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1078-captures his revolted vizir, Ahen Omar, and executes him, 1085. ABEN HUD, Moorish k. in Spain, takes Granada, 1232-murdered by his generals, 1237.
can Moors in Valencia, 1019-is killed | ABEN ABED, k. of Seville, takes Murcia, in battle near Granada, 1021. ABDERAHMAN V. BEN HIXEM, caliph of Spain, 1022-assassinated, 1023. ABDERAHMAN, a Saracen commander in Spain, 721-overcomes and slays Munusa at Cerdagne, 731-defeated and slain by Charles Martel and Eudes, 732. ABDERAHMAN, son of the caliph Abdallah, leads the royal army against his brother, Muhamad, 892-overcomes his rebellious brothers, 894.
ABDERAHMAN brother of Abdelmelic, and
ABDON, Judge of Israel, B.C. 1165 (1232 H.; 1212 C.)
ABDUL AHMED, sultan of Turkey, 1774perseveres in war with the Russians; submits to the treaty of Kutchuk Kainardji, July 21-d. April 7, 1789. ABDUL MEDJID, sultan of Turkey, June 30, 1839-by a firman, admits Christians to office in Turkey, Jan. 8, 1849-invests Abbas Pasha with the viceroyalty of Egypt, Jan. 12-encouraged by England and France to resist the demands of Russia, Oct. 3, 1849-his propositions accepted by Nicholas, Dec. 19-forbids the construction of a railway from Alexandria to Cairo, Sept. 4, 1851-grants a firman for it, Nov. 4-agrees to a treaty with France for the protection of the Holy Places in Palestine, Feb. 13, 1852 dismisses, and soon after recalls, Reschid Pasha, Jan.-March-issues a firman for the rights of the Greek and Latin churches in Palestine, May 4, 1853 -protests against the Russian occupation of the principalities, July 14decides on war against Russia, Sept. 18 -invites the British and French fleets to enter the Dardanelles, Oct. 8-enters into a treaty of alliance with England and France, March 13, 1854- places Christians on an equality with Mohammedans, Jan. 26, 1856-joins with his allies in the Treaty of Peace, Apr. 27, ABEL, assassinates his brother, ERIK IV., king of Denmark, and usurps the throne, 1250-falls in battle against the North Frisians, 1252.
ABELARD, builds the convent of Paraclete, of which his mistress, Heloise, is appointed abbess (see HELOISE), 1121 accused of heresy at the council of Soissons, and condemned to burn his writings, 1122-controversy with Bernard, 1125-his doctrines condemned by the council of Sens, 1140-d., and is buried in the monastery of Paraclete, 1142.
ABEN ISHAC BEN OMEYA, gov. of Santarem, leagues with Ramiro, 935.
ABEN OMAR, vizir of Aben Abed, king of Seville, conquers Malaga, and makes an alliance with Alfonso VI., king of Castile, 1079-accused of treachery, takes refuge among the Christians, 1084-captured by Aben Abed and executed, 1085. ABERCONWAY Castle, built 1282. ABERCROMBIE, General, repulsed by the French at Ticonderoga, July 8, 1758. ABERCROMBIE, Ralph, b. 1738- defeats Tippoo Saib, 1792-takes Trinidad, 1797 -lands with a British army at the Helder, Aug. 27, 1799-succeeded in the command by the duke of York, Sept. 13 -lands with an army in Egypt, Mar. 8, 1801-defeats the French at Alexandria, and falls mortally wounded, Mar. 21. ABERCROMBIE, James, brings scurrilous publications for political purposes under the cognizance of the Commons, 1822chosen Speaker in opposition to Mr. Manners Sutton, Feb. 9, 1835-resigns the office, May, 1839. ABERDEEN, University of, founded, 1497. ABERDEEN, Charles, earl of, lays the Household Book of James V. before the Society of Antiquaries, 1826-appointed foreign secretary, Jan. 1828-resigns, Nov. 16, 1830-becomes colonial secretary, Dec. 10, 1834-resigns, Apr. 8, 1835 -attempts, in vain, to form an administration, Feb. 22-27, 1851-becomes the head of a coalition ministry, Dec. 28, 1852-resigns, Feb. 1, 1855.
