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ATTICA, kingdom of, founded by the Pe- Rhodes, 1476-repels the assault of the
lasgi, time uncertain; first known king, Turks, July 26, 1480-—is elected a carOgyges, B.c. 1796-flood in his time, 1764. dinal, 1489-d. June 30, 1503. See ATHENS.- Invaded by the Lacedæ- AUCA (Occa) on the Ebro; the Saracens are monians, 445, 431, 430, 428, 427, 425, 413 defeated near, by Ramiro II. and Fer--total population, 527,000,.. 317.
dinand, count of Castile, 934. ATTICUS, T. Pomponius, b. B.C. 109-goes AUCHMUTY, Sir Samuel, takes Montevideo,
to Athens, 87-returns to Rome, 65— Feb. 2, 1807-captures Batavia and all Cicero sends him a history of his own the Dutch settlements in Java, Aug. 26, consulate in Greek, 60--d. 32.
1811. ATTICUS, consul of Rome, 397.
AUCKLAND, Lord, dinner of the E.I.C. ATTicus. See CONSTANTINOPLE, bps. of. directors to, on his appointment to be ATTICUS, A. Manlius Torquatus, consul of Governor-general, Sept. 5, 1835-returns Rome, B.C. 244, 241.
to England, 1842-d. 1849. Atticus, C. Vettius, consul of Rome, 242. AUDÆUS, propagates the AnthropomorATTICUS, M. Vestinus, consul of Rome, 65. phite heresy, 341. ATTICUS. See HERODES.
AUDEFLEDA, sister of Clovis, married to ATTIGNI, in Ardennes, Diet of, 822.
Theodoric, Ostrogothic k. of Italy, 48. ATTILA, son of Mundzuk, succeeds with his AUDLEY, Lord, killed in the battle of Blore
brother Bleda, their uncle Rugilas, as heath, Sept. 23, 1459. joint kings of the Huns, and dictates Audley, Lord, heads the Cornish insurterms of peace to the Eastern empire, rection, marches into Kent, is defeated 433-attacks the Burgundians, 435-in on Blackheath, June 22—and executed alliance with the Romans, defeated by 1497. the Visigoths at Toulouse, 439_-takes AUDLEY, Sir Thomas, appointed lord chanSingidunum and Naissus, 441---murders
cellor, 1532, Bleda, and reigns alone, 444—makes a AUDUBON, I. J., b. 1775—0. 1851. treaty of peace with Theodosius II., 447 AUERSTADT, battle of, Oct. 14, 1806. See -receives ambassadors from him, 448 JENA. a plot of the Romans to murder him is AUERSWALD, Major Von, murdered, Sept. atoned for by a heavy tribute, 449—de- 18, 1848. mands the princess Honoria in marriage, AUGEREAU,Gen.,establishes the ascendancy and determines to support the claim of the moderate party in France, 1797. made by a brother of Meroveus to the AUGHRIM, or ATHLONE, battle of; the Irish throne of the Franks, 450_invades Gaul, defeated by Gen, Ginkel; the French commits great havoc, and besieges Or- gen., St. Ruth, slain, July 12, 1691. leans ; defeated at the battle of Chalons AUGSBURG, Diet of, 952-battle of; the (sur Marne) by Aetius, retires into Pan- Hungarians defeated by Otho I., 955nonia, 451–having recruited his army, taken by Guelf IV., duke of Bavaria, 1088 he advances into Italy, and destroys -Diet of, 1275–Protestant confession of, Aquileia; Leo, bishop of Rome, and two presented to the Diet, June 25, 1530-deother ambassadors, by paying a large cree of the Diet against it, Nov. 19; sum of money, induce him to withdraw Diet, where an interim is prepared beyond the Danube, 452-d. 453.
which satisfies neither Protestants nor ATTius, or Accius, writes tragedies, B.C. Catholics, 1548-Diet of, confirms the 140—his “Tereus" appears, 103.
treaty of Nassau, Sept. 25, 1555--league ATTOCK, taken by the Affghans, Jan, 10 of, by which the principal continental
evacuated by them, March 17, 1849. states unite to resist France, 1686 --ATTWOOD, Thomas, the banker, heads the taken by the French, 1703_recovered by
Birmingham Political Union, Feb. 1,1831. Marlborough and prince Eugene, 1704 ATYRAS, a river of Thrace, near which taken by the French, Oct. 10, 1805.
Belisarius repels the Bulgarians, 559. AUGUR, consul of Rome, 121. AUBEROCHE, battle of; Henry, earl of Der- AUGUR, Cn. Corn. Lentulus, consnl of
by, defeats the Count de Lisle, and Rome, B.C. 14. takes him prisoner, 1345.
