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s together, for they were then but a few, and by your silence “ made them grow to be many, and by copuiviog at them s when they took arnis, in effect armed them against your“ selves ? You ought to have then prevented their first at

tempts, when they fell a reproaching your relations; but " by veglecting that care in time, you have encouraged these

wretches to plunder men. When houses were pillaged, « nobody said a word, which was the occasion why they car" ried off the owners of those bouses, and when they were s drawn through the midst of the city, nobody came to their o assistance. They then proceeded to put those whom you “ have betrayed into their hands into bonds; I do not say how có many, and of what characters those men were whom they - thus served, but certainly they were such as were accused “ by none, and condemned by noue; and since nobody suc- coured them when they were put into bonds, the conse“quence was, that you saw the same persons slaio. We s have seen this also; so that still the best of the herd of brute 5 animals, as it were, bave been still led to be sacrificed. as when yet nobody said one word, or moved his right hand " for their preservation. Will you bear, therefore, will you " bear to see your sanctuary trampled on ? and will you lay « steps for these protane wretches, upon which they may “mount to higher degrees of insolence? Will not you pluck “them down from their exaltation ? For even by this time so they had proceeded to higher enormities, if they had been

able to overthrow any thing greater than the sanctuary. "They have seized upon the strongest place of the whole “city; you'may call it the temple if you please, though it « be like a citadel or fortress. Now while you bave'ty ran. “ ny in so great a degree walled in, and see your eneni jes or over your heads, to what purpose is it to take counsel ? "And what have you to support your minds withal? Per- ** haps you wait for the Romans, that they may protect our “ holy places; are our matters then brought to that pass ? s and are we come to that degree of misery, that our enemies « themselves are expected to pity us? ()-wretched creatures! « will not you rise up, and turn upon those that strike you? « which you may observe in wild heasts themselves, that " they may avenge themselves on those that strike them." " Will you not call to mind every one of you the calamities " you yourselves have suffered ? nor lay before your eyes " what afflictions you yourselves have undergone? And

“ will not such things sharpen your souls to revenge ? Is 56 therefore that most honourable and most natural of our pas“ sions utterly lost, I mean the desire of liberty ? Truly we; 6 are in love with slavery, and in love with those that lord it Ci over us, as if we had received that principle of sub“jection from our ancestors; yet did they undergo ma“ny and great wars for the sake of liberty, nor were 5 they so far overcome by the power of the Egyptians, “.or the Medes, but that they still did what they thought « fit, notwithstanding their commands to the contrary.6 And what occasion is there now for a war with the 6. Romans ? (I meddle not with determining whether it be 65 an advantageous and profitable war or not :) what pre66 tence is there for it? Is it not that we may enjoy our “ liberty? Besides shall we got bear the lords of the habitable 5 earth to be lords over us, and yet bear tyrants of our own 6 country ? Although I must say that submission to foreign66 ers may be borp, because fortune bath already doomed us s to it, while submission to wicked people of our own pation 6 is too unmanly, and brought upon us by our own consent. “ However, since I have had occasion to mention the 5 Romans, I will not conceal a thing that, as I am speaking, 6 comes into my mind, and affects me considerably; it is 6 this, that though we should be taken by them, (God “ forbid the event should be so,) yet can we undergo s nothing that will be harder to be borne then what these * men have already brought upon us. How then can we % avoid shedding of tears, when we see the Roman dona« tions in our teinple, while we withal see those of our own “ nation taking our spoils and plundering our glorious me y tropolis, and slaughtering our men, from which enormities 6 those Romans themselves would have abstained. To see " those Romans never going beyond the bounds allotted to C profane persons, nor venturing to break in upon any of our 5 sacred customs, nay, having a horror on their minds when 66 they view at a distance those sacred walls, while some that

have been born in this very country, and brought up in our 66 customs, and called Jews, do walk about in the midst of " the holy places, at the very time when their hands are still 66 warm with the slaughter of their own countrymen. * Besides, can any one be afraid of a war abroad, and that 56 with such as will have comparitively much greater mode -ó ration than our own people have? For truly, if we may

5 suit nur words to the things they represent, it is probable one 66 may hereafter find the Romans to be the supporters of our 6 laws, and those within ourselves the subverters of them. " And now I am persuaded that every one of you here come 6 satisfied before I speak, that these overthrowers of our li66 berties deserve to be destroyed, and that nobody can so as much as devise a punishment, that they have not deserved 6 by what they have done, and that you are all pro6 voked agaiust them by those their wicked actions « whence you have suffered so greatly. But perhaps " many of you are aífrighted at the multitude of those 6 zealots, and at their audaciousness, as well as at the 66 advantage they have over us at their being higher in 66 place than we are ; “ for these circumstances, as they obave been occasioned by your negligeuce, so will they 4 become still greater, by being still longer neglected; 6 for their multitude is every day augmented, by every ill 6 man's running away to those that are like to themselves, " and their audaciousness is therefore inflamed, because they “ meet with no obstruction to their designs. And for their « higher place, they will make use of it for engines also, . 6 if we give them time to do so; but be assured of this, that 6 if we go up to fight them, they will be made tamer by " their own consciences, and what advantages they have in 6 the height of their situation, they will lose by the ops position of their reason; perhaps also God himself, who “ hath been affronted by them, will make what they throw 6 at us return against themselves, and these impious wretches

