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4 fairs they may gain what belongs to those that are too weak " to resist them, I have thought proper to get you all together, " and to say to you what I think to be for your advantage; " that so the former may grow wiser, and change their minds, « and that the best men may come to po harm by the ill con“ duct of some others. And let not any one be tumultuous “ against me, in case what they hear me say do not please “ them; for as to those that admit of po cure, but are resolved “ upon a revolt, it will still be in their power to retain the " same sentimeuts after my exhortation is over; but still ny *" discourse will fall to the ground even with relation to those " that have a mind to hear me unless you will all keep silence. “ I am well aware that they make a tragical exclamation con“cerning the injuries that have been offered you by your “ procurators, and conceroing the glorious advantages of li. “berty ; but before I begin the inquiry, who you are that “must go to war ? and who they are against whom you must “ fight? I shall first separate those pretences that are by "“ some connected together; for if you aim at avenging your. - selves on those that have done you injury, why do you pre“ tend this to be a war for recovering your liberty ? But if

you think all servitude intolerable, to what purpose serve “your complaints against your particular governors ? for if " they treated you with moderation, it would still he equally “ an unworthy thing to be in servitude. Consider now the * several cases that may be supposed how little occasion there “ is for your going to war. Your first occasion is the accusa- tions you have to make against your procurators; now here " you ought to be submissive to those in authority, and pot “ give them any provocation ; but when you reproach men “ greatly for small offences, you excite those whom you re“ proach to be your adversaries; for this will only make “ them leave off hurting you privately, and with some de* gree of modesty, and to lay what you have waste openly. " Now nothing so much damps the force of strokes as " bearing them with patience, and the quietness of those “ who are injured diverts the injurious persons from a filict. "ing. But let us take it for granted, that the Roman “ ministers are injurious to you, and are incurably severe ; “yet are they not all the Romans who thus injure you ; nor " hath Cæsar, against whom you are going to make war, in. “jured you ; it is not by their command that any wicked go* veroor is sent to you; for they who are in the west can

s not see those who are in the east; nor indeed is it easy for " them there, even to hear what is done io those parts. Now " it is absurd to make war with a great many for the sake of “ one; to do so with such mighty people, for a small cause; ss and this when these people are not able to know of what s you complain : bay, such crimes as we complain of may • soon be corrected; for the same procurator will not con- tioue for ever; and probable it is that the successors will " come with more moderate inclinations. But as for war, if “ it be once begun, it is not casily laid dowu again, nor borbe “ without calamities coming therewith. However, as to 6 the desire of recovering your liberty, it is unreasonable to “ indulge it so late ; whereas you ought to have laboured

earnestly in old time that you might never have lost it; for 6 the first experience of slavery was hard to be endured, and " the struggle that you might never have been subject to it " would have been just ; but that slave who hath been once "brought into subjection, and then runs away, is rather a rc“fractory slave, than a lover of liberty, for it was then the “ proper time for doing all that was possible, that you might “never have admitted the Romans (into your city,] when “ Pompey came first into the country. But so it was, that “só our ancestors, and their kings, who were in much better “circumstances than we are, both as to money and strong “ bodies, and [valiant) souls, did not bear the onset of a "small body of the Roman army. And yet you, who have “ now accustomed yourselves to obedience from one genera" tion to another, and who are so much inferior to those who “ first submitted, in your circumstance will venture to oppose " the entire empire of the Romans; while those Athenians, who * in order to preserve the liberty of Grecce, did once set fire to “their own city; who pursued Xerxes, that proud prince, “s when he sailed upon the land, and walked about the sca, “s and could not be contained by the seas, but conducted such “ an army as was too broad for Europe, and made him run 4 away like a fugitive in a single ship, and brake so great a - part of Asia at the Lesser Salamis, are yet at this time ser“yants to the Romans; and those injunctions which are sent “ from Italy, become laws to the principal governing city of “Greece. Those Lacedemonians also, who got the great “ victories at Thermopylæ, and Platea, and bad Agesilaus “ [for their king.] and searched every corner of Asia, are - contented to admit the same Jords. Those Macedonians ak“ so, who still fancy what great men their Philip and Alesan" der were, and see that the latter had promised them the “empire of the world, these bear so great a change, and pay “ their obedieuce to those whom fortune hath advanced in “ their stead. Moreover, ten thousand other nations there “ are, who had greater reason than we to claim their entire 6. Jiberty, and yet to submit. You are the only people who " think it a disgrace to be servants to those to whom the world 6 hath submitted. What sort of an army do you rely on ? • What are the arms you depend on ? Where is your feet, " that may seize upon the Roman s:as; and were are those “ treasures which may be sufficient for your undertakings? 6. Do you suppose, I pray you, that you are to make war “ with the Egyptians, and with the Arabians ? Will you “ pot carefully reflect upon the Roman empire ? Will you s pot estimate your own weakness ? Hath not your army “ been often beaten even by your neighbouring nations ? ci while the power of the Romans is invincible in all parts of *** the habitable earth ; nay rather, they seek for somewhat “ still beyond that; for all Euphrates is not a sufficient boun-66 dary for them on the east side nor the Danube on the north, * and for their southern limit Libya hath been searched over