AUGURINUS, C. Minucius, consul of Rome, AUBIGNE, Françoise, b. 1635-married to BC. 458--besieged in his camp by the Scarron, 1651-Louis XIV. gives the Æqui, 458.
ds of ntenon to her after her hus- AUGURINUS, M. Genucius, consul of Rome, band's death, 1674. See MAINTENON,
B.C. 445. MADAME DE.
AUGURINUS, M. Minucius, consul of Rome, AUBRIOT, provost of Paris, lays the first B.C. 497, 491.
stone of the Bastile, April 22, 1370. AUGURINUS, P. Minucius, consul of Rome, AUBUSSON, Sir Peter 'd', grand master of B.C. 492,
AUGURINUS, Q. Minucius, consul of Rome, | AUGUSTUS—continued.
Samos, 21-regulates all the dependent AUGURINUS, Tib. Minucius, consul of Rome, states of Greece and Asia, sends Tiberius B.C. 305.
into Armenia ; puts an end to the conAUGURINUS, L. Minucius, appointed præ- fusion there, and makes Tigranes king; fectus annone, B.O. 439.
recovers the trophies and prisoners taken AUGURINUS, C. Serius, consul of Rome, 156. by the Parthians from Crassus and AnAUGURINUS, consul of Rome, 132.
tony; again winters at Samos, 20-reAUGUSTA, title given to the mothers and turns to Rome, Oct. 12, 19-the empire
wives of some of the emperors ; to Ma- again voted to him for five years, renewmæa, mother of Alex. Severus, 223-to able at its expiration, 18-celebrates the Helena, mother of Constantine, 317--to secular games; adopts the two sons of
Eudoxia, wife of Theodosius II., 423. Agrippa ; orders the Æneid to be pubAUGUSTA of Saxe Gotha, marries Frederic, lished; visits Greece, 17 - repairs the
prince of Wales, April 27, 1736—d. Feb. Roman road in Spain, and extends it to 8, 1772.
Cadiz, 14-returns to Rome, 13-assumes AUGUSTA, daughter of Frederic, prince of the office of Pontifex Maximus, 12-com
Wales, and afterwards duchess of Bruns- pletes the theatre of Marcellus, 11
wick, b. Aug. 11, 1737---d. March 23, 1813. again visits Gaul, 10--his imperial power AUGUSTA SOPHIA, daughter of George III., again renewed for ten years, and the b. Nov. 8, 1768-d. 1840.
name of the month Sextilis changed to AUGUSTA, princess of Bavaria, marries that of August in his honour, 8--orders
Eugene Beauharnais, Jan. 14, 1806. a general survey and reparation of the AUGUSTA, princess of Hesse Cassel, marries water courses, 5-divides Judæa among
the duke of Cambridge, May 7, 1818. the sons of Herod, 3-provides splendid AUGUSTAN HISTORY, written by Trebellius games for the people, and a representation
Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus, 291-by of a naval battle; banishes his daughter Ælius Spartianus, 297.
Julia to the isle of Pandataria, 2-sends AUGUSTINE, 6. Nov. 13, 354—visits Rome, his grandson Caius to frustrate the 383
Milan, 385 - writes “De Beata designs of Phraates in Armenia, 1-apVita,” 386 ordained bp. of Hippo Re- pointed for a fourth term of ten years, gius, 395--begins to write “ De Civitate A.D. 3-adopts Marcus and Tiberius, 4Dei,” 411-writes against Pelagius, 415 banishes Archelaus, and makes Judæa & -names Eradius as his coadjutor and Roman province, 6-banishes Ovid, 8– successor, 426-completes "De Civitate defeat of Varus, 9-a fifth ten years' term Dei,” 428-d. at Hippo Regius, Aug. 28, of imperial rule voted to him, 13-d. 430.
Aug. 9, 14. AUGUSTINE, sent to preach Christianity in AUGUSTUS, the imperial title of all future
Britain, well received by Ethelbert, k. of sovereigns of Rome; distinguished from Kent, and a dwelling is assigned him in that of Cæsar by Vespasian to Titus, 71 Canterbury, 596-goes to Arles, and is --by Hadrian to Ælius Verus, 136--by ordained bp. of the English, 597-epistle Antoninus Pius to M. Aurelius, 139-by of Gregory to, 601--founds the cathedral Diocletian to Constantius Chlorus and and abbey of Canterbury, 602—d. May Galerius, 292 — and thenceforth perma26, 604.
nently. AUGUSTINE order of mendicant friars, es- AUGUSTUS, duke of Brunswick, 1633–1636. tablished, 1256.