ABERNETHY, John, an eminent surgeon and popular lecturer on medical subjects, d. 1831.
ABGARUS, k. of Osrhoene, submits to Severus, 199--expelled by Caracalla, 216. ABIJAH, K. of Judah, B.C. 959-956. ABILENE, a province of Judæa, placed
under the jurisdiction of Agrippa, 53. ABILIUS. See ALEXANDRIA, bishops of. ABIMELECH, Judge of Israel, B.C. 1238 (1311 H.)
ABINGDON, Lord, moves a resolution, that it is unconstitutional and illegal to raise troops by private subscriptions, Jan. 16, 1778.
ABINGDON, Mrs., the actress, d. 1815. ABINGER, James Scarlett, Lord, attorney
general, 1829-created a peer and chief baron of the exchequer, 1834-d. 1844. ABISHUA, Jewish high-priest, B.C. 1374 (1320 C.)
ABLAVIUS, consul of Rome, 331-prætorian prefect, put to death, 338. ABO, capital of Finland, built by Erik IX., king of Sweden, 1157-its university founded, 1640-peace concluded at, 1743. ABO, Samuel, usurps the throne of Hungary, 1041-44.
ABOUKIR, a Turkish army routed at, by Bonaparte, July 24, 1799. See NILE, Battle of the.
ABOU NOKTA, the Wahaby, plunders the towns of Yemen, 1804-surprised and killed by the Turk Sherif Hamoud, 1809. ABRAHAM, birth of, B.C. 1993 (2153 H.; 2130 C.)-visits Egypt to buy corn, 1920| (2077 H.; 2031 C.; about 1480 L.)-rescues Lot from the Assyrians, 1912 (2070 H.)-birth of Ishmael, 1910 (2044 C.)birth of Isaac, 1896 (2053, H.; 2030 C.) -death of Abraham, 1821 (1978 H.; 1955 C.) ABRAHAM, Era of, begins Oct. 1, 2016 B.C.— To reduce it to the Christian era, subtract 2015 years and 3 months. ABRAHAM, Heights of-Gen. Wolfe defeats the French there, Sept. 13, 1759. ABRANTES, Laura Junot, Duchess of, d. 1838.
ABSALOM, rebellion of, B.C. 1023.
ABSIMAR. See TIBERIUS III., 698-705. ABSOLUTISTS (partisans of Don Miguel, in Portugal), take arms, 1826-are driven into Spain, assisted by Ferdinand VII., bnt checked by a British auxiliary force. See CARLISTS. ABU ABDALLAH (or BOABDIL), revolts against his father, Abul Hassan, 1482taken prisoner, but released, 1483-contends with his uncle, Abdallah el Zagal, for the throne of Granada, 1484-maintains himself against Ferdinand of Spain, 1490-surrenders Granada, and retires with a pension into Africa, 1492. ABU AYUB, or SULEIMAN, the Arabian historian, d. 909.
ABU BEKER, b. 571-first caliph or succes
sor of Mohammed, sends an army into Syria, under Abu Obeidah and Caled, 632-d. Aug, 23, 634. See ARABIA, caliphs of.
ABU BEKIR, ameer of Lamtuna, founds Morocco, 1069.
ABU JUSEF, K. of the Merines, assists the k. of Granada against the Christians, 1275-truce with Alfonso X. of Castile, 1276-d. 1285. ABU JYUB, AYUB, or JOB, killed in the attack on Constantinople, 668. ABUL ABBAS, or SAFFAH (descendant of Mohammed's uncle, Abbas) emerges from obscurity and claims the caliphate, 746-leader of the Abbassides, 747-caliph, 750—d. 754. See ARABIA, caliphs of.
ABULFARAJI ALI, hist. of the Omeyan caliphs, d. 967.
ABULFEDA ISMAIL, prince of Hamah, Arab. hist. and geog., d. 1331.
ABUL HASSAN, king of Granada, 1466--refuses tribute, and renews the war with Castile, 1478-revolt of his son, Abu Abdallah, 1482-raises the siege of Loxa, 1483-resigns the crown to his brother, Abdallah el Zagal, 1484.
