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ALEXANDER, bp. of Jerusalem, founds a French, defeated by Sir R. Abercrombie, library there, 214---martyred, 250.
March 21, 1801-taken by the British ALEXANDER, Michael, a converted Jew under general Fraser, March 20, 1807 -
Protestant bp. of Jerusalem, Nov. 7, evacuated, Sep. 23- Railway to Cairo, 1841, d. 1845.
1851. ALEXANDER the Ætolian poet, patronised ALEXANDRIA, Bishops of :by Antigonus Gonatas, B.c. 272.
1. Annianus, 63. ALEXANDER POLYHISTOR comes to Rome, 2. Abilius, 85. B.C. 83.
3. Cerdon, 96. ALEXANDER of Cotyleum, the Galatian 4. Primus, 109.
sophist, Greek secretary to M. Aure- 5. Justus, 120. lius, 170.
6. Eumenes, 131. ALEXANDER of Aphrodisias writes com- 7. Marcus, 143. mentaries on Aristotle, 200.
8. Celadion, 153. "ALEXANDER the Impostor," written by 9. Agrippinus, 168. Lucian, 182.
10. Julianus, 180. ALEXANDRA, widow of Alexander Jannæus, 11. Demetrius, 190—he recalls Origen, governs Judæa, B.c. 79-d. 70.
215-condemns some of his opinions, ALEXANDRA. See LYCOPRRON, B.C. 360.
229. ALEXANDRIA, founded by Alexander the 12. Heraclas, 233.
Great, s.c. 332 — his body entombed 13. Dionysius, 249. there, 322--many thousand Jews trans- 14. Maximus, 265. planted to, by Ptolemy, 312 — Euclid 15. Theonas, 283. the mathematician fl. 300 - Pto- 16. Petrus 301--suffered martyrdom, lemy adorns it with the Museum, the 312. Serapeum, the Pharos, and other edifices, 17. Achillas, 312. and begins the library, 298–Demetrius 18. Alexander, 313--instigated by AthaPhalereus takes the chair of philosophy nasius against Arius, 321--at the counat, 296 --- Ptolemy Philadelphus com- cil of Nice, 325. pletes his father's works, 283—besieged 19. Athanasius, 326 — favours, the moby Antiochus, 169-relieved by the Ro- nastic system, 328 — disregards the man victories in Macedon, 168-Ptolemy vote for his deposition, 334--resides Physcon expeiled,130—the library burnt, at Treves, 335--returns, 338-deposed, 48--Antony replaces it by the library of and retires to Rome, 341. Pergamus, 32-dissensions between the 20. Gregorius, 341-Athanasius restored, Jews and Greeks at, A.D. 40— Claudius 347 — Gregory killed in a sectarian Ptolemy observes the vernal equinox, tumult, 349- Athanasius expelled conMarch 22, 139, 140—visit of Caracalla ceals himself in Thebais, 356. and massacre of the inhabitants, flight 21. George of Cappadocia, 356--killed, of Origen, 215-he returns and writes 362--Athanasius comes back, is again many of his works, 229 — withdraws banished, but finally reinstated, 363 again, 231—the Bruchion and its library -d. 373. destroyed by a tumult, 263--besieged 22. Petrus II., 373. by Diocletian, and slaughter of the 23. Lucius nominated by the emperor people, 297- Meletius, bp. of Nicopolis, Valens, 373. degraded by a synod for heresy, 302-8 24. Timothy I., 377. council condemns Arius, ejects him from 25. Theophilus, 385 -- destroys the Sethe church, 321-tumults of the sectarian rapeum and its library 390-enemy factions, bp. Gregory killed, 349--Atha- of Chrysostom, 401 – supported by nasius expelled, 356-George of Cappa- Jerome, 402. docia killed and Athanasius restored, 26. Cyril, 412--connives at the murder but almost immediately banished again, of Hypatia, 415--persecutes Nestorius, 362-again returns, 363—Theon takes 430-procures his banishment, 4:35. observations to regulate the calendar, 27. Dioscorus, 444 -- violence at the 364-a synod held, 430-seditious tu- “Robber synod,” 449 — his acts anmults, 516- conquered by the Persians, nulled, he is deposed and banished, 616--taken by the Saracens, Dec. 22, 451. 640 — seized by the Andalusian emi- 28. Proterius, 452. grants, who are prevailed upon to go to 29. Timothy II., Ælurus, 457-expelled, Crete, 822-surprised and plundered by 460. the k. of Cyprus, the Knights Hospi. 30. Timothy III., Salophacius, 460--detallers and others, 1365--occupied by the posed and Timothy II. restored 476– French, July 2, 1798 – battle of; the Timothy III. again, 477.