AUGUSTUS, elector of Saxony, 1553—-settles AUGUSTODUNUM. See AUTUN.
the differences among the princes of the AUGUSTUS. See OCTAVIUS.-He takes the family by the treaty of Naumburg, 1554
title of Augustus in the fifth year of his d. 1586. See Saxony, electors of, and reign, B.c. 27, in which year he visits kings of;
and POLAND, kings of. Spain and Gaul, and projects only an AUGUSTUS FREDERIC, hereditary prince of incursion into Britain; checks a revolt Hesse Homburg, marries the princess of the Cantabri and Astures, returns to Elizabeth, May 7, 1818. Rome, and again closes the temple of AUGUSTUS FREDERIC, sixth son of George Janus, 25—the tribunitian power voted III., b. Jan. 27, 1773. See Sussex, duke to him for life; refuses to give up Tiri- of. dates to the Parthians, 23 - the sixth Aulic Council, the, established by the book of the Æneid recited to him and his emperor Maximilian, 1501. sister Octavia by Virgil, 22-regulates Aulus. See ALBINUS. the police of Rome, and appoints Agrip- AUMALE, count of, slain at Verneuil, Aug. pa prefect of the City, 21 -- travels 16, 1424. through Italy and Greece and winters at AUMALE, duke d', son of Louis Philippe,
attempt to assassinate, Sept. 13, 1841-— | AURELIUS-continued.
appointed governor of Algeria, 1847. are entirely defeated, which gives rise to AURAy, battle of, Bertrand du Guesclin de- the fable of the “ Thundering Legion,"
feated and captured by the Breton forces 174-goes to the East, accompanied by
under John Chandos, Sept. 29, 1364. the empress, who dies near Mount TaiAURELIAN, b. 214-lieutenant of the em- rus, where Faustinopolis is built, in
perors Valerian and Gallienus, repels honour of her, 175-settles the affairs of the Goths, 257-on the death of Clau- the East at Smyrna, where the philodius II., is acknowledged emperor, 270 sopher Aristides is presented to him, and -makes peace with the Goths and re- he attends his lectures; gives lectures linquishes Dacia to them, transferring himself at Athens, then returns to Rome that name to another province; confirms and celebrates a triumph, 176--allows the the decree of the council of Antioch, and Christians to be persecuted in Gaul, 177 expels Paul of Samosata, 270—drives - the aggressions of the Germans rethe Marcomanni and Gutungi over the quire his presence; he purposes to keep Danube, and grants peace to the Vandals; them in check by constituting two new rebuilds the walls of Rome, 271-pro- provinces to the north of the Danube, ceeds to the East against Zenobia, en- 178 -- successful campaign against the counters some Goths in Thrace, and Marcomanni, 179—d. March 17, 180. drives them out of the empire ; takes AURELIUS, Victor, fl. 358 — completes his Tyana, Emesa, and Antioch, 272—Pal- “ De Cæsaribus," 360-proconsul of Panmyra surrenders to him, he takes Ze- nonia, and is honoured by Julian with a nobia prisoner, and puts Longinus to statue, 362. death ; returns to Europe, 273-defeats Aurelius assassinates Froila, and makes Tetricns at Chalons; having reunited himself k. of the Goths in Spain, 769all the broken-up parts of the empire, he too weak to control the intestine divisions celebrates a splendid triumph at Kome, of his kingdom, obtains peace by paying and treats generously his captives Ze- a tribute to Abderahman, 769-gives his nobia and Tetricus; dedicates a temple sister Adosinda in marriage to Silo, and to the sun, improves the city, and re- makes him heir to the throne, 771--11.774. gulates the general system of govern- AUREOLUS,defeats and slays Macrianus, and ment, 274—marches to attack Persia, and is proclaimed cniperor by his armıy, 262 is assassinated by Mucapor, between -Gallienus treats with him, 263--in
Heraclea and Byzantium, March 20, 275. vades Italy and takes Milan, 267-beAURELIANUS, consul of Rome, 400.
sieged there by Gallienus, taken and put AURELIUS, M., b. 121 - educated by M. to death by Claudius, 268.
