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sire to be so called also, aud to cut off those of the greatest nobility out of his country. He also extended his impiety as far as the Jews. Accordingly he sent Petronius with an army to Jerusalem, to place his *statues in the temple, and commanded him, that, in case the Jews would not admit of them, he should slay those that opposed it, and carry all the rest of the nation into captivity ; but God concerned himself Trith these his commands. However, Petronius marched out of Antioch into Judea, with three legions, and many Syrian auxiliaries. Now as to the Jews, some of them could not believe the stories that spake of war, but those that did believe them were in the utmost distress how to defend themselves, and the terror diffused itself presently through them all; for the army was already come to Ptolemais.
2. This Ptolemais is a maritime city of Galilee, built in the great plain. It is encompassed with mountains ; that on the east side, sixty furlongs oil, belongs to Galilee ; but that on the south belongs to Carmel, which is distant from it an hundred and twenty furlongs; and that on the north is the highest of them all, and is called by the people of the country, the ladder of the Tyrians, which is at the distance of an bundred furlongs. The very small river + Belus'rups by it, at the distance of two furlongs; near which there is | Memnon's monument, and hath near it a place po larger than an luodred cubits, which deserves admiration; for the place is round, and liollow, and affords such sand as glass is made of, which place, when it hath been emptied by the many ships there loaded, it is filled again by the winds, which bring into it, as it were on purpose, that sand which lay remote, and was no more than bare common sand, while this mine presently turns it into glassy sand. And what is to me still more wonderful, that glassy sapd which is superfluous, and is once removed out of the place, becomes bare common sand
Tacitus owns tbat Caius commandled the Jews to place his effi. gies in their temple, though he be mistaken when he adds, that the Jews thereupon took arms.
+ This account of a place near tlie mouth of the river Belus in Phænicia, whence came that sand out of which the ancients made their glass, is a known thing in history, particularly in Tacitus and Strabo, and more largely in Pliny.
both by Strabo and Diodorus, to have been in Syria, and not impro. bably in this very place.
And this is the nature of the place we are speaking
3. But now the Jews got together jo great numbers with their wives and children, into that plain that was by Ptole. mais, and made supplication to Petronius, first for their laws, and, in the next place, for themselves. So he was prevailed upon by the multitude of the supplicants, and by their supplications, and left his army and the statues at Ptolemais, and then went forward into Galilee, and called together the multitude, and all the men of pote to Tiberias, and shewed them the power of the Romans, and the threatenings of Caesar; and, besides this, proved that their petition was unreasonable, because while all the nations in subjection to them had placed the images of Cæsar in their several cities, among the rest of their gods, for them alone to oppose it, was al. most like the behaviour of the revolters, and was injurious to Cæsar.
4. And when they insisted on their law, and the custom of their country, and how it was not only not permitted them to make either an image of God, or indeed of a man, and to put it in any despicable part of their country, much less in the temple itself, Petropius replied, “ And am not I also, said " he, bound to keep the law of my own lord ? For if I trans“ gress it, and spare you, it is but just that I perish ; while 6 he that sent me, and not I, will commence a war agaiost you; " for I am under command as well as you.” Hereupon the whole multitude cried out, that “they were ready to suffer 5 for their law.” Petronius then quicted them, and said to them, “ Will you then maké war against Cæsar ?" The Jews said, “We offer sacrifices twice every day for Cæsar, and 66 for the Roman people ; but that if he would place the ima“ ges among them, he must first sacrifice the whole Jewish 6 nation; and that they were ready to expose themselves, tos6 gether with their children and wives, to be slain.” At this Petronius was astonished, and pitied them on account of the inexpressible sense of religion the men were under, and that courage of theirs which made them ready to die for it ; so they were dismissed without siiccess.
5. But on the following days he got together the men of power privately, and multitude publicly, and sometimes be used persuasions to them, and sometimes he gave them his advice; but he chiefly made use of ihreatenings to them, and insisted upon the power of the Romans, and the anger of Caius; and besides, upon the necessity. he was himself under [to do as he was enjoined.] But as they could be no way prevailed upon, and he saw that the country was in danger of lying without tillage; for it was about seed-time that the multitude continued for fifty days together idle; so he at last got them together and told them, “ that it was best for " him to run some hazard himself; for either, by the divine " assistance, I shall prevail with Cæsar, and shall myself esa " cape the dauger as well as you, which will be matter of joy “ to us both; or, in case Cæsar continue in his rage, I will 66 be ready to expose my own life for such a great number 6 as you are.” Whereupon he dismissed the multitude, who prayed greatly for his prosperity; and he took the army out of Ptolemais, and returned to Antioch; from whence he pre. sently sent an epistle to Cæsar, and informed him of the ir. ruption he had made into Judea, and of the supplications of the nation; and that unless he had a mind to lose both the country, and the niep in it, he must permit them to keep their law, and must countermand his former injunction. Caius answered that epistle in a violent way, and threatened to have Petronius put to death for his being so tardy in the execution of what he had commanded. But it happened that those who brought Caius' epistle were tossed by a storm, and were detained on the sea for three months, while others that brought the news of Caius' death had a good voyage. Accordingly Petronius received the epistle conceruing Caius seven and twenty days before he received that which was against himself.
