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animated beings, or at least that they were under the direction and management of animated and angelic beings? Hence the guilt with which they are charged. The bearing of this on the writer's general object seems to be, a design to impress his readers with a dread of transgressing the laws of God.]

"Going thence, the angel conducts Enoch to a dreadful place, glittering with columns of fire, which he declares to be the prison of the sinning [apostate) angels.' Chap. xxi. 4-6.

• Thence he proceeds to the region of the blessed. This is surrounded by mighty walls of rock. Hither the souls of the dead, i. e. of all the righteous, will come, and dwell until the day of judgment. ['The intermediate heaven of the New Testament writers, also, differs plainly from the final one). This place is divided into four spaces, by a chasm between the first and the second, [comp. Luke 16: 26], water between the second and the third, and light between the third and the fourth.'

•In like manner the souls of the wicked, in their place after death, are separated until the judgment day, [different gradations of misery, as well as of happiness]; when they will be punished for ever. There is no escape from their prison. Chap. xxii.

Enoch now returns toward the West again. There he sees a running fire, blazing night and day without cessation. On inquiry the angel-interpreter tells him, that this fire is that of all the luminaries of heaven;' [i. e. that it is designed to furnish them with fresh supplies, when they have set in the West.]

Thence the prophet is rapt into another place, where he sees seven shining mountains, adorned with precious stones and with odoriferous trees, one of which exceeded all the trees of Eden. The fruit of this tree will be given to the righteous after the judgment (comp. Rev. 22: 2), and they will live for ever by means of it, free from all pain and sorrow. On the seventh of these mountains, overtopping all the rest, the Lord of Glory will descend, when he shall visit the earth in order to reward the righteous.' Chap. xxiv.

• Thence the prophet comes to the middle of the earth Jerusalem), where he sees a holy mountain (Zion], with water on the eastern side flowing to the south (the brook SECOND SERIES, VOL. III. NO. I.


Kidron); also another mountain [that of Olives) on the east. Water also ran from the West (from the fountain of Siloam), and another mountain was on the south, [which is matter of fact in respect to Jerusalem and its vicinity). Among these were vallies and precipices with trees ; also an accursed valley, (viz. the valley of Hinnom). Here blasphemies are punished ; and in the judgment they shall be made an example of retribution.' Chap. xxv. xxvi.

From this place Enoch is carried to a mountain in the , desert [Sinai?), full of trees, water, and cataracts; thence. to another place eastward of this, which was full of choice odoriferous and medicinal trees; from this station he sees another place with plenty of living water and goodly trees; then he beholds another mountain containing trees loaded with the most sweet smelling fruit, and from this mountain flowed water like to nectar [nekotro]. On this mountain rested another, full of trees with fruit of ravishing odour.' Chap. xxvij-xxx.

• Thence, surveying “ the entrances of the nerth," he perceived seven other mountains replete with nard and odoriferous trees. Passing these, and going over the Erythraean Sea, far beyond it he beheld the garden of righteousness [Eden], with trees numerous, large, beautiful, fragrant. and among them the tree of knowledge, like to a species of tamiarind tree. Raphael tells him, that this is the tree of which his ancient progenitors ate.' Chap. xxxi.

• Thence he is conducted “ toward the extremities of the earth,” where large beasts and birds of various forms are seen ; to the eastward, of these he comes to “the ends of the earth and heavens," and there he sees the gates of heaven open, whence issued all the stars. By the help of his guide he numbered and recorded all these, together with their times and seasons. Thence he goes to the extremities of the north, where he sees the gates whence issue the northern winds, cold, hail, frost, dew, and rain. Thence he is taken to the gates at the western extremity, and thence to those of the southern one, from which issue dew, rain, and wind. Thence he goes back again to the east, in order to review the courses of the stars. Chap. xxxivXXXV.

Here begins another and a different portion of the work.

The author entitles it : “ The second vision of wisdom which Enoch saw, the son of Jared, the son of Malaleel, the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam.” He represents himself as having received from the Lord of spirits “the word of wisdom .... in a hundred and three parables.” Chap. xxxvii. Of these only three appear in the sequel. De Sacy, on this account, thinks that the text should be changed so as to read three ; but it is manifest that the book comes to us in a mutilated and disturbed state, and from some of the quotations made by ancient writers, a part of the book appears to have perished, or to have been omitted in the Ethiopic copies. We cannot, therefore, pronounce with certainty in respect to this matter.

The three parables that follow, constitute by far the most interesting and important part of the book. In these the whole of the author's Christology is developed. I shall at present, therefore, present a summary of only such parts as do not contain the Christology, reserving this for a subsequent and distinct consideration. .

