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to take the oath of fidelity to Vespasian, upon' his coming to the 2012; ' Vespasian then removed from Cæsarea to BeTylus, where many emhassages came to him from Syria, and mans froin other provinces, bringing with them from every city, cruris, and the congratulations of the people. Mucianus came also, who was the president of the province, and told him with what alacrity the people (received the news of his advancement, ] and how the people of every city had taken the oth of lidelity to him.
7. So Vespasian's good fortune succeeded to his wishes, every where, and the public affairs were, for the greatest part, already in his hands; upon which he considered, that he had not arrived at the government without divine Provi. derice, but that a righteous kind of fate had brought the empire under his power; for as he called to mind the other signals, which had been a great many every where, that foretold he sliould obtain the goveromeut, so did he remember what Josephus had said to him, when he ventured to foretel his coming to the empire, while Nero was alive ; so he was much concerned that this man was still in bonds with him. He then called for Blucianus, together with his other commanders and friends, and, in the first place, he informed them what a valiant man Josephus had been, and what great hardships he biad made liim undergo in the siege of Jotapata. After that be related those * predictions of his which he had thep suspected as actions, suggested out of the fear he was in, but which had by time been demonstrated to be divine. “ It is "a shamcful thing," said he, “that this man who had fore- told my coming to the empire before hand, and been the v minister of a divine message to me, should still be retain
* A's Daniel was preferred by Darius and Cyrus, on account of lis having foretold the destruction of the Babylonian monarchy by their means, and the consequent exaltation of the Medes and Per. sians, Dan. v. vi. or rather, as Jeremiah, when he was a prisoner, was set at liberty, and honourably treated by Nebuzaradan, at the command of Nebuchadnezzar, on account of his having foretold the destrution of Jerusalem by the Babylonians, Jer, xl. 1-6. So was our Josephus set at liberty, and honourably treated, on account of his having foretold the advancement of Vespasian and Titus to the Roman empire. All these are most eminent instances of the interposition of divine providence, and of the certainty of divine predic. jions in the great revolutions of the four monarchies. Several such like examples there are, both in the sacred and other histories; as in the case of Joseph in Egypt, and of Jaddua the high-priest, in the days of Alexander the Great, &c.
“ed in the condition of a captive or prisoner.” So he called for Josephus, and commanded that he should be set at liberty ; whereupon the commanders promised themselves glorious things, from this requital Vespasian made to a stran. ger. Titus was then present with his father, and said, “ () “ father, it is but just that the scandal (of a prisouer) should 4 be taken off Josephus, together with his iron chain. For “ if we do not barely loose his bonds, but cut them to pieces, 6 he will be like a nian that had never been bound at all.” For that is the usual method as to such as liave been bound without a cause. This advice was agreed to by Vespasian also ; so there came a man in, and cut the chain to pieces, while Josephus received this testimony of his integrity for a reward, and was moreover esteemed a person of credit as to futurities also.
CHAP XI. That upon the conquest and slaughter of Vitellius, Vespasian hastened his journey to Rome, but Titus his son returned to Jerusalem,
8 1. And now when Vespasian had given answers to the embassages, and had disposed of the places of power * justiy, and according to every one's deserts, he came tv Antioch, and consulting which way he had best take, he preferred to go to Rome, rather than to march to Alexandria, because he sa v that Alexandria was sure to him already, but that the affairs at Rome were put in disorder by Vitellius ; so he sent Mucianus to Italy, and committed a considerable army both of horsenien aod footmen to him ; yet was Mucianus afraid of going by sea, because it was the middle of winter, and so he led his army through Cappadocia and Phrygia.
2. In the mean time Antonius Primus took the third of the legions that were in Mysia, for he was president of that province, and made haste, in order to fight Vitellius ; whereupon Vitellius sent away Cecinua, with a great army, having a
* This is well observed by Josephus, that Vespasian, in order to secure his success, and establish his government at first, distributed his offices and places upon the foot of justice, and bestowed them on such as best deserved them, and were best fit for them. Which wise conduct, in a mere heathen, ought to put those rulers and ministers of state to shame, who, professing Christiaility, act wherwise and thereby expose themselves and their kingdom to vice and to destruction,
mighty confidence in him, because of his having beateu Otho. This Cecinna marched out of Rome in great haste, and found Antonius about Cremona in Gall, which city is in the bor. ders of Italy ; but when he saw there that the enemy were numerous and in good order, he durst not fight them, and as he thought a retreat dangerous, so he began to think of betraying his army to Antonius. Accordingly he assembled the centurions and tribunes that were uoder his command, and persuaded them to go over to Antonius, and this by diminishing the reputation of Vitellius, and by exaggerating the power of Vespasiaa. He also told them, that “ with the “ one there was no more than the bare nanie of dominion, “ but with the other was the power of it. And that it was
better for them to prevent necessity, and gain favour, and, ci while they were likely to be overcome in battle, to avoid “ the danger beforehand, and go over to Antonius willingly; " that Vespasian was able of himself to subdue what had not 66 yet submitted, without their assistance, while Vitellius 6 could not preserve what he had already with it.”