ABULKATUR, or HUSAM, a Saracen commander in Spain, 743. ABULMELIC, after a reign of eight months in Murcia, is deposed by Abdallah Mohamad, 1224.
ABULOLA, Moorish king in Spain, 1227— retires into Africa, and d. 1232. ABULPHARAGIUS, primate of the Jacobite Church, and hist.-d. 1286.
ABUL WALID, deposes his uncle, Nazar, and becomes king of Granada, 1313slain in a revolt, 1325. ABUNDANTIUS, consul of Rome, 393-banished, 396.
ABU OBEIDAH, b. 581-leads an army into Syria, reduces Anbar and Hira, 632-lays siege to Emesa, 635-d. 639.
ABU SAID, kills Ismail, and usurps the throne of Granada, 1360-visits Peter of Castile to ask his friendship, and is treacherously slain by him, 1362.
ABU TAHER, the Carmathian leader, plunders Mecca, and massacres the pilgrims, 929.
ABYDOS, a Milesian colony, founded B.C. 715-the Athenian fleet driven from, by Antalcidas, 388.
ABYSSINIA, Peter Covilham detained there, 1469-expulsion of the Portuguese, 1632. See BRUCE.
ABYSSINIAN ERA. The same as the later MUNDANE ERA of Alexandria, which See. ABYSSINIANS, Frumentius preaches Christianity to them, 329-Justinian leagues with them, 531-request the assistance of the Portuguese in India against the Mohammedans, 1508-are referred to Lisbon, 1509-detain Rodrigo de Lima, the Portuguese ambassador, 1520. ACACIUS, bp of Cæsarea, 340-contest with Cyril of Jerusalem, 357. ACACIUS, bp, of Antioch, 458-of Constantinople, 471-excommunicates Felix III. bp. of Rome, 484-d. 489. ACADEMIE FRANÇAISE, founded, 1635. ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES, founded. 1666. ACADEMIE DES INSCRIPTIONS, founded, 1663, ACADEMIES of learned men, instituted by Abderahman I., 773-founded at Rome, Florence, and other cities, 1470. ACADEMUS, grove and school of Plato, B.C. 374-continued by Speusippus, 347. ACADEMY of Berlin, 1702.
ACADEMY Della Crusca, originated at Flo- ! rence, 1582.
ACADEMY OF MUSIC, at Paris, founded, 1672. ACADEMY, Royal, of the Fine Arts, in London, founded, 1768-of Music, 1823. ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, at Petersburg, founded, by Katharine I., 1725. ACANTHUS, a city of Greece, founded, B.C. 654.
ACAPULCO GALLEON. See ANSON.
ACARNANIA, part of Epirus, attacked by the Athenians, B.C. 454-again, 426-by the Lacedæmonians, 391-submits to them, 390 occupied by an Athenian army to oppose Philip of Macedon, 343. ACASTUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 1024. ACCA, bp. of Hagulstad, or Hexham, 710 -expelled, 733-d. 737.
ACCA, daughter of Ælla, married to Ethelfrid; unites Deira to Bernicia, 588. ACCESSION, HANOVERIAN, Aug. 1, 1714. See GEORGE I.
ACCHо. See PTOLEMAIS.
ACCIAIUOLI, ANTONIO, duke of Athens, 1394 -d. 1435.
ACCIAIUOLI, Nerio, gov. of Corinth, obtains possession of Athens and Thebes, 1386 made duke of Athens; d. soon after, 1394.
ACCIAIUOLI, Nicolo, a Florentine banker, acquires lands in the Morea, 1334-prime minister to Katharine of Valois, 1339returns from the Morea to Italy, 1341hereditary grand-marshal of Naples, and count of Amalfi, 1348-conquers a large part of Sicily for the king of Naples, 1354-raises the siege of Catania, and returns to Naples, 1357-the barony of Corinth is granted to him, 1358-d. 1365. ACCIUS. See ATTIUS.
ACCOUNTS, Commission of, established, 1780.