by them, as far as countries uninhabited, as is Cadiz their * limit on the west ; nay, indeed, they have souglit for ano** ther habitable earth beyond the ocean, and have carried “their arms as far as such British islands as were never “ knowr before. What therefore do you pretend to ? Are " you richer than the Galls, stronger than the Germans, wi* ser than the Greeks, more numerous than all men upon the “ habitable earth ? What confidence is it that elevates you 6 to oppose the Romans? Perhaps it will be said, it is hard

to endure slavery. Yes, but how much harder is this to

the Greeks, who were esteemed the noblest of all the peo“ ple under the sun. These, though they inhabit in a large

country, are in subjection to six bundles of Roman rods. “ It is the same case with the Macedonians who have juster '" reason to claim their liberty than you have. What is the ;66 case of five hundred cities of Asia ? do they not submit to « a single governor, and the consular bunch of rods ? What speed I speak of the Heniochi, and Cholchi, and the nation 4 of Tauri, those that inhabit the Bosphorus, and the nations ,about Pontus and Meotis, who formerly knew not so much * as a lord of their own, but are now subject to three thou

u sand armed men, and where forty long ships kept the sea “ in peace, which before was not pavigable, and very tem“ pestuous ? How strong a plea may Bithynia, and Cappa“ docia, and the people of Pamphylia, the Lycians and Cici“ liaos, put io for liberty? But they are made tributary “ without an army. What are the circumstances of the 6 Thracians ? whose country extends in breadth five days 6 journey, and in length seven, and is of a much more barsh “ constitution, and much more defensible than yours, and by 66 the rigour of its cold sufficient to keep off armies from at« tacking them ; do not they submit to two thousand men of " the Roman garrisons ? Are not the Illyrians, who inhabit " the country adjoining, as far as Dalmatia, and the Danube, 6s governed by barely two legious ? by which also they put “ a stop to the incursions of the Dacians. And for the Dal“ matians, who have made such frequent insurrections in or“ der to regain their liberty, and who could never before be “ so thoroughly subdued but that they always gathered their “ forces together again, and revolted, yet are they now very “ quiet under one Roman legion. Moreover, if great advan- tages might provoke any people to revolt, the Galls might “ do it best of all, as being so thoroughly walled round by pa. 6 ture. On the east side by the Alps, on the north by the ri“ ver Rhine, on the south by the Pyrenean mountains, and 6 on the west by the ocean. Now although these Galls have 5 such obstacles before them to prevent any attack upon " them, and have no fewer than three hundred and five na66 tions among them, may have, as one may say, the fountains is of domestic happiness within themselves, and send out si plentiful streams of happiness over almost the whole world, " these bear to be tributary to the Romans, and derive their * prosperous condition from them: and they undergo this, 55 not because they are of effeminate minds, or because they ós are of an ignoble stock as having borne a war of eighty “ years, in order to preserve their liberty; but hy reason of " the great regard they have to the power of the Romans, and " their good fortune, which is of greater efficacy than their “ arms. These Galls, therefore, are kept in servitude by “twelve hundred soldiers, which are hardly so many as are 66. their cities; por hath the gold dug out of the nines of 5 Spain been sufficient for the support of a war to preserve “their liberty; nor could their vast distance from the Ro* mans by land and by sea do it; nor could the martial tribes 6 of the Lusitanians and Spaniards escape; no more could u the oceal, with its tide, which yet was terrible to the an“ cient inhabitants. Nay, the Romans have extended their “ arms beyond the pillars of Hercules, and have walked “ among the clouds upon the Pyrenean niountains, and bave " subducd these nations. And one legion is a sufficient guard “ for these people, although they were so hard to be con“ quered, and at a distance so remote from Rome. Who is " there among you who hath not heard of the great pumber “ of the Germans? You have, to be sure, yourselves seen “ them to be strong and tall, and that frequently, since the “ Romaus have them among their captives every where; yet " these Germans, who dwell in an immense country, who" have minds greater than their bodies, and a soul that de• spises death, and who are in rage more fierce than wild: “ beasts, have the Rhine for the boundary of their enterprioses, and are tamed by eight Roman legions. Such of " them as were taken captive became their servants; and

the rest of the entire nation were obliged to save them“ selves by flight. Do you also, who depend on the walls to of Jerusalem, consider what a wall the Britons had; 6 for the Romans sailed away to them, and subdued them es while they were encompassed by the ocean, and inhabited

an island that is not less than sthe continent of] this habita

ble earth; and four legions are a sufficient guard to so large & an island. And why should I speak much more about this co matter? while the Parthians, that most warlike body of * men, and lords of so many nations, and encompassed with “ such mighty forces, send hostages to the Romans; whereby " you may see, if you please, even in Italy, the noblest nation (3 of the east, under the notion of peace, submitting to serve * them. Noir, when almost all people under the sun submit a to the Roman arms, will you be the only people that make * sar against them ? and this without regarding the fate of the * Carthaginians, who, in the midst of the brags of the great • Hannibal, and the nobility of their Phoenician original, fell es by the hand of Scipio. Nor indeed have the Cyrenians, es derived from the Lacedemonians, nor the Marmaridæ, a 6 pation extended as far as the regions uninhabitable for want “ of water, nor have the Syrtes, a place terrible to such as barely hear it described, the Nasanions and Moors, and an immense multitude of the Numidiaps been able to put a stop to the Roman valour, And as for the third part of the hab.

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