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the top of the city; and without shewing any dread to the multitude of the men or of their darts, he endured all, until the enemy took notice of that divine courage that was with: in him, and remitted of their attacks; and when they pressed less zealously upon him, he retired, though without shew. ing his back to them, till he was gotten out of the walls of the city. Now a great number of the Romans fell in this battle, among wliom was Ebutius, the decurion, a man who appeared not only in this engagement wherein he fell but every where, and in former engagements to be of the truest courage, and one that had done very great mischief to the Jews, But there was a centurion whose name was Gul. lus, who during this disorder, being encompassed about, he and ten other soldiers privately crept into the house of a certain person, where he heard them talking at supper what the people intended to do against the Romans, or about themselves; (for both the man himself, and those with him were Syrians.) So he got up in the night-time, and cut all their throats, and escaped, together with his soldiers, to the Romans.
6. And now Vespasian comforted his army, which was much dejected by reflecting on their ill success, and because they had never before falleu into such a calamity, and besides this, because they were greatly ashamed that they had left their general alone in great dangers. As to what concerned himself, he avoided to say any thing, that he might by no means seem to complain of it; but he said, that “ we ought to bear manfully what usually “falls out in war, and this by 6 considering what the nature of war is, and how it can ne
ver be that we must conquer without bloodshed on our own e side; for there stands about us that fortune, which is of its
own nature mutable; that while they had killed so many & ten thousands of the Jews, they had now paid their small 6 share of the reckoning so late; and as it is the part of weak “ people to be too much puffed up with gooi success; so is w it the part of cowards to be too much affrighted at that 56 which is ill; for the change from the one to the other is 66 sudden on both sides and he is the best warrior, who is of 66 a sober mind under misfortunes, that he may continue in bi that temper, and cheerfully recover what had been lost 6 formerly : and as for what had now happened, it was nei
ther owing to their own effeminacy, nor to the valour of St he Jew's, but the difficulty of the place was the occasion " of their advantage, and of our disappointment. Upon re.
66 ffccting on which matter ope might blame your zeal as per. - fectly ungovernable; for when the enemy lad retired to s their liighest fastn: sses, you ought to have re-trained your. -- selves, and not, by presenting yourselves at the top of the - city, to be exposed to dangers; but upon your having ob66 tained the lower parts of the city, you ought to have pro6 voked those that had retired thither to a safe and settled bat- tle ; whereas, in rushing so hastily upon victory, you took “ no care of your safety. But this incautiousness of war, 66 and this madness of zeal is not a Roman maxini," while we 6: perform all that we attempt by skill and good order; that to procedure is the part of barbarians, and is what the Jews os chiefly support themselves by. We ought therefore to res turn to our own virtue, and to be rather angry, than any * longer dejected at this unlucky misfortune, and let every só one seek for his own consolation from his owo hand; for 6 by this means we will avenge those that have been destroy. - ed, and punish those that have kiiled them. For myself I si will endeavour, as I have now done, to go first before you " against your evenies in every engagement, and to be the “ last that retires from it.”
7. So Vespasian encouraged his army by this speech: but for the people of Gamala, it happened that they took courage for a litile while, upon such great and unaccountable success as they had had. But when they considered with themselves, that they had now no hopes of any terms of accominodation, and reflecting upon it that they could not get away, and that their provisions began already to be
short, they were exceedingly cast down, and their courage failed them; yet did they not neglect what might be for heir preservation, so far as they were able, but the most courageous among them guarded those parts of the wall that were beaten down, while the more infirm did the same to the rest of the wall that still remained round the city. And as the Romans raised their banks, and attempted to get into the city a second time, a great many of them fled out of the city through impracticable valleys, where no guards were placed, as also through subterraneous caverns; while those that were afraid of being caught, and for that reason stayed in the city, perished for want of food; for what food they had was brought together from all quarters, and reserved for the fighting men.
