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of the breast was another plate, with the winged globe. Both plates were nearly six inches long. On unfolding the linen, we still found it very fine, which was not the case with the other muinmies ; for, after three or four foldings, it was generally of a coarser kind. At last we came to the body, of which nothing was to be seen but the bones, which had assumed a yellow tint. The case was in part painted : but the linen cloth covering it fell to pieces as soon as it was touched, I believe owing to the paint that was on it, which consisted of various devices and flowers'-p. 223, 224.

Our traveller, however, considers himself amply rewarded by the discovery of a new tomb, in the Vale of the Tombs of Kings, for all the inconveniences and sufferings he underwent. « On the 16th,' says he, ' I recommenced my excavations in the valley of Beban el Molook, and pointed out the fortunate spot which has paid me for all the trouble I took in my researches. I may call this,' he adds,

a fortunate day, one of the best perhaps of my life; from the pleasure it afforded me of presenting to the world, a new and perfect monument of Egyptian antiquity, which can be recorded as superior to any other in point of grandeur, style and preservation,'— appearing as if just finished on the day we entered. it; and what I found in it,' he adds,' will shew its great superiority to all others.' Certain indications had convinced him of the existence of a large and unopened sepulchre. Impressed with this idea he caused the earth to be dug away to the depth of eighteen feet, when the entrance made its appearance. The passage, however, was choked up with large stones, which were with difficulty removed. A long corridor, with a painted ceiling, led to a staircase twenty-three feet long, and nearly nine feet wide. At the bottom was a door twelve feet high; it opened into a second corridor of the same width, thirty-seven feet long, the sides and ceiling finely sculptured and painted. The more I saw,' he says, ' the more I was eager to see. His progress, however, was interrupted at the end of this second corridor by a pit thirty feet deep and twelve wide. Beyond this was perceived a small aperture of about two feet square in the wall, out of which hung a rope reaching probably to the bottom of the well; another rope fastened to a beam of wood stretching across the passage ou this side also hung into the well. One of these ropes' was unquestionably for the purpose of descending on one side of the well and the other for that of ascending on the opposite side. Both the wood and the Tope crumbled to dust on being touched.

By means of two beains Mr. Belzoni contrived to cross this pit or Well

, and to force a larger opening in the wall, beyond which was discovered a third corridor of the same dimensions as the two former. Those parts of the wood and rope which were on the fur


ther side of this wall did not fall to dust, but were in a tolerably good state of preservation, owing, as be supposes, to the dryness of the air in these more distant apartments. The pit he thinks, was intended as a sort of reservoir to receive the wet wbich might drain through the ground between it and the external entrance.

The sepulchre was now found to open into a number of chambers of different dimensions, with corridors and staircases, the arrangement of which can only be understood by inspecting the plan contained in the Atlas. Of the chainbers, the first was a beautiful hall, twenty-seven feet six inches by twenty-five feet ten inches, in which were four pillars each three feet square. Mr. Belzoni must describe the rest.

• At the end of this room, which I call the entrance-ball, and opposite the aperture, is a large door, from which three steps lead down into a chamber with two pillars. This is twenty-eight feet two inches by twenty-five feet six inches. The pillars are three feet ten inches square. I gave it the name of the drawing-room; for it is covered with figures, which, though only outlined, are so fine and perfect, that you would think they had been drawn only the day before. Returning into the entrance-hall, we saw on the left of the aperture a large staircase, which descended into a corridor. It is thirteen feet four inches long, seven and a half wide, and has eighteen steps. At the bottom we entered a beautiful corridor, thirty-six feet six inches by six feet eleven inches. We perceived, that the paintings became more perfect as we advanced farther into the interior. They retained their gloss, or a kind of varnish over the colours, which had a beautiful effect. The figures are painted on a white ground. At the end of this corridor we descended ten steps, which I call the small stairs, into another, seventeen feet two inches by ten feet five inches. From this we entered a small chamber, twenty feet four inches by thirteen feet eight inches, to which I gave the name of the Room of Beauties; for it is adorned with the most beautiful figures in basso relievo, like all the rest, and painted. When standing in the centre of this chamber, the traveller is surrounded by an assembly of Egyptian gods and goddesses. Proceeding further, we entered a large hall