3. Cecinoa said this, and much more to the same purpose, and persuaded them to comply with him, and both he and his army deserted; but still the very same night the soldiers repented of what they had done, and a fear seized on them, lest perhaps Vitellius who sent then should get the better: and drawing their swords, they assaulted Cecinda in order to kill him; and the thing had been done by them, if the tribunes had not fallen upon their knees, and besought them not to do it: so the soldiers did not kill him, but put him in bonds, as a traitor, and were about to send him to Vi. tellius. When [Antonius) Primus heard of this, he raised u, his men immediately, and made them put on their armour, and led them against those that had revolted; hereupon they put themselves in order of battle, and made a resistance for a while, but were soon beaten, and fled to Cremona; then did Primus take his horsemen, and cut off their entrance in. to the city, and encompassed and destroyed a great multitude of them before the city, and fell into the city together with the rest, and gave leave to his soldiers to plunder it. And here it was that many strangers who were merchants, as well as many of the people of that country perished, and among them Vitellius' whole army, being thirty thousand and two hundred, while Antonius lost no more of those that came with him from Mysia than four thousand and five hua
dred: he then loosed Cecinna, and sent him to Vespasian, to tell him the good news. So he came, and was received by him, and covered the scandal of his treachery, by the unexpected honours he received from Vespasian.
4. And now, upon the news that Antonius was approaching, Sabipus took courage at Rome, and assembled those cohorts of soldiers that kept watch by night, and in the night-time seized upon the capitol ; and as the day came on, many men of character came over to hini, with Domitian his brother's son, whose encouragement was of very great weight for the compassing the government. Now Vitellius was not much concerned at this Primus, but was very angry at those that had revoited with Sabinus, and thirsting, out of his own natual barbarity, after pohle blood, he sent out that part of the army which came along with him to fight against the capitol, and many bold actions were done on this side, and on the side of those that held the temple. But at last the sol. diers that came from Germany being too numerous for the others, got the hill into their possession, where Domitian, with many other of the principal Romans providentially escaped, while the rest of the multitude Were enlirely cut to pieces, and Sabinus himself was brought to Vitellius and then slain; the soldiers also plundered the temple of its ornaments, and set it on fire. But now, within a day's time, came Antonius, with his army, and were met by Vitellius and his army, and having had a battle in three several places, the last were all destroyed. Then did Vitellius come out of the palace, in his cups, and satiated with an extravagant and luxurious meal, as in the last extremity, and being drawn along through the multitude, and abused with all sorts of torments, had his head cut off in the midst of Rome, having retained the government * eight months and five days, and had há lived
* The numbers in Josephus, chap. ix. $ 2, 9. for Galba 7 months 7 days, for Otho 3 months 2 days, and here for Vitellius 8 months 5 days, do not agree with any Poman historians, who also disagree among themselves. And indeed Scaliger jastly complains, as Dr. Hudson observes on chap ix. $ 2 that this period is very confused and uncertain in the ancient authors. They were probably some of them contemporary together for some time ; one of the best evidences we have, I mean Prolemy's Canon, omits them all, as if they did not altogether reign one whole vear, nor had a single Thoth or New-year's day, (which then fell upon Aug 6.) in their entire reigns. Dio also, who says, that Vitellius reigned a year within ten days does yet estimate all their reigns together at no more than one year, one month, and two days.
much longer, I cannot but think the empire would not have been sufficient for his lust. Of the other that were slain were numbered above fifty thousand. This battle was fought on the third day of the month Appelleus (Casleu ;] on the next day Mucianus came into the city witb bis army, and ordered Antonius and his men to leave off killing ; for they were still searching the houses, and killed many of Vitellius' soldiers, and many of the populace, as supposing them to be of his party, preventing by their rage any accurate distinction between them and others. He then produced Domitian, and recommended him to the multitude, until his father should come himself : so the people being now freed from their fears, made acclamation of joy for Vespasian, as for their emperor, and kept festival days for his confirmation, and for the destruction of Vitellius.
5. And now, as Vespasian was come to Alexandria, this good news came from Rome, and at the same time came embassies from all his own habitable earth, to congratulate him upon his advancement; and though this Alexandria was the greatest of all cities next to Rome, it proved too parroir to contain the multitude that then came to it. So upon this coofirmation of Vespasians' entire government, which was now settled, and upon the unexpected deliverance of the public affairs of the Romans from ruin, Vespasian turned his thoughts to what remained unsubdued in Judea. However, he himself made haste to go to Rome, as the wioter was now almost over, and soon set the affairs of Alexandria in order, but sent his son Titus, with a select part of his arniy, to destroy Jerusalem. So Titus marched on foot as far as Nicopolis, which is distant twenty furlongs from Alexandria; there he put his army on board some long ships, and sailed upon the river along the Mendesian Nomus, as far as the city Thmuis; there he got out of the ships, and walked on foot, and lodged all night at a small city called Tanis. His second station was Heracleopolis, and his third Pelusium; he then refreshed bis army at that place for two days, and on the third passed over the mouths of Nile at Pelusim, he then proceeded one station over the desert, and pitched his camp at the temple of the * Casian Jupiter, and on the next day at Ostracine. This station had no water, but the people of the country make use of water brought
* There are coins of this Casian Jupiter, still extant, as Spanheim here informs as.