8. And these were the hard circumstances the people of Gamala were in. But now Vespasian went about another work by the by, during this siege, and that was to subdue those that had seized on mount Tabor, a place that lies in the middle between the great plain and Scythopolis, whose top is elevated as high as * thirty furlongs, and is hardly to be ascended on its north side: its top is a plain of twentysix furlongs, and all encompassed with a wall. Now Josephus erected this so long a wall in forty days time, and furbished it with other materials, and with water from below, for the inhabitants only made use of raio-water: as there. fore there was a great multitude of people gotten together upon this mountain. Vespasian sent Placidus, with six hundred horsemen thither. Now as it was impossible for him to ascend the mountain, he invited many of them to peace, by the offer of his right hand for their security, and of his intercession for them. Accordingly they came down, but with a treacherous design, as well as he had the like treacherous design upon them on the other side ; for Placidus spoke mildly to them, as aiming to take them, when he got them into the plain ; they also came down, as complying with his propusais, but it was ic order to fall upon him when lie was not aware of it: however, Placidus' stratagem was too hard for theirs; for when the Jews began to fight he proteineri To run away, and when they were in pursuit of the Romans, he enticed them a great way along the plain, and then made bis horsemen turn back; whereupon he beat them, and slew . a great number of them, and cut off the retreat of the rest
• These numbers in Josephus of 30 furlongs ascent to the top of mount Tabor, whether we estimate it by winding and gradual, or by the perpendicular altitude, and of 26 furlongs circumference upon the top, as also the 15 furlongs for this ascent in Polybius, with Gemnius' perpendicular altitude of almost 14 furlongs, here noted by Dr. Huds.), do none of them agree with the authentic testimony of Mr. Maundrel, an eye-witness, page 112, who says, he was not an hour in getting up to the top of this mount Tabor, and that the area of the top is an oval of about two furlongs in length, and one in breadth. So I rather suppose Josephus wrote 3 furlongs for the ascent, or-altitude, instead of 30; and 6 furlongs for the circumference at the top, instead of 26. Since a mountain of only 3 furlong's perpendicular altitude may easily require near an hour's ascent, and the circumference of an oval of the foregoing quantity is near 6 furlongs. Nor certainly could such a vast circumference as 26 furlongs, or 3 1.4 miles, at that height be encompassed with a wall, including a trench and other fortifications, perhaps those still remaining, ibid. in the small interval of forty days, as Jose plius here says they were by himself.
of the multitude, and hialered their return. So they left Tabor, and fled to Jerusalem, while the people of the county came to terms with him, for their water failed them, and so they delivered up the mountain and thenselves to Placidus,
8. But of the people of Gamala those that were of the bolder sort fled away and bid themselves, while the more infirm perished by famine ; but the men of war sustained the siege till the two and twentieth day of the month Hyperbereteus, [Tisri,] whey three soldiers of the Gifteenth legion, about the morning watch, got under an high tower that was near them, and undermined it, without making any noise ; por when they eitber came to it, which was in the night. time, nor when they were under it, did those that guarded it perceive them. These soldiers then upon their coming avoided making a noise, and when they had rolled away five of its strongest stones, they went away hastily; where upon the tower fell down on a sudden, with a very great noise, and its guard fell headlong with it ; so that those that kept guard at other places were under such disturbance that they ran away; the Romans also slew many of those that postared to oppose them, among whom was Joseph, who was slain by a dart, as he was running away over that part of the wall that was broken dora; but as those that were in the city were greatly affrighted at the noise, they ran hfther and thither, and a great consternation fell upon them; as though all the enemy had fallen in at once upon them. Then it was that Chares, who was ill, and under the physi cians hands, gave up the ghost, the fear he was in greatly contributing to make his distemper fatal to him. But the Romans so well remembered their former ill success, that they did not enter the city till the three and twentieth day of the forementioned month.
10. At which time Titus, who was now returned, out of the indication he had at the destructions the Romans had undergone while he was absent, took two hundred chosen horsemen, and sonie footmen with him, and entered without noise into the city. Now as the watch perceived that he was coming, they made a noise, and betook themselves to their arms; and as that his entrance was presently known to those that were in the city, some of them caught hold of their children and their wives, and drew them after them, and fled away to the citadel, with lamentations and cries,
while others of them went to meet Titus, and were killed perpetually ; but so many of them as were hindered from runniug up to the citadel, not knowing what in the world to do, fell among the Roman guards, while the groans of those that were killed were prodigiously great every where, and blood ran down over all the lower parts of the city, from the upper. But then Vespasian himself came to his assisiance against those that had fled to the citadel, and brought his whole army with him; now this upper part of the city was every way iocky, and difficult of ascent, and elevated to a vast altitude, and very full of people on all sides, and encompassed with precipices, whereby the Jews cut off those that came up to them, and did much mischief to others by their darts, and the large stones, which they rolled down upon them, while they were themselves so high that the enemies darts could hardly reach them. However, there arose such a divine storm against them as was instrumental to their -destruction; this carried the Roman darts upon them, and made those which they threw return back, and drove them obliquely away from them; nor could the Jews indeed stand upon their precipices, by reason of the violence of the wind, having nothing that was stable to stand upon, nor could they see those that were ascending up to them ; so the Romans got up and surrounded them, and some they slew before they could defend themselves, and others as they were delivering up themselves; and the remembrance of those that were slain at their former entrance into the city increased their rage against them dow: a great number also of those that were surrounded on every side, and despaired of escaping, threw their children and their wives, and themselves also down the precipices, into the valley beneath, which, near the citadel. had been dug hollow to a vast depth; but so it happened that the anger of the Romans appeared not to be so extravagant, as was the madness of those that were now taken, while the Romans slew but four thousand, whereas the num ber of those that had thrown themselves town was found to be five thousand : nor did any one escape except two women, who were the daughters of Philip, and Philip himself was the son of a certain eminent man called Jasimus, who had heen general of king Agrippa's army; and these did therefore escape, because they lay conceale! from the rage of the Romans, when the city was taken ; for otherwise they spared not so much as the infants, of which many were fluog