ALEXANDRIA, bishops of :
renounce the succession and put to 31. John í., Talaia, 482 expelled, death, July 7, 1718. 483.
Alexis, patriarch of C.P., 1025. 32. Peter III., Mongus, 483.
ALEXIS, the comic poet, fl. B.C. 356. 33. Athanasius II., 490.
ALEXIUS I. (Comnenus), drives Nicephorus 34. John II., 496.
Botoniates, emperor of the East, into a 35. John III., 506.
monastery, and occupies his throne, 1081 36. Dioscorus II., 517.
-defeated by Robert Guiscard, at Dil37. Timothy IV., 519.
razzo--by Bohemond, 1083-sends am38. Gaianus, 537.
bassadors to the council of Placentia, 1095 39. Theodosius, 537—banished, 538. --obtains from the Crusaders an oath of 40. Paulus, 538-deposed, 541.
fealty, and secures for himself the city 41. Zoilus, 541-deposed, 551.
of Nicæa, conquered by them, 1097 — 42. A pollinaris, 551.
claims Antioch, 1106-attacked by Bo43. John IV., 569.
hemond in Epirus, 1107--aided against 44. Eulogius, 580.
him by the Venetians, and concludes a 45. Theodorus, 607.
treaty of peace, 1108–d. Aug. 15, 1118. 46. John V., 609, flies from the Persians ALEXIUS II. (Angelus), marries Agnes, to Cyprus, 616.
daughter of Louis VII. of France, 1178 47. George II., 616.
-succeeds bis father, Manuel, 1180 — 48. Cyrus, 636-expelled by the Sara- murdered, 1183. cens, 640.
ALEXIUS III., emperor of the East, deALEXANDRIA, libraries of, commenced by thrones his brother, Isaac Angelus, 1193
Ptolemy Soter, B.C. 299---enlarged by -expelled by the Crusaders, 1203. Ptolemy Philadelphus, 266-Zenodotus, ALEXIUS. See STRATEGOPULUS. librarian, 240— Eratosthenes, 223- Apol- ALEXIUS COMNENUS, founds the empire of lonius Rhodius, 194–Aristonymus, 183 Trebizond, 1204-d. 1222. --destroyed in Cæsar's war, 48-re- ALEXIUS II., ninth emperor of Trebizond, stored by Antony and Cleopatra, 32- 1297 - concludes a commercial treaty that of the Bruchion burnt in a popular with the Genoese, 1316--d. 1330. tumult, A.D. 263—that of the Serapæum ALEXIUS COMNENUS III., seventeenth emby bp. Theophilus, 390—asserted, but peror of Trebizond, 1349-endows the doubtful destruction of another by the monastery of Sumelas, 1365-defeated Saracens, 640.
by the Turkoman tribes, 1366-d. 1390. ALEXANDRIA, Mundane Éra of, commenced ALEXIUS IV., nineteenth emperor of Tre
1498 years before 4004, the generally bizond, 1417 – murdered by his son, believed date of the creation, so that John, 1446, A. Alex. 5503 corresponds with our ALEXIUS, son of the deposed emperor A.D. 1. In A.D. 285 ten years were sub- Isaac Angelus, escapes and goes to Italy, tracted and 5787 was called 5777. There- 1201-he joins the Crusaders, 1203-profore, to reduce the Alexandrian to the claimed with his father, as Alexius IV., Christian era, deduct 5502 years till A.D. 1203-put to death, 1204. 285, and afterwards 5492.
ALEXIUS, son of John IV., emperor of TreALEXANDRIA, Greek era of. See ERA OF bizond, set aside by his uncle, David, THE SELEUCIDÆ.
