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1134 C.?

APADAL, the Fatimite, expels the sons of Titus in Cilicia, 71-returns to Rome; Ortok from Jerusalem, 1096.

accused of conspiracy; suffered to APHELION of Venus, observed by Theon cape, and goes to the Olympic games,

of Smyrna, Oct. 10, 128 — of Mercury, 93-d. 97. For his biography, see PhlJuly 5, 131.

LOSTRATUS of Lemnos.
APHIDES, k. of Athens, B.C. 1137 (1138 H., APOLOGETICUS. See TERTULLIAN.

APOLOGIES for Christianity. See ARISAPION of Alexandria, fl. 39-sent as an TIDES, QUADRATUS, JUSTIN

MARTYR, ambassador to Rome, 40.

ATHENAGORAS, MELITO, and MILTIADES. Apis, k. of Argos, B.c. 1747 (1693 C.). APOLOGY for Quakerism. See BARCLAY. APIs, k. of Sicyon, B.C. 1973 (1734 C.). APOSTOLICALS, a sect, headed by SegaA POCALYPSE. See John, St.

relli, denounce the licentiousness of the A POCHAS, Olympic victor, B.c. 520.

clergy, 1261—they are prohibited by the A POCRYPHAL and canonical books of the pope, 1286 -- again persecuted, 1290 —

Scriptures, distinguished by Gelasius, their leader burnt at Parma, and they 494 declared by the Council of Trent retire into Dalmatia, under a new leader, to be of equal authority, 1550.

Dolcino, 1300-return to Italy, and fix A POKAUKUS, the grand admiral, supports themselves on a mountain near Vercelli,

Anne of Savoy, regent for her son, John 1304_crusade against them, 1306-disV., emperor of the East, 1341-hé fails persion of the sect, 1307. See SEGARELLI, in his attempt against Cantacuzene at and DOLCINO.

Demotica, 1344—he is murdered, 1345. APPELLÆUS, Olympic victor, B.C. 540. APOLLINARIS, P. Cælius, consul of Rome, APPENZEL, invites the protection of the 169.

Swiss cantons against the abbot of St. APOLLINARIS, Sidonius, celebrates the con- Gall, 1411-joins the Swiss League, 1513.

sulship of his father-in-law, the emperor APPIAN of Alexandria, becomes known to Avitus, 456-addresses his panegyric to Hadrian, and follows him to Rome, 130 Majorian, 458—to Anthemius, 468 - bp. -writes his History, 147. of Clermont, 469.

APPIAN ROAD (Via Appia), constructed by A POLLINARIUs. See ALEXANDRIA, bps. of. the censor Appius Claudius Cæcus, B.C. APOLLINARIUS, bp. of Hierapolis, 172.

312. APOLLINARIUS, bp. of Laodicea, writes APPIANO, Gherardo d', sells Pisa to Jo.

against Porphyry, and at last deviates Galeazzo Visconte, duke of Milan, 1399. into heresy, 366.

APPIUS, Sp. Decemvir, dies in prison, B.C. APOLLO, Commodus places a head of him- 449. self on a statue of, 189.

APPIUS CLAUDIUS. See CLAUDIUS. A POLLODORUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 430. APPRENTICES, tumult of the, in WestminAPOLLODORUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 350. ster, Dec. 28, 1641. APOLLODORUS, A thenian archon, B.C. 321. APPROPRIATION CLAUSE, in the Irish APOLLODORUS, chronologist, fl. B.C. 145. Church Bill, thrown out by the Lords, APOLLODORUS of Damascus, the architect, 1835-again, July 25, 1836.

constructs Trajan's bridge over the Da- APPULEIUS, M., consul of Rome, B.C. 20. nube, 105- designs and executes Trajan's APPULEIUS, Sex., consul of Rome, B.C. 29– column; is also employed on the Odeum subdues Pannonia, 8.

temples, triumphal arches, &c., 113. APPULEIUS, Sex., consul of Rome, 14. A POLLODORUS of Gela, the comic poet, f. APRAXIN, the Russian adm., defeats the B.C. 326.

Swedish adm. Erenschild, and takes him A POLLODORUS of Pergamus, fl. B.C. 63 - prisoner, 1714. preceptor of Octavius, 44.