ACENCHERES, king of Egypt, B.C. 1549. ACERRA, the Count of, put to death in Sicily, 1196.
ACESTORIDES, Athenian archon, B.C. 504, 474.
ACHEAN LEAGUE revived, B.C. 280-joined by other cities, 276-Marcus of Cerynea prætor, 255-Sicyon joins, 251-Aratus prætor, 245-joined by Corinth, Megara, and other states, 243-supported by Antigonus Doson, and joined by Athens, 229 at war with Lacedæmon, 227-Argos rejoins, 195-Sparta joins, 192-Ptolemy Epiphanes, of Egypt, renews his alliance, 187 attempt to revive the League, 149-broken up by the Romans, 146. See ACHEANS.
ACHEANS, found Crotona and Locri, in Italy, B.C. 710-are assisted against the Etolians by Agis IV. of Lacedæmon, 241-support the Etolians against De
metrius II., king of Macedon, 239-call upon Antigonus Doson to assist them against Cleomenes III., 223- Timoxenus prætor, 221 defeated by the Etolians, at Caphyæ, 220-a Roman fleet co-operates against them, 208-Philopomen prætor, 201-detached from Philip by Flaminius, 198-altercations with the Lacedæmonians, and embassy to Rome, 188-to Egypt, 187-Lycortas prætor, 182-Polybius ambassador to Rome, 181-alliance with Rome, 177Polybius commands their cavalry, 169 -a thousand hostages taken to Rome, 167-fruitless embassy to solicit their return, 155--300 restored, 151-Diæus prætor, 149-quarrel with the Lacedæmonians, when Rome interferes, 148retire to Corinth before Metellus, 147defeated at Leucopetra by Mummius, and Corinth taken, 146.
ACHEUS, of Eretria, tragic poet, b. B.C. 484. ACHEUS, rebels in Lydia against Antio
chus, B.C. 216-assisted by Attalus I., of Pergamus, 215-overcome, and Sardis taken, 214.
ACHAIA, a State in the Peloponnesus, said to have been founded by Achæus (a fabulous person, C.), B.C. 1080-invaded by Epaminondas, 366. See ACHEAN LEAGUE.
ACHAIA, principality of, in the Morea, founded by William de Champlitte, 1205 -obtained by Geoffrey de Villehardouin the Younger, 1210-by Geoffrey II., 1218 -by his brother, William, 1246-conquest of the Morea, 1248-war with the emperor Michael, 1259-three fortresses ceded to him, 1262-betrothal of Isabella to Philip, son of Charles of Anjou, 1267
death of William, 1277- - Isabella, princess, marries Florenz of Hainault, 1291-Maud, their daugnter, and heiress of the principality, 1297. See ISABELLA and MAUD, Katharine of Valois, regent, 1339.
ACHEPSION, Athenian archon, B.C. 482. ACHERRES, k. of Egypt, B.C. 1512. ACHILLAS. See ALEXANDRIA, bishops of. ACHILLES, statue of, placed in Hyde Park, June 18, 1822.
ACHILLEUS, revolts in Egypt against Diocletian, 297. ACHILLI prosecutes the Rev. J. H. Newman for a libel, 1852-defendant couvicted and fined, Jan. 31, 1853. ACHMED I., sultan of the Ottomans, 1603 -1617.
ACHMED II., sultan of the Ottomans, 1691 -1695.
ACHMED III., sultan of the Ottomans, 1703 declares war against Russia, 1710-deposed by the Janizaries, 1730.
ACHMET, son of Bajazet II., rejected by the
ACHORIS, K. of Egypt, B.C. 1537.
ACRAZANES, k. of Nineveh, or Assyria,
ACRE (See PTOLEMAIS), taken by Baldwin, k. of Jerusalem, 1104-by Saladin, 1187 -besieged by Guy of Lusignan, 1189— his army succoured by a fleet of Danes, Frisians and Flemings, 1190-the kings of England and France arrive, to whom the city surrenders, July 17, 1191-given to the Knights Hospitallers, and called St. John d'Acre, 1193-battle between the Genoese and Pisan fleets in the harbour of, 1223-Frederic II., emperor of Germany, lands, 1228-the Genoese fleet defeated by the Venetians and Pisans, 1258-Prince Edward of England lands, 1270-drives Bibars from the siege of, 1271-capture of the city by Chalil, May 18, 1291-besieged by Bonaparte, March 18, 1799-defended by Sir Sidney Smith; the siege raised, May 20-taken by Ibrahim Pasha, 1832-by the allied fleet, Nov. 3, 1840.
