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period. Our river from Sudbury to Tutbury pursues a most tortuous and wayward course, and we shall leave it to take its wanton way unattended.

Tutbury Castle is a prominent object from the river : it stands on the summit of a bold cliff, which ends abruptly at its northern extremity. Its history is rather interesting, but we must content ourselves with the most bald outline. A castle existed at Tutbury in Saxon times, and is mentioned in Domesday ; but it was destroyed by the Danes in one of their incursions into this part of the island. It remained a ruin till the period of the Conquest, when William gave it and other large estates in this county to Henry de Ferrars, one of his noble Norman followers. Ferrars rebuilt the castle on a magnificent scale. It remained in the possession of the Ferrars family till the reign of Henry III., when its lord was pronounced a traitor, and his estates forfeited. Henry gave Tutbury castle to his second son, Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, whose successor Thomas, second Earl of Lancaster, repaired it, and rendered it a splendid residence. His style of living here is spoken of as most princely, and that it was so may be readily supposed when it is stated that his household expenses in the year 1313 amounted to 22,0001., an almost incredible sum when the difference in the price of provisions at that time is borne in mind. Thomas, it will be remembered, was the leader of the barons who conspired against the foolish Edward II., and who succeeded in depriving him of his favourite Gaveston, and afterwards causing him to banish the next unworthy minion, Hugh le Despencer. But soon after the banishment of Le Despencer, the king's party again made hen'

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and the barons were defeated in a battle at Boroughbridge. The Earl of Lancaster, with many others of note, was made prisoner, and soon after beheaded. Mackintosh calls him the Montfort of this reign, and his memory was long held in great esteem. He was canonized in 1389. Tutbury castle having fallen, by the attainder of the Earl of Lancaster, into the possession of the crown, it was given in succession to various parties; and at length passed into the hands of the famous John of Gaunt. On his marriage with the Lady Constance, Queen of Castile and Leon, he presented her with this castle, which he had restored and fitted up with great magnificence. Here she fixed her residence, and appears to have kept a splendid court. With the other estates pertaining to the Duchy of Lancaster, it became the property of the crown when Henry Bolingbroke ascended the throne. From this time there is nothing of consequence recorded concerning 'Tutbury castle, except that Henry VII. occasionally resided in it for the sake of hunting in the neighbouring forest of Nerewood, till the reign of Elizabeth, when it was for awhile made the prison of Mary Queen of Scots. That unhappy princess was not confined

. for any very long period together at Tutbury, but she was brought here three or four different times, and she appears to have been treated with much consideration while she remained here. James I. often visited Tutbury, like Henry, for the sake of hunting in Nerewood forest. Charles I. spent a fortnight here before the commencement of his troubles, and afterwards, with Prince Rupert, took up his abode in the castle, while his army encamped at the foot of the hill and in the surrounding country. This was a few weeks before the battle of Naseby; a few weeks after it he returned to the castle, but instead of having a noble army along with him, he was attended only by about a hundred men. Tutbury castle held out for the king after most of the other strongholds in Staffordshire had yielded to the parliament. But it was at last forced to yield also, and the victorious party razed the fortifications. It has remained a ruin ever since. The parts left are rather fine, but too scattered to allow it to be considered one of the most picturesque ruins. The massive keep was ruinous when Mary was a prisoner here: little now remains of the castle but one or two tower-like gateways and broken walls. A portion less injured and more inodern-looking than the rest is converted into a farm-house. The area enclosed by the buildings was about three acres ; and, from its position and the skilful manner in which the defensive portions were constructed, Tutbury castle was a place of uncommon strength. There was a moat around it, but it is now dry. The view from he keep is a very fine one.

The Dove flows onward a wider and rapid river, through pleasant and fertile meadows for the rest of its course.

passes Eggington, whose heath is famous as the spot on which a fierce battle was fought between the Royalist and Commonwealth soldiers, when the latter were defeated and driven across the Trent. Just below Eggington, and nearly opposite Bladon Castle, a modern castellated building, more happy in its situation than in its architecture, the Dove joins

“ The crystal Trent, for fords and fish renown'd."


London : l'rinted by W. Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street.

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