1458. ALEXANDRIA on the Issus (Scanderoon), ALFIERI, b. 1749-d. 1803. Heraclius lands at, 622.
ALFITNA, the civil war of the, begins ALEXANDRINA Victoria, princess, b. May among the Almohades, 1223.
24, 1819-attains her majority, May 24, ALFONSO 1., a descendant of k. Recared, 1837-queen, June 20, 1837. See VICTO- joins the Asturians, and marries PeRIA, queen of Great Britain.
layo's daughter, 722-elected k., 739– ALEXIANUS, cousin of Elagabalns, studies extends his kingdom in Gallicia and
under Julius Frontinus and the most Castile, 740 - conquers the north-west eminent philosophers of Rome, 220_-de- of Spain, along the Douro, from Sentica clared Cæsar under the name of Alex- to Calle, 751- d. 757. ander Severus, 221. See ALEXANDER ALFONSO II., k. of the Goths in Spain, or SEVERUS, emperor of Rome.
of Oviedo, son of Froila, taken by Silo ALEXIAS, Athenian archon, B.C. 405.
as his colleague, 775-excluded from the ALEXis, czar of Russia, pernicious influence throne by Mauregatus, 783_-obtains it
of his tutor the boyar Morouzoff, 1645— by the resignation of Vereinundus, 791 d., 1676.
-refuses to pay the stipulated tribute ALEXIS, eldest son of Peter the Great, to the Saracens, and defeats them, at persecuted by his father, compelled to Ledos, 793-adorns Oviedo with palaces and churches, 802-makes a treaty with legitimacy of their children, 1214--on Al Haken, 805 -- founds Santiago de his death, Leon is re-united to Castile, Compostella, 808-gains another victory, 1230. and makes peace with Al Hakem, 810- ALFONSO X., the Philosopher, while prince d. 843.
of Asturias, concludes the treaty which ALFONSO III., the Great, k, of the Goths establishes the supremacy of his father,
in Spain, 862- extends his conquests be- Ferdinand III., in Murcia, 1240--succeeds yond Salamanca, 867—successfully re. him on the throne, 1252-the Astronosists Almondhir, 872-defeats him near mical Tables of, framed, 1253--conqners the river Urbicus, 874-foils Almondhir Xeres, Medina Sidonia, and other cities in Gallicia, 876-drives him from Za- in the south of Spain, 1254-knights mora, 878—his victories are followed by Edward, son of Henry III., at Burgos, and the embassy of Dulcidius, and a truce affiances his sister, Eleanora, to him, for three years, 881-maintains peace 1255-chosen k. of the Romans by some with Abdallah, and defeats an irregular of the German nobles, 1257-Muhamad, force of Arabians, at Zamora, 900-Ab- k. of Granada, breaks his alliance with dallah sends an embassy to renew his him, and encourages the Moors in Antreaty, 901— defeats a rebellion of his dalusia and Murcia to rebel, 1261--Xeres son, Garcias, at Zamora, 907-he resigns and other revolted cities submit, 1263 his crown to his sons, 910-takes the makes peace with Muhamad, who field again to assist them, and gains his pays tribute, 1264-continues to claim last victory, soon after which he dies, at the title of k. of the Romans, but has Zamora, 912.
no authority, 1271--some Castilian noALFONSO IV., k. of the Goths in Spain, bles detected in a conspirac retire to
or of Leon, 924-retires from the throne, Granada, 1272-has an interview with 931.
Muhamad II., at Seville, and concludes ALFONSO V., k. of Leon, Gonsalvo is his a treaty, 1273-assists in the taking of
guardian, and regent, 999—his lost ter- Alessandria, 1274-has an interview with ritories regained through the dissen- the pope, at Beaucaire, and asserts his sions of the Saracens, 1010-killed at title as k. of the Romans, 1274-being the siege of Viseu, 1028,
threatened with excommunication, reALFONSO VI., k. of Castile, 1072-pope nounces his claim; stops the progress
Gregory VII. exacts an annual tribute of the Merines in Spain, 1275-concludes from him, 1077-makes an alliance with a truce with Abu Yusef, 1276-repulsed Aben Omar, 1079 — driven back from at the siege of Algesiras, 1278—-leagnes Toledo by 'Alaftas, king of Badajos, with the Merines against his son, San1081-takes it, 1084 - defeated at Za- cho, who had seized Cordova, in alliance lacca, 1086--drives the Mohammedans with the k. of Granada, 1281—d. June from the siege of Alid, and compels 21, 1284. Yussef to re-embark for Africa, 1089- ALFONSO XI., k. of Castile, 1312-he takes marries his daughter to Henry of Be- the government into his own hands, 1324 sançon, and makes him duke of Portu- -involves himself in many troubles by gal, 1095 -- defeated at Ucles; his son, his illicit attachment to Eleanora de Sancho, slain, 1108–d. 1109.