will be killed by their own darts : let us but make our 56 appearance before them, and they will come to nothing. “ However, it is a right thing, if there should be any dane ger in the attempt to die before these holy gates, and to

spend our very lives, if not for the sake of our children, “ and wives, yet for God's sake, and for the sake of his s sanctuary.. I will assist you both with my counsel, and " with my hand; nor shall any sagacity of ours le wanting “ for your support, nor shall you see that I will be sparing et of my body neither."

11. By these motives Ananus encouraged the multitude to go against the zealots, although he knew how difficult it would be to disperse them, because of their multitude, and their youth, and the courage of their souls, but chiefly because of their consciousness of what they bad done, since

they would not yield, as not so much as hoping for pardon at the last for those their enormities. However, Auanus resoivel to undergo whatever sufferings inight come upon him, rather than overlook thiugs now they were in such great confusion. So the multitude cried out to him, to lead them on against those whom he had described in his exhortation to them, and every one of them was most readily disposed to run any hazard whatsoever on that account.

12. Now while Anapus was choosing out his men, and putting those that were proper for his purpose in array for fighting, the zealots got information of his undertaking, (tor there were some who went to them, and told them all that the people were doing, and were irritated at it, and leaping out of the temple in crowds, and by parties, and spared none whom they met with. Upon this Abanus got the populace together ou the sudden, who were more numerous indeed thaa the zealots, but inferior to them in arms, because they had not been regularly put into array for fighting : but the alacrity that every body shewed supplied ail their defects on both sides, the citizens, taking up so great a passion as was stronger than arms, and deriving a degree of courage from the temple, more forcible than any multitude whatsoever; and indeed these citizens thought it was not possible for them to dwell in the city, unless they could cut off the robbers that were in it. The zealots also thought that unless they prevailed, there would be no punishment so bad, but it would be inflicted on them. So their conflicts were conducted by their passions, and at the first they only cast stones at each other in the city, and before the temple, and threw their javelins at a distance: but when either of them were too hard for the other they made use of their swords: and great slaughter was made on both sides, and a great number were wounded. As for the dead bodies of the people, their relations carried them out to their own houses; but when any of the zealots were wounded, he went up into the temple, and defiled that sacred floor with his blood, insomuch that one may say, it was their blood alove that polluted our sanctuary. Now in these conflicts the robbers always sallied out of the temple and were too hard for their enemies; but the populace grew very angry and became niore and more numerons, and reproached those that gave back, and those behind would not afford room to those that were going off, but forced them, on again, till at leogth they made their whole body to turn against their adversaries, and the robbers could do louger oppose them, but were forced gradually to retire into the temple: when * Anapus and his party fell into it at the same time together with them. This horribly affrighted the robbers, because it deprived them of the first court; so they fled into the inner court immediately, and shut the gates. Now Anauus did not think fit to make any attack against the holy gates, although the other threw their stones and darts at them from above. He also deemed it unlawful to introduce the multitude into that court, before they were purified; he therefore chose out of them all by. lot, six thousand armed men, and placed them as guards ia

the cloisters: so there was a succession of such guards one · after aiother, and every one was forced to attend in his

course; although many of the chief of the city were dismis. sed by those that then took on them the government, upon their hiring some of the poorer sort, and sending them to keep the guard in their stead.

13. Now it was John who, as we told you, ran away from Gischala, and was the occasion of all these being destroyed. He was a man of great craft, and bore about him in his soul a strong passion after tyranny, and at a distance was the ad. viser in these actions; and indeed at this time he pretended to be of the people's opinion, and went all about with AnaDus when he consulted the great men every day, and in the night-time also wlien he went round the watch; but he divulged their secrets to the zealots, and every thing that the people deliberated about was by his means known to their enemies, even before it had been well agreed on by them. selves. And by way of contrivance how he might be brought into suspicion, he cultivated the greatest friendship possible with Ananus, and with the chief of the people; yet did this over-doing of his turn against him, for he flattered them so extravagantly, that he was but the more suspected; and his

• It is worth noting here, that this Ananus, the best of the Jews at this time, and the high-priest, who was so very uneasy at the profanation of the Jewish courts of the temple by the zealots, did not however scruple the profanation of the court of the Gentiles, as in our Saviour's days it was very much profaned by the Jews, and made a market place, nay, a den of thieves, without scruple, Matt. xxi. 12, 13. Mark xi. 15, 16 17. Accordingly Josephus himself, when he speaks of the two inner courts, call them both sgia or holy places, but, so far as I remember, never gives that character fthe court of the Gentiles. See B. v. ch. ix. $ 2.

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