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might be adduced to illustrate and confirm these points; and as all that I claim is conceded even by our Baptist brethren, to proceed farther would seem like an attempt at useless display. I shall therefore proceed to consider the usages of a kindred word in the Latin language.
Tingo, beyond all doubt, means to immerse. In this sense Facciolatus and Forcellinus in their Totius Latinitatis Lexicon give Bánow as its synonyme, And as Bártw is used to describe the immersing of an axe to temper it, so is tingo to describe similar operations. So Virgil speaking of the operations of the Cyclopian workmen of Vulcan thus describes them as immersing the hissing metals in water to temper them. Stridentia tingunt æra Jacu. Æ. 8. 450. · So speaking of a sword. · Tinxerat unda stygia ensem. Æ. 12. 91. Celsus speaks of sponges dipped in vinegar. Spongia in aceto tincta.
The setting of the heavenly bodies is spoken of as an immersion in the sea and to describe this tingo is used,
Tingere se oceano properant soles hyberni. Virg. Geor. 2. 481.
Tingat equos gurgite Phæbus. Æ. 11. 914.
But to prove that it means immerse is needless ; no one can deny it, nor is it the point at which I chiefly aim. This is, that like BÓTTW, it loses all reference to the act of immersion and comes to signify simply to dye or color in any way.
. . · Of this there is a presumptive proof that is obvious even to those who do not understand the learned languages. It has given rise to the words tinge and tint in our languageand who that speaks of the rosy tints of morn-or of the sun tinging the clouds with golden light would have the least thought of immersion. And is it probable that such senses would have passed from the Latin to our language, had tingo not passed from its original sense to that of dying or coloring in any mode.
But there is direct proof in the Latin classics of the same kind as exists with respect to Bantu.
Horace uses the word to denote the dying of wool, as tingere lanas murice ; Ovid, to denote the coloring of the hair, and of ivory ; Horace, to denote the coloring of the axe used in sacrificing the victims, as victima pontificum secures cervice tinget ; Virgil, Geor. 3. v. 492, to denote the malignant effects of a plague on cattle, mentions that they had scarce blood enough left to color the knives used to slay them.
Vix suppositi tinguniur sanguine cultri. So in Georg. 2 : v. 8. We have the words Tinge crura musto, referring to the coloring or staining of the legs by the treading of the wine prens. In Pliny we have Tingentium officinæ, shops of dyers, and in Cicero, Tincta in the phrase to denote colored things. It is followed by an accusative of the color, as in Pliny tingere cæruleum, to dye blue. We have also in Lucretius Loca lumine tingunt nubes—to tinge or color, that is to illuminate with light. See Forcellinus and Facciolatus, or Leverett's Lexicon, on the word.
Indeed on this word no less than on Bártw we have the unequivocal concession of Mr. Carson, that it means to dye. “ In Latin also, the same word, tingo, signifies both to dip and to dye.” Carson, p. 77.
Facciolatus, and Forcellinus and Leverett also give it the sense to moisten, to wet, and make it in this sense synonymous with tyyw from which indeed it is derived, and to my mind the examples adduced are abundantly sufficient to establish this sense. But on this it is needless to insist, as Mr. Carson professes not to be satisfied that this sense can be established, and for the present I wish to rely on facts concerning which there is no dispute.
In English for the sake of contrast, I shall select the word to wash.
The original and common idea of this word is undeniably to cleanse by a purifying fluid, as water-and that without respect to mode. Of these ideas in its progress it drops all, and assumes a meaning that involves neither to purify nor to use a fluid at all.
As washing is often performed by a superficial application of a fluid, it often assumes this sense and loses entirely the idea of cleansing, as when we speak of washing a wound with brandy; or with some cooling application to alleviate inflammation. In this case we aim not at cleansing but at medicinal effect. So we speak of the sea as washing the shores or rocks, denoting not cleansing, but the copious superficial application of a fluid.
Again, as a superficial application of a fluid or a coloring mixture is often made for the sake of changing the color, we have to white-wash, to red-wash, to yellow-wash ; and the substances or fluid mixtures with which this is done, are called washes.
Next it drops the idea of a fluid at all, and assumes the sense of a superficial application of a solid--as to wash with silver or gold.
And here a remarkable coincidence in result, in words of meaning originally unlike, deserves notice as a striking illus. tration of the progress of the mind in effecting such changes.
In Greek, Battw, denotes originally to immerse-action alone, without reference to effect. In English, wash denotes to cleanse or purify alone, without reference to mode. Yet by the operation of the laws of association, both are used to denote coloring, and both to denote covering superficially with silver or gold.
