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ASTERIUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 373. Astylus, Crotoniensis, Olympic victor, ASTERIUS, bp. of Amasia, 400.

B.C. 488. ASTERIUS, of Cappadocia, writes in favour AstyLUS, Syracusiensis, Olympic victor, of Arianism, 335.

B.C. 484. ASTERIUS, drives the Vandals out of Gal. AsTYPAILUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 420.

licia into the south of Spain, 420. ASYLUM, Infant Orphan, at Wanstead, first ASTERIUS, TURCIUS RUFUS APRONIANUS, stone laid by Prince Albert, 1841. consul of Rome, 494.

ATACINUS. See VARRO. Asti, or Asta, besieged hy Alaric, 403–ATAIDE, Luis de, revives the waning power

excommunicated by pope Gregory X., of Portugal in India, 1569. for leaguing against Charles, k. of Na- ATALANTA, the planet, discovered by Mr. ples, 1273-taken by John Palæologus, Goldsmidt at Paris, Oct. 5, 1855. inarquis of Montferrat, from Robert, k. of ATARNÆ, a city of Æolis, to which ArisNaples ; the expelled Ghibelins restored, totle withdraws after the death of Plato, 1339—taken from the Visconti by the B.C. 347. marquis of Montferrat, 1356-obtained | ATAULPHUS. See ADOLPHUS. by John Galeazzo, count of Vertus, ATELLA, taken by Hannibal, B.c. 216. See 1378.

AVERSA, ASTLEY, lord, attempting to join k. Charles ATHALARIC, son of Eutharic and Amala

I. at Oxford, is routed at Stow-on-the- sontha, 523-becomes king of Italy, 526 Wold, Mar. 21, 1646.

-d. 534. ASTLEY'S AMPHITHEATRE burnt, Sept. 17, ATHALIAH, queen of Judah, B.C. 884—d.877. 1794-again, Sept. 2, 1803—again, June

“ ATHALIE See RACINE. 8, 1841.

ATHANAGILD, k. of the Visigoths; makes ASTOLFO, k. of Lombardy, 749 — makes Toledo his capital, 554-d. 567.

himself master of the whole exarchate ATHANARIC succeeds Hermanric, the of Ravenna, and threatens Rome, 752- Gothic chieftain, and concludes peace surrenders it to Pepin, 754 — breaks his with Valens, 369-resigns his command engagements, and attacks Rome; on the to Fritigern, 376 -visits Theodosius at approach of Pepin, he withdraws his CP., Jan. 11, 381-and dies there, Jan. forces and is besieged in Pavia-is com- 25. pelled to execute the former treaty, and ATHANASIAN FAITH defended at the Coungive up Commachio, 755 — killed by a cil of Carthage by Eugenius and the wild boar, 756.

other African bps., 484—they are baASTORGA, taken by Almansor, 983-ro- nished to Sardinia by Thorismund, 497.

covered by Alfonso V., 1010—its Library ATHANASIUS, instigates Alexander, bp. of purchased by the Faculty of Advocates Alexandria, to call a council against at Edinburgh, 1826.

Arius, 321-distinguishes himself as seASTRACAN, acquired and visited by Peter cretary to Alexander, at the Couneil of the Great, 1722.

Nice, by his vehement opposition to the ASTRÆA, the planet or asteroid, discovered Arians, 325-elected bp. of Alexandria, by Hencke, Dec. 8, 1845.

326—favours the monastic system, and ASTROLABE, one of La Perouse's ships, patronizes Antony, 328--disregards the

last heard of, 1788. See PEROUSE, LA. vote of the Arian council of Cæsarea for ASTROLOGERS, Chaldæan, driven out of his deposition, 334--the synods of Tyre Italy, B.C. 139.

and Jerusalem proceed violently against ASTRONOMICAL Canon. See DIONYSIUS. him-he has an interview with ConstanASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS, commence- tine at CP.; the sentence of deposition is

ment of, at Babylon, B.C. 2234 (2230 H., not enforced, but he is obliged to reside at 2233 C.)--tables of Alfonso X., k. of Cas- Treves, 135-returns to Alexandria, 338 tile, framed, 1253 - - Rodolphine, com- -deposed by the synod of Antioch, and menced by Tycho Brahe, 1580-continued takes refuge at Rome, where he introby Kepler, 1601.

duces the monastic system into western ASTURES, revolt, and are subdued by Au- Europe, and recommends its adoption, 341 gustus, B.C. 25.

