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down by them from the citadel. Add thus was Gamala taken, ou the three and twentieth day of the month Hyperberetus, [Tisri,] whereas the city had first revolted on the sour and twentieth day of the month Gorpieus, [Elul.}

CHAP. II.

The surrender of Gischala; when John flees away from it to Jeru

salem. $ 1. Now no place of Galilee remained to be taken but the small city of Cischala, the inhabitants of which yet were desirous of peace; for they were generally husband men, and always applied themselves to cultivate the fruits of the earth. However, there were a great number that belonged to a band of robbers, that were already corrupted, and had crept in among them, and some of the governing part of the citizens were sick of the same distemper. It was John, the son of a certain man whose name was Levi, that drew them into this rebellion, and encouraged them in it. He was a cunning knave, and of a temper that could put on various shapes; very rash in expecting great things, and very sagacious in bringing about what he hoped for. It was known to every body that he was fond of war, in order to thrust himself into authority; and the seditious part of the people of Gischala were under his management, by whose means the populace, who seemed ready to send ambassadors in order to surrender, waited for the coming of the Romans in battle array. Vesa pasian sent against them Titus, with a thousand horsemen, but withdrew the tenth legion to Scythopolis, while he returned to Cæsarea with the two other legions, that he might allow them to refresh themselves after their long and hard campaign, thinking withal that the plenty which was in thos: cities would improve their bodies and their spirits, against the difficulties they were to go through afterwards; for he saw there would be occasion for great pains about Jerusalem, which was not yet taken, because it was the royal city, and the principal city of the whole nation, and because those that had run away from the war in other places got all together thither. It was also naturally strong, and the walls that were built round it made him not a little concerned about it. Moreover, he esteemed the men that were in it to be so courageous and bold, that even without the consideration of the walls, it would be hard to şubdue them; for which reason

he took care of, and exercised his soldiers beforehand for the work, as they do wrestlers before they begin their undertaking.

2. Now Titus, as he rode up to Gischala, found it would be easy for him to take the city at the first opset; but knew withal, that if he took it by force, the multitude would be destroyed by the soldiers without mercy. (Now he wasalready satiated with the shedding of blood, and pitied the major part, who would then perish, without distinction, together with the guilty.) So he was rather desirous the city might be surrendered up to him op terms. Accordingly when he saw the wall full of those men that were of the corrupted party, he said to them, that “ he could not but wonder, 6 what it was they depended on, when they alone staid to

fight the Romans, after every other city was taken by 6 them, especially when they have seen cities much better « fortified than theirs is, overthrown by a single attack upon " them; while as many as have intrusted themselves to the “ security of the Roman's right hands, which he now offers “ to them, without regarding their former insolence, do enjoy “ their own possessions in safety; for that while they had * hopes of recovering their liberty, they might be pardoned; “ but that their continuance still in their opposition, when 6 they saw that to be impossible, was inexcusable : for that, * if they will not comply with such humane offers, and right “ hands for security, they should have experience of such a “ war as would spare nobody, and should soon be made sen“ sible, that their wall would be but a trifle, when battered by “ the Roman machines; in depending on which, they de86 monstrate themselves to be the only Galileans that were no a better than arrogant slaves and captives."

3. Now none of the populace durst not only make a reply, but durst not so much as get upon the wall, for it was all taken up by the robbers, who were also the guard at the gates, in order to prevent any of the rest from going out, in order to propose terms of submission, and from receiving any of the horsemen into the city. But John returned Titus this answer, that." for himself he was content to hearken to his 6 proposals, and that he would either persuade or force those " that refused them. Yet he said, that Titus ought to have “ such regard to the Jewish law, as to grant them leave to " celebrate that day, which was the seventh day of the week,

on which it was uplawful uot oply to remove their arms,

6 but even to treat of peace also; and that even the Romans “ were not igporant how the period of the seventh day was " among them a cessation from all labours; and that he who “ should compel them to transgress the law about that day

would be equally guilty with those that were com“ pelled to transgress it : and that this delay could be of no “ disadvantage to him ; for why should any body think of 6 doing any thing in the night, unless it was to fly away ? “ which he might prevent by placing his camp round about " them: and that they should think it a great poiut gained, “ if they might not be obliged to transgress the laws of their s country; and that it would be a right thing for bim, who

designed to grant them peace, without their expectation of 6 such a favour, to preserve the laws of those they saved in« violable.” Thus did this man put a trick upou Titus, not so much out of regard to the seventh day as to his own preservation for he was afraid lest he should be quite deserted, if the city should be taken, and had his hopes of life in that night, and in his flight therein. Now this was the work of God, who therefore preserved this John, that he might bring on the destruction of Jerusalem; as also it was his work that Titus was prevailed with by this pretence for a delay and that he pitched his camp farther off the city at Cydessa. This Cydessa was a strong Mediterranean village of the Tyrians, which always hated, and made war against the Jews; it had also a great number of inhabitants and was well fortified, which made it a proper place for such as were enemies to the Jewish nation.