ACRISIUS, first king of Mycenæ, B.C. 1344 (1313, C.)
ACROPOLIS of Athens, the Greeks fail in an
ACTIUM, battle of, Sept. 2, B.C. 31.
ACYNDINUS, consul of Rome, 340. ADAIR, Sir Robert, d. 1850. ADALARD, abbot of Corvey, a grandson of Charles Martel, is counsellor and vicegerent of Pepin, in Italy, 798-restored to his abbey, 821. ADALBERT, son of Berenger, crowned with his father, king of Italy, Dec. 15, 950
ou the defeat of his father, escapes to Corsica, 964-returns to Lombardy, is defeated, and conceals himself in the mountains, 965.
ADALBERT 1., duke of Tuscany, acts for Carloman, 878-d. 890.
ADALBERT II., duke of Tuscany, conspires with Berenger against Arnulf, 896-rebels against Lambert, duke of Friuli, is made prisoner, released, and reinstated by Berenger, 898-d. 917. ADALBERT III., duke of Tuscany, 1001-1014. ADALBERT, archbp. of Bremen, favourite of Henry IV., emperor of Germany, 1063 -banished, 1066.
ADALBERT, brother-in-law of the emperor Henry II., prevented by him from obtaining the archbishopric of Treves, 1008. ADALBERT, bishop of Prague, killed in Prussia, 997.
ADALWALD, K. of Lombardy, 615-625. ADAM, Adm. Sir Charles, governor of Greenwich Hospital, dies 1853. ADAM, Gen. Sir Fred., dies, 1853. ADAM, Mr., introduces the Begum charge against Warren Hastings, Apr. 15, 1788. ADAM, Sir Philip Villers de l'Isle, grandmaster of the Knights of Rhodes, 1521 -surrenders to the Turks, and retires into Sicily, 1522-visits Henry VIII., 1528.
ADAM, of Bremen, writes his History, 1063. ADAMNAN, abbot of Iona, presents his book on the Holy Places, to Alfrid, k. of Northumberland, 703.
ADAMS, Gen. H. W. dies, 1855.
ADAMS, John Quincy, b. 1769-pres. U.S., 1825-loses his re-election, 1828-d. 1848. ADAMS, Mr., calculates the elements of an unknown planet, 1845. See NEPTUNE. AD AUTOLYCUM. See THEOPHILUS, bp. of Antioch.
ADDA, K. of Bernicia, part of Northumberland, 560-567.
ADDA, a river in Italy-Odoacer defeated there, Aug. 11, 490, and the French, by Suvarof, May 27, 1799.
ADDINGTON, Dr. Antony (father of Lord
ADDINGTON, ministry, Mar. 17, 1801-joined by Tierney and Hobhouse, June, 1803opposed by Pitt and Fox, Apr. 16, 1804 -displaced, May 12.
ADDISON, Joseph, b. 1672-Irish secretary, 1708-first performance of "Cato," Apr. 14, 1713-secretary to the council of regency, 1714-of state, 1717 - resigns, Mar. 14, 1718-d. June 17, 1719. "ADDITIONAL ACT," of Napoleon, June 1, 1815.
ADELA, wife of Baldwin IV,, count of Flanders, hospitably receives Emma, the widow of Canute, 1037. ADELAIDE, daughter of Rudolf II., ex-king of Italy, affianced to Lothaire, 938 married, 947 - she remains in Pavia after the death of her husband, 950ill-treated by Berenger, solicits the protection of Otho, the emperor, who rescues, and marries her, 951-is crowned empress of the West, 962-visits Rome, 981-d. 999.