-supported by a synod held at Rome, 342 ASTURIAS, the Gothic fugitives collect and -his restoration is voted by the general

defend themseves in the, 713-another council held at Sardica, 347-his cause band arrives from Cantabria, 722. See is supported by Serapion, bp. of Thmuæ, Goths in Spain.

348 - Constans threatens to restore ASTURIUS, consul of Rome, 449.

him by force-he is permitted by Con ASTYAGES, k. of Media, B.C. 594.

stantius to return, and received by the ASTYDAMAS, writer of tragedies, fl. B.C. 398. Alexandrians in triumph, 349—calls the ASTYDAMAS, the Younger, A. B.C. 372. monk Antony to Alexandria to assist ia


ATAENS. See ATTICA. – Arrival of Cethe conversion of Arians, 352-condemn- crops from Egypt, B.C. 1556 (1558 H., 1433 ed by the western bps. at the Council of Cl.)-reign of Cranaus, 1506 (1508 II., Arles, 353-deposed by the Council of 1383 Cl.) —of Amphictyon, 1497 (1499 H., Milan, 3554-being expelled by violence doubted by Cl.)-Panathenean, or Panfrom Alexandria, retires among the hellenic games instituted, 1495 (1481 H.) monks of Thebais, 356--restored on the -reign of Erichthonius, 1487 (1489 H., death of George of Cappadocia, but his doubted by Cl.)-of Pandion, 1437 (1439 power exceeding that of the civil gover- H., doubted by Cl.)-of Erectheus, 1397 nor, he is again banished, 362-returns (1399 H., 1383 Cl.)—the Athenians in

to Alexandria, 363 - d. May 2, 373. structed in agriculture by Eumolpus, ATHANASIUS II. See ALEXANDRIA, bi- 1383 (1384 H.)—he introduces the Eleusi. shops of.

nian mysteries, 1356. ATIANASIUS. See CONSTANTINOPLE, pa- Reign of Cecrops II., 1347 (1349 H., triarchs of.

1343 Cl.)-of Pandion II., 1307 (1309 H., ATHELARD, abp. of Canterbury, 790—d. 803. 1300 C1.)of Ægeus, 1283 (1284 H.)-of ATHELNEY, Alfred withdraws into the isle Theseus, 1235 (1236 H., 1234 Cl.)-of of, 878.

Mnestheus, 1205 (1206 H., 1205 C1.)-of ATHELRED, abp. of Canterbury, 870--d.888. Demophoon, 1182--of Oxyates, 1149 (1150 ATHELSTAN, k. of England, 924-gives his H., 1148 Cl.) —of Aphides, 1137 (1138 H.,

sister in marriage to Sihtric, with a part 1134 Cl.)--of Thymætes, 1136 (1138 H., of Northumberland, 925 - Sihtric dies, 1133 Cl.) -of Codrus, 1065 (1092 H.)--on and his lands revert to Athelstan, whose his death, archons appointed; Medon, his supremacy is acknowledged by Constan- son, the first, 1044 (1070 H.) See the list tine Ill., k. of Scotland, Howel of the of archons in the Tables; their names West Welsh, and Owen of Monmouth may be found at their respective places -his sister, Eadhild, is married to Hugh in this Index. Their rule limited to ten the Great, count of Paris, 926-another years; Cherops, the first, 752-to one sister, Eadgith, marries Otho, son of year; Creon, the first, 683. Henry the Fowler, 930-victorious in Solon gives his code of laws, 594-visit Scotland, 933-assists in establishing of Anacharsis, 592-comedy introduced, Louis IV. in France, and Alan in Bri

usurpation of Pisistratus, 560_ tanny-totally defeats a confederation of

flight of Solon, 559 - Pisistratus bathe Scotch and Irish, with the Danes of nished, 554 – restored, 548 — again baNorthumberland, at Brunanburh, 937— nished, 547—regains his power, 537 d. Oct. 22, 940.

tragedy introduced by Thespis, 535—PiATHELSTAN, son of Ethelwulf, receives

sistratus collects a public library, 531– from his father the government of Kent, d.527—his son, Hipparchus,succeeds him Essex, and Sussex, 836-repulses the -Anacreon and Simonides arrive, 525 — Danes at Sandwich, 851.

