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days, died, having reigned thirty-four years, since he had caused Antigonus to be slain, and obtained his kingdom; but thirty-seven years since he had been made king by the Romans. Now, as for bis fortune, it was prosperous in all other respects, if ever any other man could be so, since, from a private man, he obtained a kingdom, and kept it so long, and left it to his own sons; but still in his domestic affairs, he was a most unfortunate man. Now before the soldiers knew of his death, Salome, and her husband came out and dismissed those that were in bonds, whom the king bad commanded to be slain, and told them, that he had altered his mind, and would have every oue of them sent to their own homes. When these men were gone, Salome told the soldiers (the king was dead, and got them and the rest of the multitude together to an assembly, in the aniphitheatre at Jericho, where Ptolemy, who was intrusted by the king with his signet-ring, came before them, and spake of the happiness the king had attained, and comforted the multitude, and read the epistle which had been left for the soldiers, wherein he earnestly exhorted them to bear good-will to his successor; and after he had read the epistle, he opened and read his testament, wherein Philip was to inherit 'I'rachonitis, and the neighbouring countries, and Antipas was to be tetrarch, as he was before, and Archelaus was made king. He had also been commanded to carry Herod's ring to Cæsar, and the settlements he had made sealed up, because Casar was to be lord of all the settlements he had made, and was to confirm his testament, and he ordered that the dispositions he had made were to be kept as they were in his former testament.
9. So there was an acclamation made to Archelaus, to congratulate him upon his advancement, and the soldiers, with the multitude, went round about in troops, and promised him their good-will, and besides, prayed God to bless his government. After this they betook themselves to prepare for the king's funeral : and Archelaus omitted nothing of magnificence therein, but brought out all the royal ornaments to aug. ment the pomp of the deceased. There was a bier all of gold embroidered with precious stones, and a purple bed of various contexture, with the dead body upon it, covered with purple; and a diadem was put upon his head, and a crown of gold above it, and a sceptre in his right hand; and near to the hier were Herod's sons, and a multitude of his kindred; next to which came his guards, and the regiment of Thracians, the Germans also, and Gauls, all accoutred as if they were going to war : but the rest of the army went foremost, armed, and following their captains and officers in a regular manner; after whom, five hundred of his domestic servants and freedmen followed with sweet spices in their hands : and the body was carried two bundred furlongs, to Herodium, where he had given order to be buried. And this shall suffice for the. conclusion of the life of Herod..
BOOK II. CONTAINING THE INTERVAL OF 69 YEARS. [From the death of Herod, till Vespasian was sent to
subdue the Jews by Nero.]
Archelaus makes a funeral feast for the people, on the account of
Herod. After which a great tumult is raised by the multitude, and he sends the soldiers out upon them, who destroy about three thousand of them.
$1. Now the necessity which Archelaus was under of taking a journey to Rome was the occasion of new disturbances; for when he had mourned for his father* seven days, and had given a very expensive funeral feast to the multitude, (which custom is the occasion of poverty to many of the Jews, be, cause they are forced to feast the multitude, for if any one omits it, he is not esteemed an holy person, he put on a white garment, and went up to the holy temple, where the people accosted him with various acclamations. He also spake kindly to the multitude, from an elevated sent, and a thronę of gold, and returned them thanks for the zeal they had shewn about his father's funeral, and the submission they had made to him, as if he were already settled in the kingdom : but he told them withal, that "he would not at present, take
* Hear Dean Aldrich's note on this place : “ The law, or custom ss of the Jews,” says he,“ requires seven days mourning for the “ dead, Antiq. B. xvii.ch. viii. S 4. vol. iy. Whence the author of “ the book of Ecclesiasticus, ch. xxii. 12. assigns seven days, as the s proper time of mourning for the dead, and ch xxxviii 17 enjoins or men to mourn for the dead, that they may not be evil spoken of; “ for as Josephus says presently, if any one omits this mourning “ (funeral feast) he is not esteemed an holy person Now it is cer. “ tain, that such seven days mourning has been customary from « times of the greatest antiquity, Gen. j. 10. Funeral feasts are $ also mentioned as of a considerable antiquity, Ezek. X iv. 17 Jer, " xvi. 7. Prov. xxxi. 6. Deut. xxvi. 14. Josephus, of the War, B. iii. uch. ix. $ 5. vol. v."