CHAP. XI. Concerning the government of Claudius, and the reign of Agrippa:
Concerning the deaths of Agrippa, and of Herod, and what chil. dren they both left behind them.
$ . Now when Caius had reigned three years and eight inonths, and had been slain by treachery, Claudius was hurried away by the armies that were at Rome to take the government lipon him : but the senate upon the reference of the consuls, Sentius Saturnius, and Pomponius Secundus, gave orders to the three regiments of soldiers that stayed with them to keep the city quiet, and went up into the Capitol, in great numbers, and resolved to oppose Claudius by force, on account of the barbarous treatment they bad met with from Caius; and they determined either to settle the pation under an aristocracy, as they had of old beep governed, or at least
to choose by votes such an oue for emperor as might be worthy of it.
2. Now it happened that at this time Agrippa sojourned at Rome, and that both the senate called him to consult with them, and at the same time Claudius sert for him out of the camp, that he might be serviceable to him as he should have occasion for his service. So he perceiving that Claudius was in effect made Cæsar already, weot to him, who sent him as an ambassador to the senate, to let them know what his intentions were, that " in the first place, it was without his seek“ ing, that he was hurried away by the soldiers; moreover, « that he thought it was not just to desert those soldiers in “ such their zeal for him, and that, if he should do so, his own 66 fortune would be in uncertainty : for that was a dangerous “ case to have been once called to the empire. He added “ farther, that he would administer the government as a good a prince, and not like a tyrant; for that he would be satisfied a with the honour of being called emperor, but would, in u every one of his actions, permit them all to give him their 66 advice; for that although he had not been by nature for 66 moderation, yet would the death of Caius afford him a “ sufficient demonstration how soberly he ought to act in that
3. This message was delivered by Agrippa : to which the senate replied, that “ since they had au army, and the wisest " consuls on their side, they would not endure a voluntary 4 slavery.” And when Claudius heard what answer the senate had made, he sent Agrippa to them again, with the following message, that “ he could not bear the thoughts of be6 traying them that had given their oaths to be true to him; ss and that he saw he must fight, though unwillingly, against
such as he had no miod to fight; that however, (if it must s come to that, it was proper to choose a place without the 66 city for the war;. because it was not agreeable to piety to " pollute the temples of their own city with the blood of their “ own countrymen, and this only on occasion of their impru“dent conduct.” And when Agrippa had heard this message, he delivered it to the senators.
4. In the mean time one of the soldiers belonging to the senate drew his sword, and cried out, “ O my fellow sol• diers, what is the meaning of this choice of ours, to kill our s brethren, and to use violence to our kindred that are with " Claudius? while we may have him for our emperor whom no 4 one can blame, and who hath so many just reasons (to lay " ciaim to the goverument;] and this with regard to those s against whom we are going to fight.”. When he had said this, he marched through the whole sepate, and carried alt the soldiers along with him. Upon which all the patricians were immediately in a great fright at their being thus deserted. But still, because there appeared no other way whither they could turn themselves for deliverance, they made haste the same way with the soldiers, and went to Claudius. But those that had the greatest luck in flattering the good fortune of Claudius betimes, met them before the walls with their na. ked swords, and there was reason to fear that those that came first might have been in danger, before Claudius could know what violence the soldiers were going to offer him, had not Agrippa ran before, and told him what a dangerous thing they were going about, and that unless he restrained the violence of these men, who were in a fit of madness against the patri. cians, he would lose those on whose account it was most de." . sirable to rule, and would be emperor over a desert. .
5. When Claudius beard this, he restrained the violence of the soldiery, and received the senate into the camp, and treated them after an obliging manner, and went out with them presently to offer their thank-offerings to God which were proper upon his first coming to the empire. Moreover he bestowed on Agrippa his whole paternal kingdom immediately, and added to it, besides those countries that bad been given by Augustus to Herod, Trachonitis and Auranitis, and still besides these, that kingdom which was called the kingdom of Lysanias. This gift he declared to the people by a decree, but ordered the magistrates to have the donation engraved on tables of brass, and to be set up in the capitol. He bestowed on his brother Herod, who was also his son-in-law, by marrying [his daughter Berenice, the kingdom of Chalcis. - 6. So now riches flowed in to Agrippa by his enjoymentof so large a dominion, nor did lie abuse the money he had on small matters, but he began to encompass Jerusalem with such a wall, which, had it been brought to perfection, had made it impracticable for the Romans to take it by siege; but his death, which happened at Cæsarea, before he had raised the walls to their due height, prevented him. He had then reigned three years, as he had governed his tetra chies three other years. He left behind him three daughters, born to