Cherilus writes tragedies, 523-Platæa ATHELSTAN, sent on missions to Rome under the protection of Athens, Hipparand India by Alfred, 883.

chus assassinated, 519_his brother HipATHENÆUM, and other clubs in London, pias succeeds, 514-expelled, with all the

erect splendid buildings for the reception race of Pisistratidæ, and Solon's form of of their members, 1829.

government restored, 510. ATIENÆUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 536.

Distracted by factions, 508 — assists ATHEN ÆUS, of Naucratis, author of the Aristagoras and the Ionian cities with a Deipnosophistæ, d. 194.

fleet, 500--withdraws, 499–Miltiades reATHENAGORAS, the Christian Platonist, turns from the Chersonesus, 493—war

addresses his “ A pology" to the empe- with Ægina, 491-battle of Marathon,

rors M. Aurelins and L. Verus, 168. Sept. 28, 490. See GREECE and PERSIA.ATHENAIS, daughter of the philosopher Death of Miltiades, 489–Aristides ba

Leontius, married to Theodosius II.; vished, 483——Athens taken by the Pertakes the name of Eudoxia at her bap- sians, and abandoned, 480—retaken and tism, 421. See EUDOXIA.

despoiled by Mardonius; Aristides, reATHENODORUS, a preceptor of Octavius, called from exile, gains the victory at

made zov. of Tarsus, B.C. 30-teaches Platæa, and the Persian fleet is defeated the Stoic philosophy there, A.D. 8.

at Mycale by the archon Xanthippus, ATHENODORUS, a pupil of Origen at Cæs- 479-Athens rebuilt and fortified; thearea, 232.

atre of Bacchus built, 478–becomes suATHENODORUS, supports the rebellion of preme in Greece, 477—the power of the

Longinus in Isauria, is captured and put Athenians extended to Thrace by Cimon, to death, 497.

475— banishment of Themistocles, 471.



ATHENS-continued. Pericles first takes part in public taken; Thucydides, defeated in Thrace, affairs, 469_death of Aristides, 468– loses Amphipolis, 424-he is banished; Naxos subjugated, and the victories of truce for a year; Alcibiades comes forthe Eurymedon gained by Cimon, 466- ward in public, 423. Athens adorned with public buildings by Hostilities renewed ; the Athenians, Cimon and Pericles,464-Thasos reduced victorious in Thrace, offer peace, which to subjection and cruelly treated, 463— the Peloponnesians refuse; number of Cimon banished; the power of the Areo- citizens in Athens, 20,000, 422-peace of pagus reduced, and the common treasury Nicias, 421-Alcibiades negotiates an albrought from Delos by Pericles, 461– liance with Argos; Amphipolis retained war with Corinth; the Athenians de- by the Lacedæmonians, 420-hostilities feated at Tanagra by the Lacedæmoni- renewed; the Peloponnesus invaded by ans, 457–Cimon recalled ; victory over Alcibiades, 419-victory of the Lacedæthe Bæotians at Enophyta; the long monians at Mantinea ; Argos withdraws walls completed, 456–Tolmides sent to from the alliance, 418-intellectual purassist the Egyptians -- Ægina taken, suits not interrupted at Athens by the 455 - Perdiccas of Macedon joins the war, 417--the island of Melos conquered, Spartans against Athens; expedition of 416 — expedition to Sicily; Alcibiades, Pericles against Sicyon and Acarnania, recalled, takes refuge in Sparta, 415– 454-a five years' truce among the Greek war in Sicily, 414-Decelea fortified by States settled by Cimon, 450 death of the Lacedæmonians; disastrous close of Cimon, 449.