“ upon him either the authority of a king, or the dames & thereto belonging, until Cæsar, who is made lord of this 66 whole affair by the testament confirm the succession; for " that when the soldiers would have set the diadem on his s head at Jericho, he would not accept of it; but that he 66 would make abundant requitals, not to the soldiers only, but " to the people, for their alacrity and good will to him, when as the superior lords (the Romans, 7 should have given him a " complete title to the kingdom; for that it should be his " study to appear in all things better than his father.”
2. Upon this the multitude were pleased, and presently made a trial of what he intended, by asking great things of him; for some made a clamour that he would ease them in their taxes, others, that he would take off the duties upon commodities, and some, that he would loose those that were in prison; in all which cases he answered readily to their satisfaction in order to get the good-will of the multitude; after which he offered [the propery sacrifices, and feasted with his friends. And here it was that a great many of those that desired innovations came in crowds towards the evening, and began then to mourn on their own account, when the public diourning for the king was over. These lamented those that were put to death by Herod, because they had cut down the golden eagle that had been over the gate of the temple. Nor was this mourning of a private nature, but the lamentations were very great, the mourning solemn, and the weeping such as was loudly heard all over the city, as being for those men who had perished for the laws of their country, and for the temple. They cried out, that a punishment ought to be inflicted for these med upon those that were hon. oured by Herod, and that, in the first place, the man whom he had made high-priest should be deprived, and that it was fit to choose a person of greater piety and purity than he was.
3. At these clamours Archelaus was provoked, but restrain. ed himself from taking vengeance on the authors, on account of the haste he was in of going to Rome, as fearing lest, upon his making war on the multitude, such an action might detain him at home. Accordingly be made trial to quiet the innovators by persuasion, rather than by force, and sent his general in a private way to them, and by him exhorted them to be quiet. But the seditious threw stones at him, and drove him away as he came into the temple, and before he could say
any thing to them. The like treatment they shewed to others, who came to them after him, many of which were sent by Archelaus in order to reduce them to sobriety, and these answered still on all occasions after a passionate manner; and it openly appeared that they would not be quiet, if their numbers were but considerable. And indeed, at the feast of unleavened bread, which was now at hand, and is by the Jews called the Passover, and used to be celebrated with a great number of sacrifices, an innumerable multitude of the people came out of the country to worship: some of those stood in the temple bewailing the rabbins, [that had been put to death,] and procured their sustenance by begging, in order to support their sedition. At this Archelaus was affrighted, and private. ly sent a tribune, with his cohort of soldiers, upon them, before the disease should spread over the whole multitude, and gave orders that they should constrain those that began the tumult by force to be quiet. At these the whole multitude were irritated, and threw stones at many of the soldiers, and killed them; but the tribune fled away wouuded, and had much ado to escape so. After which they betook themselves to their sacrifices, as if they had done no mischief; nor did it appear to Archelaus that the multitude could be restrained without bloodshed; so he sent his whole army upon them, the footmen in great multitudes by the way of the city, and the horsemen by the way of the plain, who, falling upon them on the sudden, as they were offering their sacrifices, destroyed about three thousand of them; but the rest of the multitude were dispersed upon the adjoining mountains; these were followed by Archelaus heralds, who commanded every one to retire to their own homes, whither they all went and left the festival.
CHAP. II. Archelaus goes to Rome with a great number of his kindred. He
is there accused before Cæsar by Antipater, but is superior to his accusers in judgment, by the means of that defence which Nicolaus made for him.
8 1. ARCHELAUs went down now to the sea side, with his mother and friends, Poplas, and Ptolemy, and Nicolaus, and left behind him Philip, to be his steward in the palace, and to take care of his domestic affairs. Salome went also along with him with her sons, as did also the king's brethren and sons-in-law. These, in appearance, weat to give him all the