APRIES, k. of Egypt, B.C. 594 C. APOLLONIUS, consul of Rome, 460.

APRONIANUS, C. Vipstanus, consul of Rome, APOLLONIUS, writes against the Monta- 59.

nists, 212—answered by Tertullian, 213. APRONIANUS, Vipstamus, consul of Rome, APOLLONIUS of Athens, the sophist, sent 117.

ambassador to Sept. Severus, 196. APRONIANUS, C. Ventidius, consul of Rome, APOLLONIUS of Naucratis, the sophist, fi. 123. 196.

A PRONIANUS, consul of Rome, 168. A POLLONIUS RHODIUS, is appointed libra- APRONIANUS, consul of Rome, 191. rian at Alexandria, B.C. 194.

APRONIUS, defeated by the Frisians, 28. APOLLONIUS of Tyana, begins to distin. A PSANDRUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 702.

guish himself, 17 — visits Persia and APSEPHION, Athenian archon, B.C. 470 H., India, 45-present at the Olympic games, 469 C. 61-ordered to leave Rome, 66-quarrels APSEUDES, Athenian archon, B.C. 433. with Euphrates in Egypt, 69-meets APSINES of Gadara, the sophist, f. 236.

APULEIUS, leaves Madaura, studies at Car- merced by Caligula, 38-completed by

thage and Athens, and afterwards settles Claudius, 52. at Rome, 149 composes his works AQUA CURTia, an aqueduct of Rome, rethere, 174.

stored by Titus, 81. APULIA, a province in Southern Italy, oc- AQUÆ MATTIACÆ, reached by Valentinian,

cupied by Hannibal, who passes an idle 371. See WISBADEN. winter there, B.C. 215-he returns after AQUÆ SEXTIÆ, the first Roman colony in a march to the gates of Rome, 211. See Gaul, founded by C. Sextius Calvinus, ITALY, SOUTHERN.

B.c. 122-battle of; Marius defeats the APULIA, part of the new Greek province, Teutones, 102. See Aix.

called the Theme of Lombardy, A.D. AQUAVIva, author of the school system 890 — revolt of Melo; he engages a of the Jesuits, d. 1615. band of Normans to assist him, 1017 AQUEDUCT. See AQUA.–Of New Athens, --Basilio Bugiano sent against them, constructed by Hadrian, 140—of Raven1018 -- they are defeated, 1019 - inva- nia, by Theodoric, 502—of Ecija, comsion of Henry II., emperor of Ger- pleted by Abderahman III., 949—of the many, 1022—more Normans arrive, 1026 Ellesmerecanal, in the vale of Llangollen, -obtain Aversa, 1029_-divide the pro- completed by Mr. Telford, 1805. vince among them, making Melfi their AQUEDUCTS, public, of Rome, superintendcommon capital, 1042—visit of pope Leo ed by Domitius Afer, 49—by Frontinus, IX., to hear the complaints of the people 97—constructed in Spain by Abderahagainst them, 1050 — Humphrey suc- man II., to relieve a great drought, 847. ceeds Drogo as their leader, 1051-on his AQUILA, battle of; Braccio defeated and death Guiscard assumes the command, slain by Francesco Sforza, 1424. 1057-he receives the title of duke of AQUILEIA, winter-quarters of the consuls, Apulia from pope Nicholas, II., 1059— while conducting the war in Istria, B.C. revolt of Cannæ and other cities, 1083 178—head-quarters of the emperors M. -Edgar Atheling retires among the Aurelius and Verus against the MarcoNormans, 1086-treaty with pope Pascal manni, A.D. 167—besieged by Maximin, II., 1110-invasion of Roger, count of who is assassinated there, 238-battle of; Sicily, 1121 - acquired by him, 1127 — Constantine II. defeated and slain by his he is acknowledged duke of Apulia, 1128 brother, Constans, 340—synod of, held -and Rainulph created count, 1137— by Ambrose of Milan, against Pallapope. Innocent II. taken prisoner by dius and Secundianus, 381. See RUFINUS. Roger, restores Apulia to him, and creates --siege and destruction of, by Attila, 452 his son duke, 1139—the province revolts, --battle of ; Theodoric defeats Odoacer, aided by Michael Palæologus, 1155— Aug. 28, 489–taken by the Lombards, conquered by Tancred, 1190-reconquer- 568-ceded by Berenger, k. of Italy, to ed by the Sicilians, 1191–-conquered by Otho I., emperor of Germany, 952 the emperor Henry VI. of Germany, Richard I., of England, shipwrecked 1194—by the emperor Otho IV., 1211–