ADELAIDE, & Russian princess, widow of Otho, marquis of Brandenburg, married to the emperor Henry IV., 1089-accuses him before the council of Constance, 1094.
ADELAIDE, daughter of Robert, count of Flanders, and widow of Roger, count of Sicily, guardian of her two sons, 1101marries Baldwin, k. of Jerusalem, 1113. ADELAIDE, of Sardinia, marries Enzio, natural son of the emperor, Frederic II., 1239.
ADELAIDE, of Louvain, married to Henry I., of England, Feb. 2, 1121. ADELAIDE, of Saxe-Meiningen, marries the duke of Clarence, July 11, 1818 queen, 1830-crowned, 1831-visits Germany, July 5, 1834-d. Dec. 2, 1849. See AMELIA.
ADELARD, Wm., a citizen of Ferrara, raises troops to relieve Ancona, 1174. ADELGISO, prince of Benevento, surprises the emperor Louis, and the empress Angilberga, 871-saved by the pope, and the emperor Basil, from the vengeance of Louis, 873-defeated by the Saracens, 875.
ADELGISUS, son of Desiderius, k. of Lombardy a marriage proposed for him with the daughter of Bertha, 770-escapes to Constantinople, 774-claims the crown of Lombardy, 775-totally defeated, 788.
ADELPHI. See TERENCE.
ADELPHIUS, FL. consul of Rome, 451. ADELUNG, John Christopher, prof. at Leipzig, and librarian to Frederic Augustus III., elector of Saxony, 1787d. 1806.
ADEN, on the coast of Arabia, taken possession of, by a British force, 1839. ADEODATUS, Pope, 672-676.
ADHERBAL, defeats the consul Claudius, off Drepanum, B.C. 249. ADHERBAL, expelled by Jugurtha from Numidia, B.C. 118-restored by the Roman senate, 117-killed by Jugurtha, 112.
ADIABENE, conquered by Sept. Severus,
ADIMANTUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 477.
ADOLPHUS, of Nassau, crowned k. of Germany, at Aix-la-Chapelle, June 24, 1292 -ally of Edward I., 1294-defeated and slain by Rudolf's son, Albert, 1298. ADOLPHUS, Fred., duke of Holstein Gottorp, and bishop of Eutin, chosen successor to the throne of Sweden, 1743becomes king, 1751-d. Feb. 12, 1771. ADOLPHUS, Fred., seventh son of Geo. III., b. Feb. 24, 1774. See CAMBRIDGE, duke of. ADOPTIANS, heresy of, 792. ADORNO, Gabriel, doge of Genoa, 1363— deposed, 1370.
ADORNO, George, doge of Genoa, 1413. ADORNO, PROSPERO, defeats a revolt in Genoa, 1477.
ADOSINDA, Sister of Aurelius, k. of the Goths in Spain, married to Silo, 771inaugurated, with her husband, at Oviedo, 774.
ADRAMELES, or SAMMUGHES, k. of Nineveh or Assyria, B.C. 687. ADRAMMELECH I., k. of Nineveh or Assyria, B.C. 1000, La. ADRAMMELECH II., k. of Nineveh or Assyria, B.C. 840, La,
ADRASTUS, k. of Sicyon, B.C. 1215 (1192 C.) ADRIAN. See HADRIAN. ADRIAN IV., pope, 1154-quarrels with Frederic I., emperor, and burns Arnold of Brescia, 1155-gives Ireland to Henry II., 1156-asserts Germany to be a papal benefice, 1157-puts a different interpretation on his letter, quarrels again, and d. 1159.
ADRIAN V., pope, 1276.
ADRIAN VÍ., pope, Jan. 19, 1522-d. Sept. 14, 1523.
ADRIANOPLE, battle of, July 3, 323-taken by the Bulgarians, 813, 914, 922-stormed by Frederic I., emperor of Germany. 1190 Baldwin I. made prisoner by the Bulgarians, 1205-taken by Theodore, emp. of Thessalonica, 1224-Roger di Flor assassinated, 1307-taken by Amurath, and made his residence, 1361Charles XII. prisoner there, 1713-the Russians advance to, 1829--treaty concluded, Sept. 14.