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city than Scopus, placed as many of his choice horsemen and footmeo as he thought sufficient, opposite to the Jews, to prevent their sallying out upon them, while he gave orders for the whole army to level the distance, as far as the wall of the city. So they threw down all the hedges and walls which the inhabitants had made about their gardeos and groves of trees, and cut down all the fruit trees that lay between them and the wall of the city, and filled up all the hollow places and the chasms, and demolished the rocky precipices with iron instruments; and thereby made all the place level, from Scopos to Herod's monuments, which ad. joined to the pool called the Scrpcnt's Pool.

3 Now at this very time the Jews contrived the following stratagem against the Romans. The bolder sort of the seditious went out at the towers, called the Women's torvers, as if they had been ejected out of the city by those who were for peace, and rambled about as if they were afraid of being assaulted by the Romans, and were in fear of one another; while those that stood upon the wall, and seemed to be of the people's side, cried out aloud for peace, and entreated they might have security for their lives given them, and called for the Romans, promising to opere the gates to them; and as they cried out after that mapper, they threw stones at their own people, as though they would drive them away from the gates. These also pretended that they were excluded by force, and that they petitioned those that were within to let them in; and rushing upon the Romans perpetually, with violence, they then came back, and seemed to be in great disorder. Now the Roman soldiers thought this cunning stratagem of theirs was to be believed real, and thinking they had the one party under their power, and could punish them as they pleased, and hoping that the other party would open their gates to them, set to the execution of their designs accordingly. But for Títus himself, he had this surprising conduct of the Jews in suspicion; for where. as he had invited them to come to terms of accommodation, by Josephus, but one day before, he could then receive no civil answer from them; so he ordered the soldiers to stay where they were. However, some of them that were set in the front of the works prevented him, and catching up their arms, ran to the gates; whereupon, those that seemed to have been ejected at the first retired, but as soon as the soldiers were gotten between the towers on each side of the

te, the Jews ran out, and encompassej them round, avd

fell upon them behind, while that multitude which stood up. ou the wall, threw an heap of stones and darts of all kinds at them, insomuch that they slew a considerable number, and wounded many more; for it was not easy for the Roo nians to escape, by reason those behind them pressed them forward ; besides which, the shame they were under sor being mistaken, and the fear they were in of their command. ers, engaged them to persevere in their mistake: wherefore, they fought with their spears a great while, and received many blows from the Jeurs, though indeed they gave them as many blows again, and at last repelled those that had encompassed them about, while the Jews pursued them as they Fetired, and followed them, and threw darts at them as far as the monuments of Queen lelen,

4. After this, these Jews, without keeping any decorum, grew insolent upon their good fortune, and jested upon the Romans for being deluded by the trick they had put upon them, and making a noise with beating their shields, leaped for gladness, and made joyful exclamations; while these soldiers were received with threatenings by their officers, and with indignation by Cæsar himself, [who spake to them thus] : " These Jews, which are only conducted by their madness, “ do everything with care and circumspection; they con“ trive stratagems, and lay ambushes, and fortune gives suc“ cess to their stratagems, because they are obedient, and “preserve their good will and fidelity to one another; while t the Romans, to whom fortune uses to be ever subservient, " by reason of their good order and ready submission to “ their commanders, have now had ill success by their con“ trary behaviour, and by not being able to restrain their “hands from action, they have been caught; and that which “is the most to their reproach, they have gone on without “ their commanders in the very presence of Cæsar. Truly, “ (says Titus,) the laws of war cannot but groan heavily, as “ will my father also himself, when he shall be informed of 5 this wound that hath been given us, since he, who is grown hold in wars, did never make so great a mistake. Our lais “ of war do also ever inflict capital punishment on those that “ iu the least break into good order, while at this time they “: have seen an entire army run into disorder. However, " those that have been so insolent, shall be made immediately " sensible that even they who conquer among the Romans, " without orders for figbting, are to be under disgrace." When Titus had enlarged upon this matter before the corr

manders, it appeared evident that he would execute the law against all those that were concerned; so these soldiers minds sunk down in despair, as expecting to be put to death, and that justly, and quickly, lIowever, the other legions came round about Titus, and intreated his favour to these their fellow-soldiers, and made supplication to him, that he would pardon the rashness of a few, on account of the better obedience ni all the rest; and promised for them, that they should make amends for their present fault by their more virtuous behaviour for the time to come.

5. So Cæsar complied with their desires, and with what prudence dictated to him also; for he esteemed it fit to punish single persons by real executions, but that the pubishiment of great multitudes should proceed no farther than reproofs: so he was reconciled to the soldiers, but gave themi a special charge to act more wisely for the future; and he considered with himself how he might be even with the Jews for their stratagem. And now, when the space between the Romans and the wall had been levelled, which was done in four days; and as he was desirous to bring the baggage of the army, with the rest of the multitude that followed him, safely to the camp, lie set the strongest part of his army over against that wall which lay on the north quarter of the city, and over against the western part of it, and made his army seven deep, with the footmen placed before them, and the horsenen bebind them, each of the last in three ranks, while the archers stood in the midst in seven ranks. And now as the Jews were prohibited, by so great a body of men, from, making sallies lipon the Romaus both the beasts that bear the burdens, and belonged to the three legions, and the rest of the multitude marched on without any fear. But as for Tifus himself, he was but about two furlongs distant from the wall, at that part of it where was the corner,* and over against that tower which was called Psephinus, at which tower the compass of the wall belonging to the north bended, and extended itself over against the west ; but the other part of the army fortified itself at the tower called Hippicus, and was distant in like manner, but two furlongs from the city. Powever the tenth legion continued in its own place upon Ue Mount of Olives.

* Perhaps, savs Dr. Hudson, here was that gate called the Gate of the Corner, in 2 Chr. xxvi 9. See ch. lv. 2.


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