, twenty-seven feet nine inches by twenty-six feet ten inches. `In this hall are two rows of square pillows, three on each side of the entrance, forming a line with the corridors. At each side of this hall is a small chamber: that on the right is ten feet five inches by eight feet eight inches : that on the left, ien feet five inches by eight feet nine inches and a half. This hall I termed the Hall of Pillars ; the little room on the right, Isis' Room, as in it a large cow is painted, of which I shall give a description hereafter; that on the left

, the Room of Mysteries, from the mysterious figures it exhibits. At the end of this hall we entered a large saloon, with an arched roof or ceiling, which is separated from the Hall of Pillars only by a step; so that the two may be reckoned one. The saloon is thirty-one feet ten inches by twenty-seven feet. On the right of the saloon is a small chamber



without any thing in it, roughly cut, as if unfinished, and without painting: on the left we entered a chamber with two square pillars, twenty-five feet eight inches by twenty-two feet ten inches. "This I called the Sideboard Room, as it has a projection of three feet in form of a sideboard all round, which was perhaps intended to contain the articles necessary for the funeral ceremony. The pillars are three feet four inches square, and the whole beautifully painted as the rest. At the same end of the room, and facing the Fall of Pillars we entered by a large door into another chamber with four pillars, one of which is fallen down. This chamber is forty-three feet four inches by seventeen feet six inches; the pillars three feet seven inches square. It is covered with white plaster, where the rock did not cut smoothly, but there is no painting on it. I named it the Bull's, or Apis’ Room, as we found the carcase of a bull in it, embalmed with asphaltum; and also, scattered in various places, an immense quantity of small wooden figures of mummies six or eight inches long, and covered with asphaltum to preserve them. There were some other figures of fine earth baked, coloured blue, and strongly varnished. On each side of the two little rooms were some wooden statues standing erect, four feet high, with a circular hollow inside, as if to contain a roll of papyrus, which I have no doubt they did. We found likewise fragments of other statues of wood and of composition.

But the description of what we found in the centre of the saloon, and which I have reserved till this place, merits the most particular attention, not having its equal in the world, and being such as we had no idea could exist. It is a sarcophagus of the finest oriental alabaster, nine feet five inches long, and three feet seven inches wide. Its thickness is only two inches; and it is transparent, when a light is placed inside of it. It is minutely sculptured within and without with several hundred figures, which do not exceed two inches in height, and represent, as I suppose, the whole of the funeral procession and ceremonies relating to the deceased, united with several emblems, &c. I cannot give an adequate idea of this beautiful and invaluable piece of antiquity, and can only say that nothing has been broughi into Europe from Egypt that can be compared with it. The cover was not there : it had been taken out, and broken into several pieces, which we found in digging before the first entrance. The sarcophagus was over a staircase in the centre of the saloon, which communicated with a subterraneous passage, leading downwards, three hundred feet in length. At the end of this passage we found a great quantity of bats' dung, which choked it up, so that we could go no further without digging. It was nearly filled up too by the falling in of the upper part.'-pp. 234—236.

The whole of the figures and hieroglyphics in this wonderful excavation are sculptured in bas relief and painted over, except in one chamber, where the outlines only are given. Great care appears to be taken to have these accurate; as several sketches were observed on the walls in red lines, which had afterwards been traced with corrections in black; the stone was then cut away from the