4. Now, in the night-time, when Johın saw that there was no Roman guard about the city, he seized the opportunity directly, and taking with him not only the armed men that were about him, but a considerable number of those that had little to do, together with their families, he fled to Jerusalem. And indeed, though the man was making haste to get away, and was tormented with fears of being a captive, or of losing his life yet did he prevail with himself to take out of the city along with him a multitude of women and children, as far as twenty furlongs; but there left them as he proceeded farther on his journey, where those tiat were left behind made aad lamentations; for the farther every one of them was come from his own people the nearer they thought themselves to be to their enemies. They also affrighted themselves with this thought, that those who would carry them into captivity

were just at hand, and still turned themselves back at the mere noise they made themselves in this their hasty flight, as if these from whom they fied were just upon then. Many also of them missed their ways, and the earnestoess of such as aimed to outgo the rest threw down many of them. And indeed there was a miserable destruction made of the women, and children; while some of thein took the courage to call their husbands and kinsmen back, and to beseech them with the bitterest lamentations, to stay for them ; but John's exhortation, who cried out to them to save themselves, and fly away, prevailed. He said also that if the Romans should seize upon those whom they left behind they would be revenged on them for it. So this multitude that ran thus away was dispersed abroad, according as each of them was able to run, one faster or slower than another

5. Now on the next day Titus came to the wall, to make the agreement, whereupon the people, opened their gates to him, and came out to bim, with their children and wives, and made acclamations of joy to him, as to one that had been their benefactor, and had delivered the city out of custody; they also informed him of John's flight, and besought him to spare them, and to come in, and to bring the rest of those that were for innovations to punishment. But Titus, not so much regarding the supplications of the people, sent part of his horsemen to pursue after John but they could not overtake him, for he was gotten to Jerusalem before ; they also slew six thousand of the women and children who went out with him; but returned back and brought with them almost three thousand. However, Titus was greatly displeased that he had not been able to bring this John, who had deluded him, to punishment; yet he had captives enough as well as the corrupted part of the city, to satisfy his apger, when it missed of Joho. So he entered the city in the midst of acclamations of joy; and when he had given orders to the soldiers to pull down a small part of the wall, as of a city taken in war, he repressed those that had disturbed the city rather by threatenings than by executions ; for he thought that many would accuse innocent persons, out of their own private animositics and quarrels, if he should attempt to distinguish those that were worthy of punishment from the rest; and that it was better to let a guilty person alone in his fears, than to destroy with him any one that did not deserve it; for that probably such a ope might be taught prudence, by the fear of the punishment he had deserved, and have a shame upon him for his former offences, when he had been forgiven; but that the punishment of such as have been once put to death could never be retrieved. However, be placed a garrison in the city for its security, by which means he should restrain those that were for innovations, and should leave those that were peaceably disposed in greater security. Aud thus was all Galilee taken, but this not till after it bad cost the Romans much pains before it could be aken by them.

CHAP. II. Concerning John of Gischala. Concerning the zealots, and the high

another (in Jerusalem.)

§ 1. Now, upon John's entry into Jerusalem, the whole body of the people were in an uproar, and ten thousand of them crowded aboat every one of the fugitives that were come to them, and inquired of them what miseries had happened abroad, when their breath was so short, and hot, and quick, that of itself it declared the great distress they were in; yet did they talk big under their misfortunes, and pretended to say, that they had not fled away from the Romans, but came thither in order to fight them with less hazard ; for that it would be an upreasonable and fruitless thing for them to 'expose themselves to desperate hazards about Gischala, and such weak cities, whereas they ought to lay up their weapons and their zeal, and reserve it for their metropolis. But when they related to them the taking of Gischala, and their decent departure, as they pretended, from that place, many of the people understood it to be no better than a flight; and especially when the people were told of those that were made - captives, they were in great confusion, and guessed those things to be plain indications that they should be taken also. But for John, he was very little concerned for those whom he had left behind him, but went about among all the people, and persuaded them to go to war, by the hopes he gave them. He affirmed that the affairs of the Romans were in a weak condition, and extolled his own power. He also jested upon the ignorance of the unskilful, as if those Romans, though they should take to themselves wings, could never fy over the wall of Jerusalem, who found such great difficulties in taking the villages of Galilee, and had broken their engines of var against their walls.

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