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in the reign of * Xerxes : that however, the nation was “ come to so low a condition, by being inured to hardships, 66 that they submitted to his successor of their own accord, " though he brought them into bitter slavery : that accord“ ingly they readily called Archelaus, though he was the son “ of so great a tyrant, King, after the decease of his father, 6 and joined with lum in mouroing for the death of Herod, " and in wishing him good success in that his succession ; “ while yet this Archelaus, lest he should be in danger of not * being ihought the genuine son of Herod, began his reign with “ the murder of three thousand citizens ; as if he had a mind u to offer so many bloody sacrifices to God for his govern* ment and to fill the temple with the like number of dead “ bodies at that festival : that, however, those that were left “ after so many niseries had just reason to consider now at 65 last the calamities they had undergone, and to oppose " themselves, like soldiers in war, to receive those stripes " upon their faces, but not upon their backs (as hitherto.] 66 Whereupon they prayed, that the Romans would have 6 compassion upon the spoor] remains of Judea, and not ex& pose what was left of them to such as barbarously tore " them to pieces, and that they would join their country to 5 Syria, and administer the government by their own com65 manders ; whereby it would [soon] be demonstrated, that ** those who are now under the calumny of seditious persons, 66 and lovers of war, know how to bear governors that are set 66 over them, if they be but tolerable ones." So the Jews concluded their accusation with this request. Then rose up Nicolaus, and confuted the accusations which were brought against the kings, and himself accused the Jewish nation as hard to be ruled, and as naturally disobedient to kings. He also reproached all those kinsinen of Archelaus who had left him, and were gone over to his accusers.
3. So Cæsar, after he had heard both sides, dissolved the assembly for that time; but a few days afterward he gave the one half of Herod's kingdom to Archelaus, by the name of Ethparch, and promised to make him king also afterward, if he rendered himself worthy of that dignity. But as to the other half, he divided it into two tretarchies, and gave them
* Here we have a strong confirmation, that it was Xerxes, and not Artaxerxes, under whom the main part of the Jews returned out of the Babylonian captivity, i. e. in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah. The same thing is in the Antiquities, B. xi. chap. y. $ 1. vol. ii.
to two other sons of Herod, the one of them to Philip, and the other to that Antipas, who contested the kingdom with Archelaus. Under this last was Perea, and Galilee, with a reve. nuc of two hundred talents : but Batanea, and Trachonitis, and Auranitis, and certain parts of Zeno's house about Jampia, with a revenue of an hundred talents, were made subject to Philip ; while Idumea, and all Judea, and Samaria, were parts of the ethnarchy of Archelaus, although Samaria was eased of one quarter of its taxes, out of regard to their not having revolted with the rest of the nation. He also made subject to him the following cities, viz. Strato's Tower, and Sebaste, and Joppa, and Jerusalem; but as to the Grecian cities Gaza, and Gadara, and Hippos, he cut them off from the kingdom, and added them to Syria. Now the revenue of the country that was given to Archelaus, was four hundred talents. Salome also, besides what the king had left her in his testaments, was now made mistress of Jamnia, and Ashdod, and Phasaelis. Cæsar did moreover bestow upon her the royal palace of Ascalon ; by all which she got together a revenue of sixty talents ; but he put her house under the ethnarchy of Archelaus. And for the rest of Herod's offspring, they received what was bequeathed to them in his testaments; but, besides that, Cæsar granted Herod's two virgin daughters five hundred thousand (drachmæ] of silver, and gave them in marriage to the sons of Pheroras : but after this family distribution, he gave between them what had been bequeathed to him by Herod, which was a thousand talents, reserving to himself only some inconsiderable presents, in honour of the deceased.
CHAP. VII. The history of a spurious Alexander. Archelaus is banished, and Glaphyra dies, after what was to happen to hoth of them hach been shewed them in dreams.
$ 1. In the mean time there was a man, who was by birth a Jew, but brought up at Sidon with one of the Roman freedmen, who falsely pretended, on account of the resemblance of their countenances, that he was that Alexander who was slain by Herod. This man came to Rome, in hopes of not being detected. He had one who was his assistant, of his own nation, and who knew all the affairs of the kingdom, and instructed him to say, how those that were sent to kill him and Aristobulus liad pity upon them, and stole them away, by
putting bodies that were like theirs in their places. This man deceived the Jews that were at Crete, and got a great deal of money from them for travelling in splendour; and thence sailed to Melos, where he was thought so certainly genuine, that he got a great deal more money, and prevailed with those that had treated him to sail along with him to Rome. So he landed at Dicearchia, (Puteoli,) and got very large presents from the Jews who dwelt there, and was conducted by his father's friends, as if he were a king; nay, the resemblance in his countenance procured him so much credit, that those who had seen Alexander, and had known him very well, would take their oaths that he was the very same person, Accordingly the whole body of the Jews that were at Rome, ran out in crowds to see him, and an innumerable multitude there was 'which stood in the narrow places, through which he was carried; for those of Melos were so far distracted, that they carried him in a sedan, and maintained a royal attendance for him at their own proper charges.