near, 1192. pope Gregory IX. declares a crusade AQUILINUs, consul of Rome, 162. against Frederic II., and sends John de AQUILINUS, consul of Rome, 249. Brienne to reduce it, 1228–1229—the car- AQUILINUS, Lart. Herminius, consul dinals and prelates captured by the em- Rome, B.C. 448. peror on their way hold a council at AQUILINUS, T. Herminius, consul of Rome, Rome, are confined by him in Apulia, B.C. 506. 1241 - papal agents form conspiracies, AQUILINUS, T. Vettius, consul of Rome, 125. which he puts down in person, 1246— AQUILINUS VETTIUS, consul of Rome, 286. he dies there, Dec. 13, 1250—pope Inno- AQUILIUS, M., consul of Rome, resisted by cent IV. excites a rebellion, which Man- the slaves in Sicily, B.c. 101-restores fred quells, 1251-Conrad arrives, 1252 tranquillity, 99-accused of malversa-the pope advances with a strong force, ‘ions, and eloquently defended by the whicho Manfred defeats, 1254-Apulia, orator Antonius, 98. with Sicily, given to Charles of Anjou, AQUINAS, Thomas, studies at Paris, 1245— brother of Louis IX., by pope Urban IV., called “the angelic doctor"-dies on his 1263— they form the kingdom of Naples, way to the council of Lyons, 1274. of which he is crowned k., 1265. See AQUINO; Gregory VII. retires to, 1080. NAPLES, and SICILIES, the Two.

AQUITAINE, given to Wallia, kingdom of AQUA APPIA, the first Roman aqueduct, the Visigoths founded, 418--conquered

constructed by Appius Claudius, the by Clovis, 507 independent under blind, B.c. 312.

Eudes, 717--the Saracens expelled from, A LA CLAUDIA, an aqueduct of Rome, com- 732—occupied by Charles Martel, 735– AQUITAINE-continued.

ARABIA, caliphs of :--continued. held by Hunald, son of Eudes, as duke, Hasan, 661. 736-Waifar, son of Hunald, maintains

OMMIADES. himself against Pepin, 762 — is slain, Moawiyah I., 661–680. and his duchy conquered, 768—Louis, Yezid 1., 680_683. son of Charlemagne, crowned k. of Aqui- Moawiyah II., 683. taine at Rome, 781-gives the title to Merwan I., 684. his son, Pepin, 815—who dies, 838-his Abdalmelik, 685_-705. sops claim the inheritance, 840 — the Walid I., 705–715. eldest of them, Pepin, acquires posses- Soliman, 715——717. sion of it, 845—Charles the Bald takes Omar 11., 717—720. him prisoner and seizes Aquitaine, 851 Yezid II., 720—724. -the people offer it to a son of Louis of Hashan or Hixem, 724—743. Germany, but Pepin escapes and places Walid II., 743—744. himself again at their head, 854—reduced Yezid III., 5 months. by Charles, 865—-governed by his son, Ibrahim, 3 months. Louis the Stammerer, 867 - -given by Merwan II., 744-750. Lothaire to Hugh, count of Paris, 955

ABBASSIDES. becomes an appendage of the English Abul Abbas, or Saffah, 750–754. crown, through the marriage of Henry Almansor, 754–775. (II.) Plantagenet to Eleanor of Guienne, Now styled CALIPHS OF BAGDAD. 1152 — Edward III. founds the princi- Al Mahdi, 775—785. pality of, for the Black Prince, 1362—the Al Hadi, 785. nobles of, refuse to pay the taxes levied Haroun Al Raschid, 786—809. by the prince for his Castilian campaign, Al Amin, 809–813. and appeal to the k. of France, 1368. Al Mamun, 813—-833. See GUIENNE.

Al Motassem, 833-841. AQUITANIA, disturbances in, settled by Al Wathek, 841--847. Messalla, B.C. 27.

Al Motawakkel, 847–861. AQUITANUS, Victorius, writes his Canon Al Mostanser, 861. Paschalis, 457.