the Sicilian expedition, 413—desertion Athens the principal seat of Greek of the allies of Athens; her reserve fund philosophy, literature, and art, 448 — applied to the expenses of the war, 412. -the Athenians break the truce, and are Government of the Four Hundred ; defeated at Coronea, 447. See ATTICA. its framer, Antipho, put to death ; naval -A truce concluded for thirty years, victory of Cynossema; Alcibiades re445 – the most flourishing period of called; return of Lysias from Thurium ; Athens, under the management of Peri- revolt of Eubea, 411---victory of Alcles, 441-sends a colony under Lampon cibiades near Cyzicus ; proposals of to build Thurium, in Italy, 443—the peace by the Lacedæmonians, 410--LyParthenon, Propylæa, and Odeum, dia invaded; Pylos lost, 409—Selymbria built by Pericles and Phidias, 442-siege and Byzantium taken by Alcibiades, 408 of Samos by Pericles ; performance of -he is again banished, 407-victory of comedy prohibited, 440—the statue of Conon off the Arginussæ ; offer of peace Minerva by Phidias placed in the Par- made by the Lacedæmonians again rethenon, 438—a colony under Agnon sent jected, 406

battle of Ægospotamus; to Amphipolis; the prohibition of come- destruction of the Atheuian fleet, 405-dy repealed, 437 — the Poikile adorned Athens taken by Lysander, and diswith paintings, 436—the assistance ren- mantled ; thirty governors appointed by dered to Corcyra by Athens leads to the him-Thrasybulus retires to Phyle, 404 Peloponnesian war, 433-sea-fights off --he recovers the city, restores the goCorcyra; Aspasia, Phidias, and Anaxa- vernment, and the exiles return, 4034 goras, are accused of impiety; the latter Andocides takes a leading part, 402. returns to Lampsacus, and Phidias to Expedition of Xenophon into AsiaElis, 432-the Athenians are accused of Athens quietly repairs her losses, 401having broken the truce; the war be- Socrates put to death, 399—Plató withgins. See ATTICA.

draws, travels four years, and returns, Alliance with Sitalces, k. of Thrace, 395—victory of Conon near Cnidus, 394 431-plague at Athens; the Athenians he harasses the coast of the Peloponnesus, repulsed at Epidaurus, 430—death of Pe- rebuilds the long walls of Athens, and ricles; conquest of Potidæa; siege of fortifies the Piræus, 393-defeat of AgePlatæa, 429-siege of Mitylene, 428 silaus by Iphicrates ; death of Conon, conquered, with all Lesbos; an auxi- 392—Andocides banished, dies in exile, liary force sent to support Leontium 391-ten ships sent to assist Evagoras in against Syracuse ; a faction at Corcyra Cyprus, are captured by Teleutias ; attempts to break the alliance with Thrasybulus killed at Aspendus, 390 Athens, 427-Nicias defeats the Lace- Agyrrhius is sent to replace_him ; dæmonians at Tanagra ; victory of De- Iphicrates commands in the Hellesmosthenes at Olpæ ; pacific overtures pont, 389—his fleet driven from Abydos of the Peloponnesians rejected, 426 — by Antalcidas the Lacedæmonian : ChaPylos taken, 425-the island of Cythera brias sent to Cyprus to support EvaATIENS- continued.

ATHENS- continued. foras, 388--Androtion takes a leading Demades defends his twelve years' adpart at Athens, 385.

ministration, 326–Demetrius Phalerens The Athenians resolve to assist the begins to interfere in politics; HarThebans, 379-their hostility to Sparta palus brings his stolen treasure to inflamed by the attempt of Sphodrias Athens, 325-is accused of giving bribes; on the Piræus, 378—improve their ma. Demosthenes retires to Trezen, 324– rine, 377 – defeat the Lacedæmonian comes back, and rouses the Athenians fleet off Naxos, 376 -- jealous of the to regain their freedom; they overpower Thehans, make peace with the Lace- Antipater, 323--are defeated by him at dæmonians, but renew the war, and Cranon ; admit a Macedonian garrison; give the command of their fleet at give up their oratorg ; Demosthenes Corcyra to Timotheus, 374-he defeats poisons himself - 3000 citizens transthe Lacedæmonians, is accused of mis- planted to Thrace, 322. conducting the war, acquitted, and re- The attempts of Nicanor to obtain tires into Asia, 373—the naval superi- power are defeated by Polysperchon; ority of Athens maintained by Iphicrates, Demades put to death, 318-and Pho372-alliance with the Lacedæmonians, cion, Hegemon, and Pythocles ; Deme369—with Arcadia, 366 - unsuccessful trius Phalereus establishes an oligarchy; expedition against Alexander of Pheræ;

census, 317.