Finally, when we speak of the wash of a cow-yard, and call those places where deposites of earth or filth, or vegetable matter are made, washes, who will contend that the idea of purity is retained ?
Again, lustro denotes to purify, by certain religious rites, and especially by carrying around the victim previously to its being killed.
From this it passes to the idea of passing around or through—dropping the idea of purifying--as Pythagoras Egyptum lustravit. Cicero-Pythagoras traversed Egypt. Navibus lustrandum æquor. Virg.--the ocean to be traversed with ships.
Hence it passes to the idea of observing, surveying, accurately examining, either with the eyes, or the mind. Totum lustrabat lumine corpus, Virg. He scrutinized, or examined his whole body with his eyes. Cum omnia ratione animoque lustraris, when you shall have surveyed and accurately examined all things by your reason and in your mind.
And what wider departure from the original sense to purify is possible? In Leveret xabagois is given as a synonyme. of lustratio, and yet the same word is used to denote trav. elling from city to city. Lustratio municipiorum-also the course or circuit of the sun-lustratio solis.
So too in Ezek. 23: 15. 329 to immerse is used to denote dying—where 073 denotes dyed attire, as Mr. Carson also allows.
Similar transitions of meaning could be pointed out in lavo da, and sow and other words, were it at all necessary, and did time allow.
Now with such facts before us, to increase the number of which indefinitely, were perfectly easy, who can say that there is the slightest improbability in the idea that the word Barrisw should pass from the sense to immerse, to the sense to purify, without reference to the mode? Can Bantw, tingo and wash, pass through similar transitions and cannot Battitw ?
But what secondary sense shall be adopted cannot be told a priori, but must be decided by the habits, manners, customs and general ideas of a people, and sometimes by peculiar usages for which no reason can be given. For example, no reason exists in the nature of things why Bartw rather than Barsię w should pass from the sense immerse to the sense to dye-yet there is evidence that it did. On the other hand it could not be certainly foretold that Barriţw rather than Bantw would pass to the sense to cleanse, and yet that it did so pass may still be true, and if true can be proved like any other fact.
And the existence of manners and customs tending to such a result, renders such a result probable.
· Circumstances did exist tending to produce such a trans
fer of meaning in Bansilw, and therefore there is a strong probability that it was made.
As it regards Bartw and tingo we have no proof that any peculiar causes existed tending to such a change of meaning as they are confessed to have actually undergone.
But as it regards Barriţw, such a tendency can be proved to have existed in the manners and custom of the Jews, for though no immersions of the person were enjoined in the Mosaic ritual, but simply washings of the body, or flesh, in any way, yet there can be no doubt that immersions and bathings were in daily use--and these as well as all their other washings were solely for the sake of purity, and held up this idea daily before the mind. .
Hence, when after the conquests of Alexander, the Greek language began to be spoken by the Jews, it encountered a tendency of the same kind as that which had already changed the meaning of Bártw to color or dye; but far more definite, powerful, and all-pervading ; for the practice of immersing to color was limited to a few, but the practice of bathing or immersing to purify, was common to a whole nation. Indeed the idea of purification from uncleanliness pervaded their whole ritual, in numberless cases, and must have been perfectly familiar to the mind of every one.
The inference from these facts is so obvious that it hardly needs to be stated. As the laws of the mind made from Battw, to dye, to color, to paint, and from tingo, the same; so there is a very strong presumption that so general a use of immersion, to produce purity would give to Barriţw the corresponding sense, to purify. This does not, I am aware, prove that it did. But it opens the way for such proof and shows that there is not the least ground for the rigorous efforts that are made to set it aside.
Even a moderate degree of proof is sufficient in a case like this, when the most familiar laws of the mind and all the power of presumptive evidence from analogical cases tend this way.
§ 6. There is no probability a priori against this position from the general nature of the subject to which the word is applied, in the rite of Baptism. But the probability is deci. dedly and strongly in its favor.
No law of philology is more firmly established than this, that in the progress of society, new ideas produce new words and new senses of old words, and hence in judging concerning such new senses we are to look at the nature of the new subjects of thought that arise.
Now that in this case the Greek language was applied to a new subject of thought is most plain, and that subject is the peculiar operations of the Holy Spirit, for that the ordinance of Baptism refers to these is admitted by all.
Now if any external act had any peculiar fitness to present these to the mind, a presumption would be in favor of that act; and if the meaning claimed was unfit to present them to the mind there would be a presumption against it.
Now so far is this from being the fact that directly the reverse is true. What is the peculiar effect of the opera
hance of ar operatiought is Greek lan