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botanist and naturalist of high qualifications and merit, and is now engaged in exploring Upper Louisiana. I feel a real interest in his pursuits, the result of which so far is communicated in some of these letters. On politics I have little to say, and little need be said to you who are better informed from another quarter. You will have seen that Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island have got back to the ground which a temporary delusion induced them to quit for a moment. Unfortunately it was a moment decisive of our destiny. I speak of that which produced a repeal of the embargo. Considerable discontent was certainly excited in Massachusetts, but its extent was magnified infinitely beyond its reality, and an intrigue of (I believe) not more than two or three members, reputed Republicans, excited in Congress a belief that we were under the alternative of civil war or a repeal of the embargo and the embargo was repealed. Thus were we driven by treason among ourselves from the high and wise ground we had taken, and which, had it been held, would have either restored us our free trade, or have established manufactures among us. The latter object will still be obtained, at least as to household manufacture, which is more than the half in

United States, a member of the House of Representatives, minister to Russia and special envoy to Naples, and member of the Senate from 1819 to his death at Washington, Feb. 25, 1822. (See Appleton's Cyclopædia of American Biography, vol. v. p. 26; Lanman's Biographical Annals, p. 337.) Jefferson has inadvertently written the name Pinckney.—EDS.

value of what we have heretofore received from abroad. But the imprudent adventures of our merchants have put into the hands of the robbers by sea and land, much of the capital which the embargo had secured for employment in manufactures. I am supremely happy in being withdrawn from these turmoils, but cannot but interest myself for my friends still engaged in them, and wishing you all "a good deliverance," I beg leave to add to yourself the assurances of my friendly attachment and high respect.

TO MARY PAGE.1

MONTICELLO, Mar. 4, 1811. DEAR MADAM,-Your favor of Jan. 2 by some unusual course of the post was near a month before it reached this place, to which a further delay has been added by my absence of upwards of a month from home, to which I returned but two days ago. I make it among my first duties to acknowledge its receipt, to offer this apology for so late a reply, and to

1 This lady was, perhaps, connected by marriage with the family of Gov. John Page, an early and life-long friend of Jefferson. In the letter to which this is an answer, she says her son John T. Page "is at present out of employment," and 'seems to think he can act as manager over a few negroes, or perhaps as an under clerk.” "He read law for a short time with General Minor." She adds: “My object is to get him in some employment immediately, and thinking your regard for his deceased father will induce you to try to get him into some business encourages me to apply to you." She wishes the answer to her application to be “directed to Mill Wood, Frederick County, Virginia.”—EDs,

give you assurances of the pleasure I should receive from any act of service I could render any member of my late friend's family. His merit, and my estimation of it authorized him to count on any attentions which his friends could render to his family. To my wishes, however, of being useful, my present situation is not friendly, and the want of a more particular knowledge of Mr. J. T. Page's views, acquirements, and habits of life, render it difficult even to suggest any openings for occupation which might suit him. You mention the place of a clerk as one he would be willing to undertake. There are at Washington a great number of clerkships in the offices of the departments of the government, which offer an easy service, and salaries equal to the maintenance of a single man. I know also, however, that the vacancies in them are not frequent and the competitors numerous. The friendship of the President, I am sure would induce him to befriend your son, in case of any vacancy. Should he prefer the occupation of the law in the Western country, one of those you mention as within his view, it would certainly make him more independent and contented. His success in that would depend on himself alone and would open a prospect of bettering his situation. The army and navy offer frequent openings for appointment, in which again we might count on the friendship of the President. If any thing which either myself or my friends can do may aid him in any pursuit wherein our agency can be used, I freely tender every good office I can render

him, and avail myself with great pleasure of this occasion of renewing to you the assurances of my friendship and attachment and offering the homage of my sincere and high respect.

TO JAMES MADISON.

MONTICELLO, April 7, 1811.

DEAR SIR,-Your favors of Mar. 18 and April 1 have been duly received. The extract from Armstrong's letter of July 28, '08, which you desire is in these words: "My poor friend Warden' writes to you, and asks from you the appointment of consul for this place. I could not promise to do more than send his letter. He is an honest and amiable man, with as much Greek and Latin and chemistry and theology as would do for the whole corps of consuls; but, after all, not well qualified for business. You have seen an order of scavans, really well informed, who, notwithstanding, scarcely knew how to escape from a shower of rain when it happened to beset them. He is of that family. No, the man for this place ought to be a man of business, as well as a gentleman.” He then goes on to put Leavenworth's pretensions out of the way, should he have proposed himself. The letter is headed "private," although relating as much to public as private transactions.

1 David B. Warden. He had been Secretary of Legation under Armstrong, when the latter was minister to France, and was for many years consul-general at Paris.-EDS.

What I saw of Warden during the ten days or fortnight he staid here, satisfied me that he merited all the good which Armstrong says of him, and that he was by no means the helpless and ineffective man in business which he represents him to be. I knew, when I received the letter, that Armstrong's fondness for point and pith rendered it unsafe to take what he said literally. He is cynical and irritable and implacable. Whether his temper or his views induced his dismission of Warden, his persecution of him now will render public benefit by the development of his character. I have never heard a single person speak of Warden who did not rejoice in his appointment, and express disapprobation of Armstrong's conduct respecting him; and I am perfectly satisfied that, if the appointment is made to attract public attention it will be approved. The other subject of uneasiness which you express must, I know, be afflicting. You will probably see its effect in the secret workings of an insatiable family. They may sow discontent, but will neither benefit themselves nor injure you by it. The confidence of the public is too solid to be shaken by personal incidents. I do sincerely rejoice that Monroe is added to your councils. He will need only to perceive that you are without reserve towards him, to meet it with the cordiality of earlier times. He will feel himself to be again at home in our bosoms, and happy in a separation from those who led him astray. I learn that John Randolph is now open-mouthed against him and

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