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made, and had great indignation as to the affair of Pheroras, because Antipater had been for making him murder his brother, and had corrupted those that were dearest to the king, and filled the whole palace with wickedness; and when he had insisted on many other accusations, and the proofs for then he left off.
5. Then Varus bid Antipater make his defence ; but he lay along in silence, and said no more but this, “ God is my wil“ness that I am entirely innocent.” So l'arus asked for the potion, and gave it to be drunk by a condemned malefactor, who was then in prison, who died upon the spot. So Varus when he had had a very private discourse with Herod, and had written an account of this assembly to Cæsar, went away, after a days' stay. The king also bound Antipater, and sent away to ioform Cæsar of his misfortunes.
6. Now after this, it was discovered that Antipater had laid a plot against Salome also ; for one of Antiphilus' domes. tic servants caine and brought letters from Rome, from a maid-servant of Julia, [Cæsar's wife,] whose name was Ac. me. By her a message was sent to the king that she haul found a letter written by Salome, among Julia's papers, and had sent it to him privately out of her good-will to him. This letter of Salome contained the most bitter reproaches of the king, and the highest accusations against him. Antipater had forged this letter, and had corrupted Acme, and persuaded • her to send it to Herod. This was proved by her letter to
Antipater, for thus did this woman write to him : “ As thou " desirest, I have written a letter to thy father, and have "i sent that letter, and am persuaded that the king will not si spare his sister, when he reads it. Thou wilt do well 10 65 remember what thou hast promised when all is accomplish66 ed.”
7. When this epistle was discovered, and wbat the epistle forged against Salome contained, a suspicion came into the king's mind, that perhaps the letters against Alexander were also forged : he was moreover greatly disturbed, and in a passion, because he had almost slain his sister op Antipater's account. He did no longer delay therefore to bring him to punishment for all his crimes; yet when he was eagerly pursuing Antipater, he was restrained by a severe distemper be fell into. However, he sent an account to Cæsar about Ac. me, and the contrivances against Salome: be sent also for his testament, and altered it, and therein made Antipas king, as taking no care of Archelaus and Philip, because Antipater. had blasted their reputations with him ; but he bequeathed to Cæsar, besides other presents that he gave him, a thousand talents; as also to his wife, and children, and friends, and freed-men, about five hundred : he also bequeathed to all others a great quantity of land, and of money, and shewed his respects to Salome his sister, by giving her most splendid gifts. And this was what was contained in his testament, as it was now altered.
CHAP. XXXIII. The golden eagle is cut to pieces. Herod's barbarity when he was ready to die. He attempts to kill himself. He commands Anti. pater to be slain. He survives him five days and then dies.
§ 1. Now Hcrod's distemper became more and more severe to him, and this because these his disorders fell upon him io his old age, and when he was in a melancholy condition; for he was already almost seventy years of age, and had been brought low by the calamities that happened to him, about his children, whereby he had no pleasure in life, even when he was in health; the grief also that Autipater was still alivt aggravated his disease, whom he resolved to put to death now at random, but as soon as he should be well again, and resolved to have him slain (in a public manner.].
2. There also now happened to him, among his other calamities, a certain popular sedition. There were two men of learning in the city Jerusalem), who were thought the most skilful in the laws of their country, and were on that account had in very great estcem all over the nation; they were, the one Judas the son of Sepphoris, and the other Matthias, the Son of Margalus. There was a great concourse of the young med, to these men, whep they expounded the laws, aud there got together every day a kind of an army such as were growing up to be men. Now when these men were informed that, the king was wearing away with melancholy, and with a dis, temper, they dropped words for their acquaintance how it was now a very proper time to defend the cause of God, and to pull do to what had been erected contrary to the laws of their country; for it was unlawful there should be any such thing in the temple as images or faces, or the like representation of any animal whatsoever. Now the king had put up a golden eagle over the great gate of the temple, which these learned men exhorted them to cat down, and told them, that
if there should any danger arise, it was à glorious thing to die for the laws of their country; because that the * soul was immortal, and that an eternal enjoyment of happiness did await such as died on that account; whiie the mean spirited, and those that were not wise enough to shew a right love of their souls, preferred a death by a disease, before that which is the result of a virtuous behaviour.
3. At the same time that these men made this speech to their disciples, a rumour was spread abroad, that the king was dying, which made the young men set about the work with greater boldness: they therefore let themselves down from the top of the temple with thick cords, and this at mid-day, and while a great pumber of people were in the temple, and eut down that golden eagle with axes. This was presently told to the king's captain of the teniple, who came running vith a great body of soldiers and caught about forty of the young men, and brought them to the king. And when he asked them first of all whether they had been so hardy as to cut down the golden eagle ? they confessed they had done so: and when he asked them by whose command they had done it, they replied, at the command of the law of their country; and when he farther asked them, how they could be so joyful when they were to be put to death, they replied, because they should enjoy greater happiness after they were dead.