Guzman, 1330—besieges the Merines of ALFONSO VII., k. of Castile. See ALFONSO Africa, who had taken Gibraltar, 1333
I., el Batallador, k. of Aragon; and AL- relieves Tarifa when besieged by the FONSO), k, of Gallicia.
Moors, and defeats them near the river ALFONSO VIII., k. of Castile, 1158-de- Guadacelito, 1340 — Algesiras besieged
feated by the Moors, at Alarcos, 1195_ by him, 1342-taken, and a truce made takes Biscay, Alava, and Guipuscoa for ten years with the k, of Granada, from Sancho VII., of Navarre, 1200- 1343-dies of the plague in his camp marries his daughter, Garsenda, to Al- before Gibraltar, Mar. 26, 1350. fonso IX., of Leon, 1201-d. 1214.--The ALFONSO I. (el Batallador), k. of Aragon schools founded by him at Palencia, are and Navarre, 1104—is acknowledged in transferred to Salamanca by his grand- Castileas Alfonso VII.,1109--defeats and son, Ferdinand III., 1240.
slays Ahmed, the Mohammedan k. of ALFONSO IX., k. of Leon, 1188--marries Saragossa, 1109--repairs Soria, Uxama,
Garsenda, daughter of Alfonso VIII., of and other cities ; quarrels with his Castile, 1201-his kingdom is laid under queen, Urraca, and imprisons her, 1111 an interdict, because he refuses to annul --defeats her partisans in Castile, 1112 his marriage, 1202-after a struggle of leagues with the Moorish k.of Saragossa; twelve years, he is compelled to divorce the Almoravide gen., Mez-deli, is defeat. bis queen; the pope acknowledges the ed and slain by them; they take Lerida, 1117–he takes Saragossa, 1118_Calata- pope Callistus, 1457—he besieges Genoa; yud, 1119_Roger, count of Sicily, mar- dies at Naples, June 27, 1458. ries his daughter Alberia, 1120-makes ALFONSO, k. of Gallicia, 1109-protects his an incursion into Murcia and Granada, mother, Urraca, 1112-obtains possession 1123-on the death of Urraca, he resigns of Castile on her death, and continues Castile to her son, Alfonso, k. of Gal- the title of Alfonso VII., 1126-protects licia, 1126-defeats Taxfin in Andalusia, the kings of Aragon and Navarre, 1132 1130-bequeaths Aragon to the Knights -invades Murcia, 1146—assists iħ takHospitallers and Templars, but his will ing Almeria, 1147—d. 1157. is not carried into effect, 1131-lays ALFONSO I., k. of Naples. See ALFONSO siege to Fraga, 1132—defeated and slain V., king of Aragon. there, 1134.
ALFONSO II., k. of Naples, conciliates the ALFONSO II., k. of Aragon; regency of pope, 1494—resigns the crown to his
his mother, Petronilla, 1162—d 1196. son, Ferdinand, Jan. 23, 1495—retires to ALFONSO III., k. of Aragon, 1285—takes a monastery at Mazzara, where he dies,
the Balearic Islands from his uncle, who Nov. 19. had assisted the French invasion of Ara- | Alfonso I., k. of Navarre, 1104. · See Algon, 1286 - concludes a treaty of peace,
FONSO (el Batallador), k. of Aragon. with France, at Aix, but before it can be Alfonso I., count of Portugal, his mother, executed, dies, June 18, 1291.
Theresa, regent, 1112--gains a victory ALFONSO IV., k. of Aragon, 1327 over the Moors at Ourique, on the river 1336.