Al Mostain, 862-866.
ARABIA ; Ptolemy Euergetes extends his Al Motaz, 866---869.

empire on the western coast, B.c. 225— Al Mohtadi, 869.
unsuccessful expedition of Ælius Gal- A1 Motamed, 870–892.
lus, gov. of Egypt, 24-part of Arabia Al Motadhed, 892—902.
Petræa conquered hy Corn. Palma, A.D. Al Moktafi, 902—908.
106—visit of Hadrian, 130—Sept. Seve- Al Moktader, 908-432.
rus gives the name of Arabia to Adia- Al Kaher, 932-934.
bene, which he forms into a new province, Al Radhi, 934-940.
195—the native land of Mohammed, in Al Motaki, 940–944.
which he announces himself as a pro- Al Mostakfi, 944.
phet, 610—conquered by him, 630—his Al Moti, 945—974.
successors take the title of caliphs, 632- Al Tai, 974–991.
their first money coined by Abdelmelik, Al Kader, 991–1031.
695—their empire extends from Tartary Al Kaim, 1031-1075.
and India in the East, to the shores of Al Moktadi, 1075—1094.
the Atlantic, 718-learning introduced Al Mortader, 1094-1118.
by Almansor, 754—its magnificence un. Al Mostarshed, 1118–1135.
der Haroun Al Raschid, 786–809-de- Al Raschid, 1135.
clines, 841-conquered by the Bowide Al Moktati, 1136–1160.
Ahmed, who makes himself Emir Al

Al Mostanjed, 1160–1170. Omra, 944-MSS. purchased in Arabia Al Mostadhi, 1170_1180. for the caliph of Spain, Al Hakem, 962– Al Naser, 1180--1225. Hulagou murders Al Mostasem, and puts Al Zaher, 1225. an end to the caliphate, 125&conquered Al Mostanser, 1226—1243. by the Ottoman, Selim 1., 1518—conquest Al Mostasem, 1243-1258. completed by Soliman II., 1538_esta- ARABIAN numerals, introunced in France

blishment of the British at Adeu, 1839. by Gerbert, from Cordova, 991. ARABIA, caliphs of :

Arabic, taught in Spain by schools which Abu Beker, 632-634.

Hixem the caliph establishes for that Omar I., 634-641.

purpose, 794. Othman, 644-655.

ARABISSUS, a town of Cappadocia, to which Ali, 655-661.

Chrysostom is banished, 406.

ARABS (Saracens) invade Syria, and are an army into the Archipelago, 1351 –

repulsed by Eugenius, 497—invade Pa- defeated by the Genoese in a naval lestine, 502. See SARACENS and Mo- battle in the Bosphorus, Feb. 13, 1352HAMMEDANS.

defeat the Genoese off Linghiera, in SarARADUS, the island of, on the coast of dinia, Aug. 29, 1353--they appoint nine

Phænicia, taken by Moawiyah, 649. judges to examine and decide on the ARAGO, D. F., b. 1786—d. 1853.

claims of the candidates for their crown, ARAGO, Etienne, b. 1803.

1411--they decide in favour of FerdiARAGON, an independent power, under Az- nand, regent of Castile, 1412-are ex

nar, son of Eudes of Aquitaine, 737. See cited to revolt by the severities of the ARAGONESE. – Attacked by Muhamad, Inquisition, and put to death the chief caliph of Spain, 860—the kingdom of, inquisitor, Peter Arbue, 1486_unsucfounded by Ramiro I., 1035—he adds cessfully attempt to regain their ancient Sobrarba to it, 1038—bequeathed by Al- privileges, 1725. fonso I. to the Templars and Hospital- | ARALEUS, k. of Assyria, B.C. 1897 (2020 C.) lers, but the gift does not take effect, ARAM, Eugene, convicted of murder, Aug. 1131-Ramiro II. resigns his kingdom 3, 1759-executed, Aug. 6. to Raymond, count of Barcelona, and ARANDA, count, prime minister of Spain, retires into a monastery, 1137-pope 1766. Martin IV. declares the kingdom for- ARANIE, battle of; Mr. Clive defeats the feited by Peter III., and offers it to French and their Indian allies, Dec. 3, Charles de Valois, 1283_-treaty of peace 1751. with France, 1287-concluded, 1288_ARANJUEZ, insurrection at, Mar. 17, 1808. pope Innocent VI. endeavours ineffectu- ARARIC, the Gothic chieftain, is compelled ally to restore peace between Castile by the Cæsar Constantine to make peace and Aragon, 1359--they are reconciled with the Sarmatians, and give his son by the treaty of Almazan, 1374& con- as a hostage, 332. test arises between John II. and his A RAROS, the son of Aristophanes, poet of nobles - they invite Pedro, prince of the middle comedy at Athens, B.C. 375. Portugal, to take the throne, 1464-on ARATUS, restores freedom to Sicyon, B.C. his death, they offer the crown to Reg- 251-prætor of the Achæan league, 245nier d'Anjou, 1466. See ANJOU, Reg- sets Corinth free, 243-involves the Lanier d'.-United to Castile, under Ferdi- cedæmonians and the Achæan league in nand and Isabella, 1479 – Don Carlos war, 227--again prætor of the Acbæans,