See ATTICA.-The philosothe trierarchs, who commanded it, are phers, forbidden to lecture, leave Athens, prosecuted, 362 — failure of Timotheus 316 -the decree repealed, and they reand Charidemus in their attempt to re- turn, 315 -- Demetrius Phalereus exgain Amphipolis, 360-peace with Philip pelled by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and the of Macedon, 359.

democracy restored ; Dinarchus banishExpedition against Euboea under Ti- ed, 307 -- Demochares banished, 302– motheus, 358-Social war between the Lachares makes himself master of Athenians and their former allies; they Athens; is driven out by Demetrius recover Euboea and the Thracian Cher- Poliorcetes, 299-Dinarchus returns, 292 sonesus; Chabrias killed at Chios, 357 -the Pythian games held at Athens, ---second campaign of the Social war; 290—Gorgias, archon; a statue raised to Samos besieged; Isocrates counsels Demosthenes, 280—Anaxicrates, archon, peace, 356-persuaded by Eubulus, they 279–Democles, archon; the four schools recognize the independence of the con- of Athens are headed by Strato, Zeno, federated States, and terminate the so- Epicurus, and Arcesilaus, 278–Pythacial war, 355 - Timotheus retires to ratus, archon, 271. Chalcis, and dies there, 354.

Athens taken by Antigonus Gonatas, A colony sent to Samos; first Philippic 268 - Diognetus, archon, 264 - Athens of Demosthenes; the progress of Philip joins the Achæan league, 229-attacked arrested at Thermopylæ, 352-victory of by Philip V., k. of Macedon, seeks aid Phocion at Tamyne, 850—the Olynthians from Rome, 201-visited by Attalus I., solicit aid; Demosthenes pleads their k. of Pergamus, 200--declared free by cause; troops are sent to support them, the Romans, 188-embassy of Carneades, 349— fall of Olynthus and Eubea, 347- Diogenes, and Critolaus, to Rome, to obpeace with Philip, 346-second Philippic tain remission of a fine, 155—Crassus, of Demosthenes, 344—the designs of Phi- while Roman prætor, hears the philosolip counteracted in Acarnania, at Am- phers of the New Academy and the Pebracia, and in the Peloponnesus, 343– ripatetics, 111--Athens, having declared Diopithes stationed on the Hellespont, in favour of Mithridates, is besieged by 342—third and fourth Philippics of De- Sylla, 87–taken, 86—the library of Apelmosthenes, 341-he urges an application licon removed to Rome, 84-Cicero stufor aid from Persia, 340—the Athenians, dies at Athens, 79-Theophimus, archon, united with the Thebans against Philip, 62–Herocles, 'archon, 60—Cicero sends are defeated at Chæronea, 338-Lysicles, his son to be educated there by Cratippus, the Athenian commander at Chæronea, 44-Horace taken from his studies at, to condemned to death; a decree for bronze join the army of Brutus, 42—Antony restatues of Æschylus, Sophocles, and mains there with his bride, Octavia, 39. Euripides, and the public preservation of Dinophilus, archon, A.D. 49—Paul detheir works, 337.

fends himself before the Areopagus, 52The orators of Athens are delivered to Dionysodorus,archon, 53—Conon, archon, Alexander, and spared by him, 335– 56 - Thrasyllus, 61 -- Demostratus, 65 Æschines, defeated by Demosthenes, Hadrian, 112 — Macrinus, 116 -- Hx“ De Corona," retires into Asia, 330– drian winters there, 122 - again, and ATHENS- continued.