Corbes, and assumes the title of king, ALFONSO V:, the Wise, k. of Aragon, 1416 1139--takes Lisbon, 1147—Evora, 1166– --adopted as heir by Joanna II., quee defeats Yusef Abu Jakub, 1184-0. 1185.
Naples, 1420-engages Braccio in their Alfonso II., k. of Portugal, 1211–1223. service, 1421-puts an end to the hosti- ALFONSO III., k. of Portugal, 1248—his lities of pope Martin V., by threatening kingdom placed under an interdict in to recognize again Benedict XIII., 1422 consequence of his having divorced his - his adoption annulled; he attacks queen and married another, 1257- he acand plunders Marseilles, 1423 ap- quires the sovereignty of Algarve, 1269 points the ex-pope Clement VIII. bp. of - d. 1278. Majorca, 1429-arrives in Sicily with a ALFONSO IV. the Brave, k. of Portugal, fleet, and renews his project of obtaining 1325-defeats the Moors of Fez and Grathe succession to Naples, 1432-on the nada, when besieging Tarifa, near the death of Joanna takes the title of k. of river Guadacelito, 1340 – orders his Naples; lays siege to Gaeta ; in a naval son's wife, Inez de Castro, to be put to battle with the Genoese, Aug. 5, he is death, 1354-d. 1357. defeated and taken prisoner; sent to ALFONSO V., the African, k. of Portugal, Milan; the duke releases him without 1438--regency of his uncle, Henry of a ransom, and enters into a league with Viseu ; marriage of his sister, Eleanora, him against the pope, Eugenius IV., to Frederic IV., of Germany, 1452 — 1435-arrives at Gaeta, and is acknow- conquers Tangier and Arzilla, forms the ledged by many towns in the Abbruzzo province of Algarve beyond the sea, and and other provinces, 1436-takes Aversa, receives the name of the African, 1471 and besieges Naples, 1440 -- takes the -affianced to Joanna, daughter of Hencity of Naples, and the whole kingdom ry IV.; he claims Castile; takes Zamora, submits to him, 1442 - Eugenius ac
1474-is defeated by Ferdinand of Casknowledges him, and employs him to tile, near Toro, and applies in vain to recover the March of Ancona, 1443--dis- Louis XI., of France, for assistance, 1476 putes the possession of the states of the -defeated, at Albuera, Feb. 24; makes late duke of Milan with Francesco Sfor- peace with Castile, 1479-d. at Cintra,
pope Nicholas V. mediates July 28, 1481. peace between him and the republics of Alfonso VI., k. of Portugal, 1656 — set Florence and Venice, 1450--visited by aside for imbecility; his brother, Pedro, the emperor Frederic IV., 1452 - op- marries his destined queen, Maria Franposed by Regnier d'Anjou, 1453—he re- cisca, of Savoy, and assumes the govern. fuses to agree to the treaty of peace con- ment as Pedro VI., with the title of recluded at Lodi, 1454-pope Nicholas V. gent, during the life of Alfonso, who is prevails upon him to assent to the peace secluded in Cintra, 1667-till his death, of Lodi, and to join the league against 1693. the Ottomans, 1455 — redresses griev- ALFONSO, brother of Louis IX., of France, apces in the diocese of Sienna, 1456--he affianced to the only daughter and heiress makes war on Genoa, and quarrels with of Raymond, count of Toulouse, 1229
on their death, without issue, their ne- powerful navy, defeats them near the phew, Philip III., inherits their lands, Isle of Wight, and puts a final stop to 1271.
their incursions, 897-his death, Oct. 28, ALFONSO DE LA CERDA, son of Ferdinand, 901—death of his widow, Elswith, 905–
the deceased eldest son of Alfonso X., of thousandth year commemoration of his Castile, is excluded from the throne by birth, at Wantage, Oct. 25, 1849. his uncle, Sancho IV., 1284—his right is ALFRED, the Etheling, lands at Sandwich supported by a strong party, 1289-coali- with a body of Normans, is made prition of many States in his favour, 1296 soner by Godwin, earl of Kent, and put -by the treaty of Campillo, a suitable to death, at Ely, 1036, provision is made for him and his bro- ALFRED, son of George III., 6. Sept. 22, ther Juan, and they acknowledge their 1780—d. Aug. 20, 1782. cousin, Ferdinand IV., 1305.
