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defilement; and if any of them be anointed, without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body ; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed, to take care, of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the uses of them
4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own, and they go into such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapods with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other ne. cessaries for them. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces, or worn out by time, Nor do they either buy or sell any thing to one another, but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what inay be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please.
5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary : for before sun rising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers, which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators to exercise some of those arts where. in they are skilled, in which they labour with great dili, gence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place, and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe theo bodies in cold water. Add after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any one of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the diningroom, as into a certain holy temple, and quietly set themselves down; upon which the baker lays them loaves in order; the
cook also brings a single plate of one sort of food, and sets it before every one of them; but a priest says grace before meat, and it isunlawful for any one to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he bath dined, says grace again alter meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their [shitel garments, and betake themselves'to their labours again till the evening; then they return home to supper, after the same manner, and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamour or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that per. petual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled mea. sure of meat and drink that is allotted them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them.
6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but ac. cording to the injunctions of their curators; only these tiro things are done among them at everyone's own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to slew mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succour to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. They dispense their anger after a just manner and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath ; but swearing is avoided by thiem, and they esteem it * worse than perjury; for they say, that he who cappot be believed, without (swearing by God, is already condemned. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is inost for the advantage of their soul and body, and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers.
* This practice of the Essens, in refusing to swear, and esteeming Givearing on ordinary occasions, worse than perjury, is delivered here. in general words, as are the parallel injunctions of our Saviour, Matt. v 34. xxiii 26 and of St. James, v 12. but all admit of particular exceptions, for solemn causes, and on great and necessary occasions. Thus these very Essens, who here do so zealously avoid
wearing, are related in the very next section, to admit none till They take tremendous oaths to perform their several duties to God, and to their neighbour, without supposing they thereby break thuis
7. But now, if any one hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use for a year, while he continues excluded, and they give him also a small hatchet, and the forementioned girdle, and the white garment. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them ; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years, and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, be will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; that he will ever shew fidelity to all men, and especially to those in authority ; because no one obtains the government without God's assistance; and that if he be in authority, he will at no tino whatever abuse his authority, nor endeavour to ontshine his suhjects, either in his garments, or any other finery ; that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal any thing from those of his own sect por discover any of their doctrines to others, no not though any one should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. Moreover he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the *angels
rule not to swear at all. The case is the same in Christianity, as we learn from the Apostolical Constitutions, which, although they agree with Christ, and St. James, in forbidding 10 swear in general, Gh. v 12 ch, vi 23. vet do they explain it elsewhere, by avoiding to swear fa’sely, and to swear often and in vain, ch ji. 36 and again, hy not swearing at all, but withal adding, that if that cannot be (Ivoided to swear truly, ch vii 3.; which abundantly explain to us the nature of the measures of this general injunction.
. This mention of the names of angels, so particularly prescrved by the Essens, (if it means more than those messengers which were
(or messengers.] These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves.
8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sips, they cast them out of their society, and he who is thus separated from them, does often die after a miserable mancer ; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; for which reason they receive many of them again, when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death, to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of.
9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accule rate and just, vor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is lewer than an hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honour, after God himself, is the name of their lezislator Moses] whom if any one blaspheme he is punished capitally. They also think it a good thing to obey their elders, and the major part. Accordingly, if ten of them be sitting together, no one of them will speak while the other nine are against it. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other ofthe Jews in resting from their labours on the sey. enth day; for they not only get their food ready the day be. fore, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stoo! thereon. Nay on other days, they dig a small pit a foot deep, with a parldle (which kind of batchet is given them, when they are first admitted among them,) and covering them. selves round with their garment, that they may not affront the employed to bring them the peculiar books of their sect,) looks like a prelude to that worshipping of angels blamed by St. Paul, as superstitious, and unlawful, in some such sort of people as these Essens were, Coloss ii. 8. as is the prayer to, or towards the sun for his rising every morning, mentioned before, 5. very like those not much later observations made mention of in the preaching of Peter, Au. thent. Rec. Part. ii. page 669. and regarding a kind of worship of angels, of the month, and of the moon, and not celebrating the new moons, or other festivals, unless the moon appeared. Which indeed seems to me the earliest mention of any regard to the moon's phasis in fixing the Jewish calendar; of which the Talmud and later rabbins talk so much, and upon so little yery ancient foundation.
divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit, after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose ; and although this ease. ment of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them.
10. Now after the time of their preparatory trial is over, they are parted into four classes; and so far are the juniors inferior to the seniors, that if the seniors sliould be touched by the juniors, they must wash themselves, as if they had intermixed themselves with the company of a foreigner. They are long lived also, insomuch that many of them live above an hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet, nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They coutemn the miseries of life, and are above pair, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteen it better than living always ; and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls, with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again.
11. For their doctrine is this, that bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent ; but that the souls are immortal, and continue for ever, and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinion of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitation beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain, or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean ; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den full of gever ceasing punish mente. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have fol