2. But Cæsar, who knew perfectly well the lineaments of Alexanders' face, because he had been accused by Herod before him, discerned the fallacy in his countenance, even before he saw the man. However, he suffered the agreeable fame that went of him to have some weight with him, and sent Celadus one who well knew Alexander, and orilered him to bring the young man to him. But when Cæsar saw him, he immediately discerned a difference in his countenance, and when he had discovered that his whole body was of a more robust texture, and like that of a slave, he understood thic whole was a contrivance. But the impudence of what be said greatly provoked him to be angry at him; for when he was asked about Aristobulus, he said that “ he was also preserved “ alive, and was left on purpose at Cyprus, for fear of trea“chery, because it would be harder for plotters to get them “ both into their power while they were separate." Then did Cæsar take him by himself privately, and said to him, “ I “ will give thee thy life, if thou wilt discover who it was that 6 persuaded thee to forge such stories.” So he said that he would discover him, and followed Cæsar, and pointed to that Jew who had abused the resemblance of his face to get money; for that he had received more presents in every city than ever Alexander did when he was alive. Cæsar laughed at the contrivance, and put this spurious Alexander among his rowers, on account of the strength of his body, but ordered him that persuaded him to be put to death. But for the people of Melos, they had been sufficiently punished for their folly, by the expenses they had been at on his ac. count.
3. And now Archelaus took possession of his ethnarchy, and used not the Jews oply, but the Samaritans also barba. l'ously ; and this out of his resentment of their old quarrels with him. Whereupon they both of them sent ambassadors against him to Cæsar, and in the ninth year of his government he was banished to Vienna, a city of Gall, and bis effects were put into Cæsar's treasury. But the report goes, that before he was sent for by Cæsar, he seemed to see nine ears of corn, full and large, but devoured by oxen. When, therefore, he had sent for the diviners, and some of the Chaldeans, and inquired of them what they thought it portended, and when one of them had one interpretation, and another had another, Simou, one of the sect of the Essens, said, that " he thought the ears of corn denoted years, and the 6 oxen denoted a mutation of things, because by their plough. “ing they made an alteration of the country. That there" fore he should reigo as many years as there were ears of “ corn, and after he had passed through various alterations of si fortuve, should die.” Now five days after Archelaus had heard this interpretation, he was called to his trial.
4. I cannot also but think it worthy to be recorded, what dream Glaphyra, the daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappadocia, had, who had at first been wife to Alesander, who was the brother of Archelaus, concerning whom we have been discoursing. This Alexander was the son of Herod the king, by whom he was put to death, as we have already related. This Glaplıyra was married, after his death, to Juba, king of Lybis, and after his death, was returned honie, and lived a vidow with her father. Then it was that Archelaus, the cthnarch, saw her, and fell so deeply in love with her, that he divorced Mariamne, who was then his wife, and married her. When, therefore, she was come into Judea, and had been there for a little while, she thought she saw Alexander stand by her, and that he said to her, “ Thy marriage with the si king of Lybia, might have been sufficient for thee; but " thou wast not contented with him, but art returned again to “ my family, to a third husband, and lim, thou impudent “ woman, hast thou chosen for thine husband, who is my bro" ther. However, I shall not overlook the injury thou hast soffered me; I shall [soon] have thee again, whether thou s wilt or no.” Now Glapbyra hardly survived the narration of this dream of hers two days.
CHAP. VIII. Archelaus' ethnarchy is reduced to a (Roman) province. The sedia
tion of Judas of Galilee. The three sects of the Jews. $ 1. And now Archelaus' part of Judea was reduced into a province, and Coponius, one of the equestrian order among the Romans, was sent as a procurator, having the power of (life and] death put into his hands by Cæsar. Under his administration it was, that a certain Galilean, whose name was Judas, prevailed with his countrymen to revolt, and said they were cowards, if they would endure to pay a tax to the Romans, and would, after God, submit to mortal men as their lords. This man was teacher of a peculiar sect of his own, and was not at all like the rest of those their leaders.
2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of wbich are the Pharisees, of the second the Sadducees, and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essens. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another
than the other sects have. These Essens reject pleasures as ·an evil, but esteem continence, and the conquest over our passions to be virtue. They veglect wedlock, but choose out other persons children while they are pliable, and fit for learning, and esteem them to be of their kindred, and form them according to their own inanncrs. They do not absolutely ceny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behaviour of women, and are persuaded that none of them pre"serve their fidelity to one man.
3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very commupicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there any one to be found among them who hath more than another; for it was a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order, insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one's possessions are intermingled with every other's possessious, and so there is, as it were one patrimony among all the brethreis. . They think that oil is a