• Since in these two sections, we have an evident account of the Jowish opinions in the days of Josephus, about a future happy state, and the resurrection of the dead, as in the New Testament, John xi. 25. I shall here refer to the other places in Josephus, before he became a Catholic Christian, which concern the same matters. Of the War. B. ij. ch. viii. 10, 11. B. jji. ch. viii. $ 4. vol. v. B. vii ch, vi. $ 7. Contr. Apion, B. ii. 30 vol. vi. Where we may observe, that none of these passages are in his books of - Antiqui. ties, written peculiarly for the use of the Gentiles, to whom he thought it not proper to insist on topics so much out of the way as Hiese were Nor is the observation to be omitted here, especially on account of the sensible difference we have now before us in Jose. phus' representation of the arguments used by the Rabbins to per. suade their scholars 10 hazard their lives for the vindication of God's law against images, by Moses, as well as of the answers those scho. lars made to Herod, when they were caught and ready to die for the same; I mean as compassed with the parallel arguments and answers represented in the Antiquities. B. xvii. ch vi. § 2, 3. yol. iv. A like difference between Jewish and Gentile notions, the reader will find in my notes on Antiquities, B. ji ch, vji. S 7 rol. i. B. XV. ch. ix. Si vol. iii. See the like also in the case of the three
4. At this the king was in such an extravagant passion, that he overcame his disease (for the time, and went out, and spake to the people; wherein he inade a terrible accusa: tion against those meu, as being gulty of sacrilege, and as making greater attempts under pretence of their law, and he thought they deserved to be puuished as impious persons, Whereupon the people were afraid lest a great number should be found guilty, and desired that when he had first punished those that put them upon this work, and thien those that were caught in it, he would leave off his anger as to the rest. With this the king complied, though not without difficulty, and ordered those that liad let themselves down, together with their rabbins, to be burnt alive, but delivered the rest that were caught to the proper officers, to be put to death by them. · 5. After this the distemper seized upon his whole body, and greatly disordered all its parts with various symptoms; for there was a gentle fever upon hin, and an intolerable itching over all the surface of his body, and continual pains in his colon, and dropsical tumours about his feet, and an ioflammation of the abdomen, and a putrefaction of his privy member, that produced worms. Besides which, he had a difficulty of breathing upon him, and could not breathe but when he sat upright, and had a convulsion of all his members, insomuch that the dividers said, those diseases were a punishment upon him for what he had done to the rabbins. Yet did he struggle with his numerous disorders, and still had a desire to live, and hoped for recovery, and considered of several methods of cure. Accordingly he went over to Jordan, and made use of those hot haths at Callirhoe which run into the lake Asphaltitis, but are themselves sweet enough to be drunk. And here the physicians thought proper to bathe his whole body in warm oil, by letting it down into a large vessel full of oil ; whereupon his eyes failed him, and he came and went as if he were dying; and as a tumult was then made by his servants, at their voice he revived again. Yet did he after this despair of recovery, and gave orders that each sol. dier should have fifty drachmæ a piece, and that his com. manders and friends should have great sums of money given them.
Jewish sects in the Antiquities, B. xiii. ch. v. 9. and ch. X. 84, 5. vol. iii. B. xviii ch. i. S v. vol. iv, and compared with this in his Wars of the Jews, B. ii. ch. viü. $ 2–14. vol. v. Nor does St. Paul him. self reason to Gentiles at Athens, Acts xvii, 16, 34. as he does to Jews in his epistles,
6. He then returned back and came to Jericho, in such a melancholy state of body as almost threatened him with preseot death, when he procceded to attempt an horrid wicked. ness ; for he got together the most illustrious men of the whole Jewish nation, out of every village, into a place called the Hippodrome, and there shut them in. He then called for his sister Salome, and her husband Alexas, and made this speech to them; “ I know well enough that the Jews will “ keep a festival upon my death : however, it is in my pow. “ er to be mouroed for on other accounts, and to have a splen. e did funeral, if you will but be subservient to my commands., “Do but you take care to send soldiers to encompass these “ men that are now in custody, and slay them immediately ci upon my death, and then all Judea, and every family of * them will weep at it whether they will or no."
7. These were the cornmands he gave them; when there came letters from his ambassadors at Rome, whereby information was given, that Acme was put to death at Cæsar's commauds, and that Antipater was condemned to die : bowever, they wrote withal, that if Herod had a mind rather to hanislı him, Cæsar permitted him so to do. So he for a little while revived, and had a desire to live ; but presently after he was overborne by his pains, and was disordered by want of food, and by a convulsive cough, and endeavoured to prevent a natural death; so he took an apple, and asked for a knife; for be used to pare apples, and eat thens; he then looked round about to see that there was nobody to hinder him, and lift up his right hand, as if he would stab himself; but Achiabus, his first cousin, came running to him, and held his hand and hindered him from so doing; on which occasion a very great lamentation was made in the palace, as if the king were expiring. As soon as ever Antipater heard that, he took courage, and, with joy in his looks, besought his keepers, for a sum of money, to loose him, and let him go; but the principal keeper of the prison did not only obstruct him in that his intention, but ran and told the king what his design was: hereupon the king cried out louder than bis distemper would well bear, and immediately sent some of his guards and slew Antipater; he also gave order to have him buried at Hyrcanium, and altered his testament again, and therein made Archelaus, bis eldest son, and the brother of Antipas, his successor, and made Autipas tetrarch.
8. So Herod hayipg survived the slaughter of his son five