ALFRED, Ernest Albert, second son of Alfonso, prince of Castile, is declared by Queen Victoria, b. Aug. 6, 1844.
the grandees to be the legitimate heir | ALFRIC, the grammarian, abp. of Canterof his brother, Henry IV., 1464-pro- bury, 995–. 1006. claimed k. by them, 1465—his death ALFRID, k, of Northumberland, 685—reopens the way to his sister, Isabella, to stores bp. Wilfrid to York, 686-expels the throne, 1468.
him again, 691-encourages learning, ALFONSO, prince of Portugal, son of John 703—resists the papal mandate to restore II., marriage and death of, 1490.
Wilfrid, 704–d. 705. ALFONSO, of Aragon, duke of Biseglia, ALFWOLD, k. of Northumberland, 778– third husband of Lucretia Borgia, mur
slain, 789. dered by her brother, Cæsar, 1500. ALFWOLD, usurps Northumberland, 806– ALFONSO D'ESTE, duke of Ferrara, d., and Erdulf restored, 808.
his States are claimed by pope Clement ALFWULD, k. of East Anglia, 746–749. VIII., 1597.
ALGAR, the ealdorman, defeats the Danes, ALFORD, battle of, the Covenanters defeat- in Kesteven, on St. Maurice's day, Sept.
ed by the earl of Montrose, July 2, 1645. 22; slain in a second battle, 869. ALFRED the Great, b. 849—sent to Rome, ALGAROTTI, Count, d. 1764.
and anointed by the pope, 853-taken by ALGARVE. See Alfonso III. and V., kings his father, Ethelwulf
, to Rome, 855-as- of Portugal. sists his brother, Ethelred, against the ALGERIA, a French province, 1834-war Danes, 868—" secondary," or assistant with Abd el Kader, 1835—his incursions regent to his brother, 869-k., Apr. 23, renewed, 1843-victory of Isly gained 871-defeats the Danes in a sea-fight, by marshal Bugeaud, 1844-attacked by 875-gains another victory at Swanewie the Kabyles, 1845--Abd el Kader sur(Swansea), and concludes a treaty with renders, and 'hostilities cease; the duke them at Exeter, 877-obliged to with- d'Aumale gov., 1847-gen. St. Arnaud draw into the Isle of Athelney ; defeats gov., defeats the Kabyles, May 11, July the enemy at Ethandun (Eddington), 878 17, 1851-a submarine electric telegraph -makes a new treaty with the Danes, to connect it with France, projected, May giving them equal rights, and they ac- 24, 1853. knowledge his supremacy, 880—defeats ALGESIRAS, first incursion of the Saracens, an attempt at invasion by Hasting, 882 710—besieged by Alfonso X., 1278-given -his missions to Rome and India, 883– up to the k. of Granada by the Merines, defeats the Danes at Rochester, 884– 1294-besieged by the Castilians, 1342 his ships defeated by the Danes at the ---surrenders, 1343—naval engagements mouth of the Stour, in East Anglia, in the bay, July 6-13, 1801. 885 – repairs London ; is said to have ALGIDUS, a height held by the Senones, founded the university of Oxford; he B.C. 360. See ALBAN, MOUNT. improves the laws and government of ALGIERS, a piratical State, founded by England ; patron of John Scotus Eri- Horuc and Hayraddin Barbarossa, 1518 gena, 886-begins his translations from --attacked by the emperor Charles V. Latin into Anglo-Saxon, 888—his wise 1541 --- expedition against, under Gianmeasures produce security and order, andrea Doria, dispersed by adverse 890-marriage of his daughter, Elfrith, winds, 1601-Blake compels the dey to 891-defeats the Danes at Farnham and give up his English captives and deBemfleet; compels them to raise the sist from piracy, 1655—the fleet of Louis siege of Exeter, and restores to Hasting XIV. defeats the Algerines, 1665—they his wife and son, who were made pri- release their French captives and resoners, 894—the Danes avoid an en- nounce piracy, 1670- he sends another counter with him, 895–he constructs a expedition against them, 1681 - Du