side of the chamber all round the black lines, leaving the figure raised to the height of half an-inch or more, according to its size. A coat of whitewash was then passed over it, which Mr. Belzoni says is still so beautiful and clear, that his best and whitest paper appeared yellowish when compared with it. The painter came next and finished the figure in colours, which after more than 2000 years still retain all their original brilliancy. Among the numerous representations of figures in various positions, one group is singularly interesting, as describing the march of a military and iriumphal procession with three different sets of prisoners, who are evidently Jews, Ethiopians, and Persians. The procession begins with four red men with white kirtles followed by a hawk-headed divinity; these are Egyptians apparently released from captivity and returning home under the protection of the national deity. Then follow four white men in striped and fringed kirtles, with black beards, and with a simple white fillet round their black hair; these are obviously Jews, and might be taken for the portraits of those, who, at this day, walk the streets of London. After them come three white men with smaller beards and curled whiskers, with double-spreading plumes on their heads, tattoed, and wearing robes or mantles spotted like the skins of wild beasts; these are Persians or Chaldeans. Lastly, come four negroes with large circular earrings, and white petticoats supported by a belt over the shoulder; these are Ethiopians.

The plates descriptive of this catacomb deserve some further notice from us. We consider them indeed of the highest importance, as they tend to elucidate, in a wonderful manner, a point of ancient history, which is the more interesting from the extraordinary coincidence of the same event related in the Sacred writings and by Herodotus.

Doctor Young, to whose indefatigable and successful researches we are mainly indebted for the illustration to which we have just alluded, has observed, that the sepulchral inscriptions constitute the most considerable part of the Egyptian literature which remains; that the general tenor of them, as might be expected from the testimony of Herodotus, appears to be the identification of the deceased with Osiris, and, if a female, with Isis; and that the subject of the most usual representations seems to be the reception of this new personage by the principal deities.'

By a diligent and accurate comparison of a great number of these hieroglyphical and pictorial representations, he has succeeded in ascertaining the names of the principal deities and of several of the kings of Egypt, as well as the meaning of the epithets attached lo them; and from the hieroglyphic of the name, and other corro


borating circumstances, he entertains no doubt whatever that the principal figure (Plate 1.), taken from the wall of the catacomb in question, is meant for Psammis, who, accordivg to Herodotus, was the son of Necos or Nechao. On a square tablet, suspended from the neck of this personage, is the figure of an obelisk, allusive most probably to his having erected one of those afterwards placed by Augustus in the Circus Maximus, but which now stands near the Porta del Popolo, at Rome; and which, according to Pliny, was the work of Senneserteus or Semnesyrtaeus (the Psammis of Herodotus) who reigned in Egypt when Pythagoras visited that country. The inscription Dr. Young conceives to be to this purpose - The good God, the Giver of comfort to both the regions, the Protector of religious rites, the King Osiris Psammis, the son of Nechao, the companion of the Sun and of Osiris.

The tutelary vulture (plate 2.) bears an inscription over each of its wings, which are both expanded; the purport of that over the left wing is— The good God, the Giver of comfort to both regions, Psammis the brilliant und joyful, the living and of that over the right— The son of the dispenser of delight, Nechao the companion of the Sun.'

In plates 3, 4, and 5, the names of Psammis appear with various epithets, sometimes in connexion with Osiris, and sometimes with Nechao, so as to leave no doubt whatever of the Catacomb being either the burying-place of Psammis, or erected by him to receive the remains of his father, Nechao.

But the three next plates (6, 7, and 8) exhibit the most remarkable feature in the embellishments of this catacomb. They contain the procession (which is mentioned above) of native Egyptians, and of captive Ethiopians, Jews, and Persians, each distinctly and characteristically marked in feature, colour and dress; an event which we shall find to accord with the history of the times: for we know from the great source of all authentic information relating to ancient history, the Bible, that Necho, the father of Psammis, carried on war against the Jews and Babylonians; and Herodotus notices his expedition against the Ethiopians; so that this procession may very naturally be considered as consisting of the three descriptions of captives made in his wars. In turning to the 35th chapter of the 2d Chronicles, we shall find this painting of the catacomb most strikingly elucidated by the following remarkable passage: ‘After all this, when Josiah had prepared the temple, Necho, king of Egypt came up to fight against Charchemish, by Euphrates : and Josiah went out against him. But he sent ambassadors to him, saying, what have I to do with thee, thou king of Judah ? I come not against thee this day, but against the house wherewith I have war; for God commanded me to make haste; forbear thee from meddling with God, VOL. XXIV. NO, XLVII.



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