Cantacuzene retires among them, adorns the city with the Olympeium, 1360. theatres, and other edifices, 125-pre- ATHOTES, invention of hieroglyphics by, sides there at public games, 126—again B.C. 2112 (known in the time of Menes, winters there, patronizes the learned and Leps.) enlarges the libraries, 129 - Hadrian Athy, operations of the Irish peat company again visits and dedicates the temple of commenced at, Dec. 8, 1851. Jupiter Olympius, and makes the gift ATILIANUS, consul of Rome, 135. of Cephalonia, 135 — Herodes Atticus ATILIUS, prætor, Roman ambassador to constructs a stadium of white marble Greece, B.C. 192. and other splendid buildings, 143--Apu- ATILIUS, L., one of the first military leius studies there, 149 — M. Aurelius tribunes of Rome, B.C. 414. delivers popular lectures there, 176. ATLANTIC, explored by the Aliagavares,

Plundered by some Gothic tribes, who or Adventurers, who sail from Lisbon, are expelled by Dexippus, 267-Libani- 1014. us declines an invitation to Athens, 352 ATLAS, the supposed era of, B.c. 1580 (1480 - Julian visits, 354-355 — Gregory of C.) Nazianzus, and Basil of Cæsarea, study Atlas, Mount, Abderahman conceals himthere, 355-Julian addresses his letter self in its valleys, 750. to the citizens, 361-taken by Alaric, k. ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY, between Kingsof the Visigoths, 396—Justinian's edict town and Dalkey (Ireland), opened, Mar. closes the schools of philosophy at 29, 1844. Athens, 529.

ATRA, besieged by Sept. Severus, 199. Visited by the emperor Basil II., 1019 ATRATINUS, A. Sempronius, consul of Rome, --plundered by Roger, k. of Sicily, 1146 B.C. 497, 491, -made a Latin duchy by Otho de la ATRATINUS, C. Sempronius, consul of Rome, Roche, 1204—Walter de Brienne, duke, B.C. 423, 1308-conquered by the Catalans, who ATRATINUS, L. Sempronius, consul of Rome, make Roger Deslau duke, 1311-Man- B.C. 444. fred of Sicily invited, 1326_taken by ATRATINUS, A. Sempronius, military triNerio Acciaiuoli, gov. of Corinth, 1386 bune of Rome, B.c. 425, 416. -Phranza is sent by Constantine, despot ATRATINUS, A. Sempronius, one of the of the Morea, to negotiate for its sur- first military tribunes of Rome, abdicates render, 1435-conquered by the sultan, in three months, B.C. 444. Mahomet II., 1456-taken by the Vene- ATRATINUS, A. Sempronius,consul of Rome, tians, under Victor Capello, 1466—re- 89. stored to the Ottomans by the treaty of Atsiz, Malek Shah's lieutenant, conquers peace, 1479—taken by the Venetians; Syria from the Fatimites of Egypt, and during the siege, the Parthenon is in- takes Jerusalem, 1076. jured by the explosion of a powder- ATTALUS I., k. of Pergamus, attacked by magazine, 1687—the Greeks fail in an the Galatians, whom he defeats, B.C. 241 attempt to relieve the Acropolis -assists Antiochus against Achens, 215 besieged by the Turco-Egyptians, 1827 -the Romans send a fleet to assist him, -becomes the capital of the kingdom 208—he defeats Philip V. of Macedon in of Greece, 1833—blockaded by a British a naval battle, 201—visits Athens, 200fleet, 1850-occupied by a French force, d. 197. 1854.

ATTALUS II., k. of Pergamus, B.C. 159-ATHENS, NEw; its aqueducts commenced supported in war against Prusias by

by Hadrian; completed by Antoninus the Romans, 156--d. 138. Pius, 140.

ATTALUS III., k. of Pergamus, B.C. 139– ATHERADES, Olympic victor, B.C. 700. d. 133, having bequeathed his kingdom ATHLONE, gen. Ginkel created earl of, and all his wealth to the Romans.

1691-destroys the French magazines at ATTALUS, appointed emperor by Alaric on

Givet, 1696. See AUGHRIM, battle of. the condition of his sparing Rome, 409ATHOL, the earl of, murders James I., k. deposed by him, 410-sent a prisoner to

of Scotland, at Perth, Apr. 20, 1437. Ravenna, and afterwards banished to ATHOL, duke of, his sovereign rights in Lipari, 416.

the isle of Man purchased by parliament, ATTENDOLO. See SFORZA. 1765.

ATTERBURY, Francis, b. 1662 — made bp. Athos, Mount, disaster of the Persian of Rochester and dean of Westminster,

fleet when passing it, B.C, 491 — the July 3, 1713--committed to the Tower, foolish superstition of its monks ex- Aug. 24, 1722- banished, May 27, 1723cites a controversy with Barlaam, 1341 d. 1732.

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