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plank we can get, say half a yard wide at least, of thick and heavy stuff. We cut notches crosswise of that 2 inches inches long and I inch deep; the perpendicular side of the notch fronting the middle one from both ends; on that we lay a 4 inch board, 6 feet long, with a pin for a handle in each end, and notched as the under one. A board is nailed on each side of the under one, to keep the upper in place as it is shoved backwards and forwards, and the cloth, properly moistened, is laid between them Two hands full 20 yards in two


Our threshing machines are universally in England fixed with Dutch fans for winnowing, but not with us, because we thresh immediately after harvest, to prevent weavil, and were our grain then laid up in bulk without the chaff in it, it would heat and rot. Ever and affectionately yours.

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MONTICELLO, January 27, 1816. DEAR SIR, I am favored with yours of the 17th. Mr. Cabell had apprised me of the objections to the power of imprisonment given to a functionary of our college, and having explained to him the reason for it I must refer you to him for a sight of my letter.' The object seems to have been totally mistaken, 'This is the latter written by Jefferson to Joseph C. Cabell, Jan. 24, 1816. See vol. xiv. p. 412.-EDS.

and what was intended in tenderness to the pupil has been misconstrued into an act of severity; for every one knows they may now be sent by a common magistrate to the common prison for a breach of the peace. With respect to the bank-mania, I foresaw it in 1791, and then opposed the establishment of the Bank of the United States, which I knew was only an inoculation. I have marked the progress of the disease and seen that it was incurable and to end in death. There will be a vast crush of private fortunes, as on the death of the old Continental paper, as of the Assignats of France, the Mississippi paper of Law, the South Sea paper of England, etc. The most pitiable of its victims now as before will be the helpless widow and orphan. Prudent men will mitigate its effects by caution. They will protect themselves as they do their fences when the woods are afire, by firing against it. What is most blamable is the cruelty of your process, roasting us before a slow fire like the martyrs in the days of persecution. Instead of your fifteen banks be merciful, and give us the coup de grace, make it a thousand. However, I am perfectly content with the fifteen, and to meet all hazards and trials with my fellow-citizens. If we keep together we shall be safe, and when error is so apparent as to become visible to the majority, they will correct it, and what we suffer during the error must be carried to account with the losses by tempests, earthquakes, Yours with great friendship.



MONTICELLO, February 1, 1816.

MY DEAR SIR AND FRIEND,-I received yesterday your favor of Nov. 29, from which I learn with much mortification of (the palate at least) that my letter of the third of July has never got to your hands. It was confided to the Secretary of State's office. Regrets are now useless, and the proper object to supply its place. It related generally to things friendly, to things political, etc., but the material part was a request of some particular wines which were therein specified.

White Hermitage of the growth of M. Jourdan; not of the dry kind, but what we call silky, which in your letter just received you say are called doux. But by our term silky we do not mean sweet, but sweetish in the smallest degree only. My taste in this is the reverse of Mr. Butler's, who you say likes the dry and sparkling, I the non mousseux and un peu doucereux.

2. Vin de Nice, as nearly as possible of the quality of that sent me by Mr. Sasserno formerly, whose death, by the bye, I had not before heard of, and much regret.

3. Vin de Roussillon. I used to meet with this at the best tables of Paris, where it was drunk after the repast, as a vin de liqueur. It was a little higher


Stephen Cathalan was for a very long time consul of the United States at Marseilles, and a business correspondent of Jefferson.-EDS.

colored than Madeira, near as strong and dry, and of fine flavor. I am not certain of the particular name, but that of Rivesalte runs in my head. If, from what you know of the Rivesalte it should answer this description nearly, then we may be sure this was the wine; if it does not, you will probably be able to know what wine of Roussillon corresponds with the qualities I describe.

I requested that after paying for 50 lbs. of macaroni out of the 200 dollars, and reserving what would pay all charges till shipped, about a fifth of the residue should be laid out in Hermitage, and the remaining four-fifths in Vins de Nice [and?] Roussillon equally. Send to any port from Boston to the Chesapeake inclusive, but to Norfolk or Richmond of preference, if a conveyance occurs. If addressed to the Collector of the Port, he will receive and forward them to Richmond, which is at the head of the tidewater of James River on which I live, and from whence it comes by boat navigation. I suppose you can never be long without vessels at Marseilles bound to some of our ports above described. Were it to be otherwise the wines might come through the canal of Languedoc to Mr. Lee, our consul at Bordeaux, but this would increase risk and expense, and is only mentioned as a pis-aller, and left entirely to your judgment.

The political speculations of my letter of July 3 are not worth repeating because the events on which they were hazarded have changed backwards and



forwards, two or three times since that. My wishes are for the happiness of France, without caring what executive magistrate makes her happy. I must confess, however, I did not wish it to be Bonaparte. I considered him as the very worst of all human beings, and as having inflicted more misery on mankind than any other who had ever lived. I was very unwilling that the example of his parricide usurpation should finally stand approved by success. is now off the scene, I hope never to return on it; but whether you are much more at your ease in the hands of the allies, you know better than I do. On the subject of your continuance in the consulate, I hope you will never have anything to fear; never, certainly whilst any effort of mine can have any weight with the government; and in a late letter to the Secretary of State, wherein I had occasion to speak of you, I have placed your merits on ground which I think will never be assailed. God bless you and preserve you many years in health and prosperity.


MONTICELLO, April 17, 1816.

I thank you, my excellent young friend, for your kind letter of March 7. The heart must be of uncommon sensibility which feels so strongly slight degrees of merit in others. If I have ever been useful to your father, it was by doing what was much

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