PARABLE TIE First. The time of judgment, and of the separation between the righteous and the wicked, is coming; when endless woe will be to the wicked, but peace and happiness to the righteous. “ The holy and elect race shall descend from the upper hoavens," and they shall dwell with men. [Does he mean that the Saviour and his angels shall descend and dwell with men on earth, or only that the saints in heaven will again dwell on earth? Probably the latter; inasmuch as he says, “ their seed shall dwell with men”. Chap. xxxviii. xxxix.

• The Seer is now taken up into heaven, where he sees the habitation of the saints with the angels. Their number is countless, and they continually bless and praise God. Earnestly does Enoch desire to remain there. Myriads stand before the Lord of spirits, and on the four sides of him are four archangels, who address him in different ways, praise him, and supplicate for success in discharging the different tasks assigned them.' Chap. xxxix. xl.

•The secret places of Paradise are next shewn to Enoch, and there he sees the receptacles of the various agents in nature, viz. the thunder, wind, dew, hail, etc.; also of the moon with all her phases, and of the stars with all their

phenomena. These last shine with no changing or borrowed light, [i.e. they are fixed stars]. Chap. xli--- xliv.

PARABLE THE SECOND. This seems to extend from Chap. xlv, to liji. 6; and here the Christology of the book has a leading place. I pass by these chapters, therefore, for the present, and advert for a moment to the contents of chap. liii. 7- lv.

These appear to be out of due order in this place, and are plainly an interruption of the second parable. Chap. liji. 7-liv. 1-8, contain an account or prediction of the flood, and of the punishment inflicted on the apostate angels and their paramours and offspring, which would seem to belong to the first book, where the subject of their punishment is brought so fully to view. •The fountains of heaven are opened, and these join with the abysses beneath in overwhelming the earth. God repents of the destruction of the world, and swears that he will no more repeat it. He places his “ token in the heavens” as a sign or confirmation of this. The transgressors are reserved for the judgment of the great day, when the Elect One [the Messiah] shall judge them all.

Chap. liv. 9-lv. 1...6, appear to be a fragment belonging to some historical prophecy respecting the doom of the Jews. The Parthians and Medes invade “ the land of the elect;" they are repulsed ; civil wars among the Jews succeed ; and finally a great army, with chariots and men, come from the different quarters, so that the earth shakes to its foundation.'. [Is not this the invasion by the Roman army under Vespasian and Titus ?)

PARABLE THE THIRD. This commences with chap. Ivi. • Peace shall be to the saints, and God will be their everlasting light.' In those days Enoch is led to behold the secrets of the lightning and thunder, both when they are for a blessing and for a curse.' Chap. Ivi. Ivii.

In the 500th year of Enoch's life the heavens and the earth shook violently ; the Ancient of days was seen on his throne of glory, surrounded by myriads of angels; the time of judgment and punishment, as well as of reward, cores ; to the righteous Leviathan and Behemoth will be given for a feast, (the usual Rabbinical fable in respect to these mon. sters, see Buxtorf Lex. Chald. on the words, but the wicked will be severely punished.' Chap. lviii.

In chap. lix. the subject of the secret agencies of nature” is again presented ; e. g. of the winds, moon, lightning, ebb and flow of the sea, mist, rain, darkness, light, etc. Chap. Ix-xii. contain another brief, but important, development of the author's Christology ; and, according to my plan, I pass them by for the present.

Another interpolation now occurs. Chap. lxiv—Ixvii. contain what might be called a vision of Noah, rather than of Enoch. Noah hears a great earthquake, and goes to Enoch to inquire respecting it. Enoch tells him that the earth is about to be destroyed, because of the wickedness which exists upon it. Noah receives assurance that he shall be preserved, and that righteous and holy men shall spring from him. The angels about to punish the earth are then shown to him. The word of God afterward comes to him, with comforting assurances. The burning valley where the apostate angels are confined is then shewn him, where are rivers of fire and sulphur. There are waters in this valley, which are “healing to soul and body ;" but when judgment comes upon the ungodly, who have revelled and denied the Lord of spirits, those waters shall be changed, and then become frozen.' [There is something remarkably obscure here, in the writer's description of these waters, which in one place he represents as “ healing the soul and body," in another as “ being for the healing and death of the bodies" of kings and princes ; in one place as hot, and in another as frozen. I do not comprehend his meaning. 7 • In chap. Ixvii, the good angels are represented as melting into compassion, while they behold the severity of torments inflicted on the apostate ones. The irreversible sentence against the latter is re-affirmed.

In chap. lxviii. the names of the leading apostate angels are again given, to the number of 21. Many of these are entirely different from the 18 names of the same leaders as given in chap. vii. 9. Next follow the names of other and different angels, employed in seducing men; while the particular things in which each of these apostate spirits was engaged, are specified, as in chap. viii., but much more copiously. But here again every name differs from the corresponding cases in chap. viii. One can scarcely avoid the conclusion, that chap. lviii. is a composition from another hand, and also that it is interpolated in the place where it now stands.

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