carries on a harassing warfare in, 1838. 217—poisoned by Philip V., k. of MaceARAGON, sovereigns of:

don, 213. Ramiro I., 1035—-1067.

ARATUS, the poet, fl., patronized by AntiSancho I., 1067-1094.

gonus Gonatas, B.c. 272. Pedro I., 1094-1104.

ARAUCANA.” See ERCILLA, Alonzo de. Alfonso I., el Batallador, 1104–1134. ARAXES, a river between Armenia and Ramiro II., 1134—1137.

Media, from which the Massagetæ drive Petronilla and Raymond, 1137—1162. the Cimmerians, B.C. 635—Justinian, a Alfonso II., Petronilia, regent, 1162— general of Justin II., penetrates to its 1196.

banks, A.D. 575. Pedro II., 1196—1213.

ARBELA, battle of, between Alexander and James I., 1213--1276.

Darius, B.C. Oct. 1, 331. Pedro III., 1276—1285.

ARBETIO, consul of Rome, 355. Alfonso III., 1285--1291.

ARBITER, Petronius, d. 66. James II., the Just, 1291--1327.

ARBOGASTES, left by Theodosius to assist Alfonso IV., 1327--1336.

in the defence of the West, 391--kills Pedro IV., 1336-1387.

Valentinian II. at Vienne, and sets up John I., 1387--1395.

Eugenius as emperor, 392 —is defeated Martin I., 1395--1410.

and slain, Sept. 6, 394. One year Inter-regnum.

ARBUE, Peter, chief inquisitor, put to Ferdinand the Just, 1412-1416.

death for his cruelties by the Aragonese, Alfonso V., the Wise, 1416—1458.

1486. John II., king of Navarre, 1458—1479. ARBUTHNOT, Dr., d. 1735. Ferd nd and Isabella, 1479.-UI ARC, JOAN OF. See Joan. to Castile.

ARC DE L'ETOILE, at Paris, constructed, ARAGONESE, the, regain their lost terri- 1806.

tory from Muhamad, 862-are defeated ARCADIA, governed by the sons of Arcas, by the Merines, at Mastos, in Jaen, 1273 B.C. 1335 (C. 1333)-Megalopolis is foundin alliance with the Venetians, send ed by the Thebans, 371--invaded by

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Agesilans, 370-alliance with Athens, with her in Egypt, and is expelled by 366—war with Elis, 365-invaded by the consul, Gabinius, B.C. 56. Archidamus, 364.

ARCHELAUS, son of the foregoing, is made ARCADIOPOLIS, battle of; the Bulgarians k. of Cappadocia by M. Antony, B.C. 36

defeat the emperor Isaac Angelus, --Conon dedicates his history to him-. 1194.

--dethroned by Tiberius, and detained ARCADIUS, son of Theodosius I., b. 377– at Rome, A.D. 15-d. there, 17.

receives the title of Augustus, 383 ARCHELAUS, eldest son of Herod, receives becomes emperor of the East, and mar- half Judæa from Augustus, with the ries Eudocia, daughter of the Frank, title of ethnarch, B.C. 3—banished by Bauto, 395—-birth of his daughter, Pul- him, A.D. 6. cheria-oration of Synesius addressed ARCHELAUS, bp. of Mesopotamia, writes to him, 399—his son, Theodosius, b. 401 against Manicheism, 278. -Arcadius d. May 1, 408.

