABOUT ONE YEAR. . [From the siege of Gamala, to the coming of ..
Titus to besiege Jerusalem.]
The siege and taking of Gamala. . § 1. Now all those Galileans tho, after the taking of Jo. tapata liad revolted from the Romans, did, upon the conquest of Taricheæ, deliver themselves up to them again. And the Romans received all the fortresses and the cities, excepting Gischala and those that had seized upon mount Tabor; Gamala also, which is a city over against Taricheæ, but on the other side of the lake, conspired with them. This city lay upon the borders of Agrippa's kingdom, as also did So. gapa and Seleucia. And these were both parts of Gaulanitis; for Sogana was a part of that called the upper Gaulanitis, as was Gamala of the lower ;. while Seleucia was situated at the lake Semechonitis, which lake is thirty furlongs in breadth, and sixty in length; its marshes reach as far as the place Daphne, which, in other respects is a delicious place, and hath such fountains as supply water to what is called Little Jordan, under the temple of the * golden calf, where it is sent into great Jordan. Now Agrippa had uni
ted Sogana and Seleucia by leagues to himself, at the very i beginning of the revolt from the Romans ; yet did not Gamala accede to them, but relied upon the difficulty of the place, which was greater than than that of Jotapata, for it was situated upon a rough ridge of a high mountain, with a
. * Here we have the exact situation of one of Jeroboam's golden calves, at the exit of little Jordan into great Jordan, near a place called Daphne, but of old Dan. See the note 0:) Antiq. B viii. ch. viii. S 1. vol. ii. But Reland suspects, that even here we should lead Dan instead of Daphine, there being no where else any mention of a place called Daphne hereabouts.
kind of neck in the middle; where it begins to 'ascend it lengthens itself, and declines as much downward before as behiod, insomuch that it is like a camel in figure, from whence it is so named, although the people of the country do not pronounce it accurately ; both on the side and the face there are abrupt parts divided from the rest, and endiog in vast deep valleys; yet are the parts hehind, where they are joined to the mountain, somewhat easier of ascent than the other; but then the people belonging to the place have .cut an oblique ditch there, and made that hard to be ascended also. Op its acclivity, which is strait, houses are built, and those very thick and close to one another. The city also hangs so, strongly, that it looks as if it would fall down upon itself, so sharp is it at the top. It is exposed to the south, and its southern mount which reaches to an immense height, was in the nature of a citadel to the city; and above that was a precipice, not walled about, but extending itself to an immense depth. There was also a spring of water within the wall, at the utmost limits of the city.
2. As this city was naturally hard to be taken, so had Josephus, by building a wall about it, made it still stronger, as also by ditches and mines under ground. The people that were in it were made more bold by the nature of the place, than the people of Jotapata had been, but it had much fewer fighting men in it; and they had such a confidence in the situation of the place, that they thought the enemy could not be too mean for them; for the city had been filled with those that had fled to it for safety, on account of its strength ; on which account they had been able to resist those whom A. grippa seot to besiege it for seven months together.
3. But Vespasian removed from Emmaus, where he had last pitched his camp before the city Tiberias, (now Emmaus if it be interpreted, may be rendered a warm bath, for there. in is a spring of warm water, useful for healing,) and camo to Gamala ; yet was its situation such that he was not able to enconipass it all around with soldiers to watch it, but where the places were practicable, he sent men to watch it, and seized upon the mountain which was over it. And as the legions, according to their usual custom, were fortifying their camp upon that mountain, he began to cast up banks at the bottom, at the part towards the east, where the highest tower of the whole city was, and where the fifteenth legion pitched their camp; while the fifth legion did duty orer:
against the midst of the city, and whilst the tenth legion filled up the ditches and the vallies. Now at this time it was that as king Agrippa was come nigh the walls, and was-endeavouring to speak to those that were on the walls, about a surrender, he was hit with a stone on his right elbow by one of the slingers ; he was then immediately surrounded with his • owp men. But the Romans were excited to set about the siege, by their indignation on the king's account, and by their fear on their own account, as concluding that those men would omit no kinds of barbarity against foreigners and enemies, who were so enraged against one of ther own nation, and one that advised them to nothing but what was for their own advantage.
4. Now when the banks were finished, which was done on the sudden, both by the multitude of hands, and by their being accustomed to such work, they brought the machines ; but Chares, and Joseph, who were the most potent men in the. city, set their armed men in order, though already in a fright, because they did not suppose that the city could hold out long, since they had not a sufficientquantity either of water, or of other necessaries. However, these their leaders encouraged them, and brought them out upon the wall, and for a while indeed they drove away. those that were bringing the machines ; but when those machines threw darts, and stones at them, they retired into the city, then did the Romans bring battering-rams to three several places, and made the wall sbake fand fall.] They then poured in over the parts of the wall that were thrown down, with a mighty sound of trun. pets, and noise of armour, and with a shout of the soldiers, , and brake in by force upon those that were in the city ; but . these men fell upon the Romans for some time, at their first entrance, and prevented their going any farther, and with great courage beat them back, and the Romans were so overpowered by the greater multitude of the people, who beat them on every side, that they were obliged to run into the upper parts of the city. Whereupon the people turned about aud fell upon their eneinies, who had attacked them, and thrust them down to the lower parts, and as they were distressed by the narrowness and difficulty of the place, slew them; and as these Romans could neither beat those back that were above them, por escape the force of their own men that were forcing their way forward, they were compelled to fly into their enemies houses, which were low; but these houses
being thus full of soldiers, whose weight they could not bear; fell dowo suddenly; and when one house fell, it shook down a great many of those that were under it, as did those do to such as were under them. By this means a vast Dunber of the Romanis perished, for they were so terribly distressed, that although they saw the houses subsiding, they were compelled to leap upon the tops of them ; so that a great many were ground to powder hy these ruins, and a great many of those that got from under them lost some of their limbs, but still a greater number were suffocated by the dust that arose from those ruins. The people of Gamala supposed this to be an assistance afforded them by God, à d without regarding what damage they suffered themselves, they pressed forward, and thrust the enemy upon the tops of their houses, and when they stumbled in the sharp and narrow streets, and were per. petually falling down, they threw their stones or darts at ihem, and slew them. Now the very ruins afforded them stones enow, and for iron weapons the dead men of the enemies side afforded them what they wanted; for, drawing the swords of those that were dead, they made use of them to dispatch such as were only half dead; nay, there were a great number who, upon their falling down from the tops of the houses, stabbed themselves and died after that mapuer; nor indeed was it easy for those that were beaten back to fly. away, for they were so ubacquainted with the ways, and the dust was so thick, that they wandered about without knowing one another, and fell dowp dead among the crowd.
5. Those, therefore, that were able to find the ways out of the city, retired. But now Vespasian always staid among those that were bard set; for he was deeply affected with seeing the ruins of the city falling on his army, and forgot to take care of his own preservation. He went up gradually towards the bighest parts of the city before he was aware, and was left in the midst of dangers, having only a very few with him; for even his son Titus was not with him at that time, having then been sent into Syria, to Mucianus.' Howeyer, he thought it not safe to fly, nor did he esteem it a fit thing for him to do; but calling to mind the actions he had done from his youth, and recollecting his courage, as if he had been excited by a divine fury, he covered himself and those that were with him with their shields, and formed a testudo over both their bodies and their armour, and bore up agginst the enemies attacks, who came running down from