ARCHES, Athenian archon, B.C. 393 H. ARCAS. See ARCADIA.

ARCHESTRATIDES, Athenian archon, B.C. ARCESILAUS I., son of Battus I., k. of Cy- 577. rene, B.C. 591-575.

ARCHIANUS, k. of Babylon, B.C. 709. ARCESILAUS IV., last of the race of Battus, ARCHIAS, Athenian archon, B.C. 419. killed, B.C. 431.

ARCHIAS, Athenian archon, B.C. 346. A RCESILAUS, consul of Rome, 267.

ARCHIAS, a Corinthian, founds Syracuse, ARCESILAUS, of the New Academy, fl. B.C. B.C. 735.

299-head of the school, 278/d. 241. ARCHIAS of Megara, founds Chalcedon, ARCH OF TITUS, at Rome, 80-of Sept. Se

B.C. 674. verus, 203—of Constantine, 312—of Ho- ARCHIAs the poet, a native of Antioch, norius, 404—at the entrance of the park, comes to Rome, B.C. 102. London ; equestrian statue of Welling- ARCHIDAMUS, Proclidan k. of Lacedæmon, ton placed on it, 1846.

B.C. 648-598. ARCHÆANACTIDÆ, the earliest sovereigns ARCHIDAMUS II., Proclidan k. of Lacedæof Bosporus, about B.c. 480.

mon, B.C. 469—invades Attica, 431-d. ARCHAGATHUS, the first Roman physician, 427. Hl. B.C. 219.

ARCHIDAMUS III., gains the " tearless vicARCHAMBAUD, Beatrice, heiress of Bour- tory" over the Peloponnesians, B.C. 307

bon, marries Robert, sixth son of Louis -invades Arcadia, 364--Proclidan k. of IX., k. of France, about 1300.

Lacedæmon, 361-assists the Phocians in ARCHANGEL, the passage to, round the the Sacred War, 356—is slain in Italy,

North Cape, discovered, 1553—the Nor- fightiug as the ally of the Tarentines,338. wegians attempt to interrupt the English ARCHIDAMUS IV., one of the Proclidæ, is commerce, 1578-the czar Peter acquires defeated by Demetrius Poliorcetes, B.C. there a practical knowledge of naviga- 296. tion, 1694 – a project of the Swedes ARCHIDAMUS V., Proclidan k. of Lacedaagainst it defeated, 1702.

mon, and last of the line, B.c. 229-put to ARCHBISHOP; the term tirst used instead death by Cleomenes, 224.

of Metropolitan, in the acts of the synod ARCHIDEMIDES, Athenian archon, B.C. 464. of Maçon, 581.

ARCHILOCHUS, the poet, A. and invents ARCHBISHOPs of Milan and Ravenna, dis- lam bics, B.c. 708. pute for precedence, 1027, 1047.

ARCHILOCHUS, Olympic victor, B.c. 544. ARCHDALE, John, a quaker, elected for ARCHIMEDES, the geometrician b. B.C. 287

Wycombe, refuses to take the oaths, 1698. ---A., 221-assists in defending Syracuse, ARCHELAUS, a priest of Sicyon, B.c. 1128; 214-killed, 212. doubtful.

ARCHINUs, makes himself prominent at ARCHELAUS, grandson of Orestes, forms a Athens, B.C. 402.

settlement in Asia Minor, B.C. 1088. ARCHIPELAGO, an island thrown up in it ARCHELAUS, Agidan k. of Lacedæmon, by a submarine volcano near Thera, B.C. 883–823.

726-Mark Sanudo founds his duchy, A.RCHELAUS, the instructor of Socrates, B.C. 1207. See SANUDO, Naxos, and CRISPO. 450.

The Venetians and Pedro IV. of Aragon ARCHELAUS, k. of Macedon, B.C. 413-as- send a powerful army into, 1351--the sassinated, 399.

Turks are expelled, 1472-regain their ARCHELAUS, raises an army in Greece to dominion, 1479.

support Mithridates, B.C. 87-defeated ARCHuppus, Athenian archon, B.C. 988 by Sylla, 86.

(1041 H). ARCHELAUB, his son, marries Berenice, ARCHIPPUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 321 (318

daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, reigus C.).

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