Fronto, Sextus of Chæronea, and all the AURICULAR CONFESSION, enforced hy the most celebrated teachers in Rome, 133— Fourth Lateran Council, 215. adopted by Antoninus with the title of AURORA frigate lost on her passage to the Cæsar, and married to his daughter East Indies, 1771. Faustina, 139—invested with the Tri- | AURUNCUS, Post. Comin., consul of Rome, bunitian power, 147-becomes joint em- B.C. 501, 493 II. peror with L. Verus, 161-Hermogenes AURUNGZÉBE, dethrones his father Shah lectures before him, 163 - sends his Jehan, and occupies the Mogul sovedaughter Lucilla to Ephesus, where she reignty of India, 1658–d. 1707. is married to Verus; corresponds with Ausonius, D. Magnus, the poet, preceptor his former tutor Fronto, 164-celebrates of Gratian, son of Valentinian, 370—prea triumph with Verus for the Parthian fect in Gaul and consul, 379--concludes war, 166-proceeds to Aquileia against his Fasti, 382—friend of Paulinus, 393– the Marcomanni accompanied by Verus, d. 394. 167 — secures Italy against invasion; AUSTERLITZ, battle of; total defeat of the hears and acquits Herodes Atticus, 168- combined Austrian and Russian army, by the death of Verus becomes sole em- by Napoleon I., Dec. 2, 1805. peror; his over-indulgence blinds him to AUSTRALIA, first discovery of gold in, May the vices of Faustina and Commodus, 14, 1851--more extensive, Dec. 10. See and he allows her to introduce a court NEW HOLLAND, NEW SOUTH WALES, exclusiveness, 169--the war against the VAN DIEMAN's LAND, and Botivy Bay, Marcomanni continued, he resides at Austrasia, East France, or kingdom of Carnuntum; appoints Alexander of Co Metz, on the death of Chlotair, is the portyæum his Greek secretary,170-receives tion of his son Sigebert I., 561-he is slain Melito's apology for Christianity, 172-- by his brother, Chilperic, and succeeded makes a short visit to Rome; after his by his son, Childebert II., 575--on whose return to the army, the German tribes death his son, Theodebert II., takes
Austrasia, 596-reunited with Burgundy to Neustria by Chlotair II., 613-again divided on the death of Dagobert I., and Austrasia is inherited by Sigebert II., 638 - Grimoald, mayor of the palace, attempts to place his son on the throne, falls in the struggle, and Chlotair III. becomes sole king of France, 656-years of confusion and intestine war follow ; Dagobert II., son of Sigebert II., is placed upon the throne of Austrasia, 674 --murdered, and his dominions are ruled by Pepin of Heristal, and Martin, with the title of dukes, 680—Pepin gains the battle of Testry, and is master of France, allowing nominal kings in Neustria, 687 --having founded the Carlovingian dynasty, he dies, 714—his son, Charles Martel, retains the same ascendancy as duke of Austrasia, 715 - defeats the Neustrians at Amblef, 716—at Vincy, 717--the Saracens near Tours, 732-00cupies Aquitaine and Gascony, 735-sole ruler of France, 737-exacts tribute from the Saxons of the Lippe, 738---unites with Liutprand of Lombardy to expel the Saracens, 739d. Oct. 22, 741-his son Carloman takes Austrasia ; retires to Monte Casino, and gives up his territories to his brother Pepin the Short, 747. See PEPIN, CHARLEMAGNE, EAST
FRANCE, and FRANCONIA. AUSTREGILDIS, wife of Gontran, k. of Or
leans and Burgundy, d.; her physicians, Nicolaus and Donatus, are put to death,
580. Austria, the Noricum of the Romans, con
quered and made a province during the Pannonian wars of Augustus, between B.C. 8 and A.D. 9_in the decline, and after the fall of the Western Empire, occupied successively by different tribes till the Avars or Huns obtain permanent possession, 568-taken from them by Charlemagne, peopled by him with a German colony, and called the Eastern March, or Oesterreich, whence its present name, 799-in the division of his empire, attached to Bavaria, and held by the Guelph family. See BAVARIA.
Taken from Henry II. by the empress regent Theophania, and given to Leopold, count of Bamberg, with the title of margrave, 984--reunited when the margrave Leopold III. receives Bavaria from the emperor Conrad III., 1138—he is succeeded by hi rother, Henry X., 1142—the emperor Fred. Barbarossa, in his pacification of Germany, erects Austria into a separate duchy for Henry IX., who resigns the rest of Bavaria to Henny the Lion, 1153.
Duke Frederic attempts to obtain the crown of Hungary, and is defeated by Bela IV., 1235 - defeated again, and slain, 1246-Austria annexed to Bohemia by Ottocar II., 1253-resigned by him to the emperor Rudolf of Habsburg, 1276 -he endeavours to recover it, 1277 -finally annexed to the House of Habsburg, 1278-Rudolf invests his son, Albert, with the duchy, 1282. See GERMANY, and SWITZERLAND.
Acquisition of the Tyrol, 1363-treaty of Union between Bohemia and Austria, 1364-invaded by the Hungarians, 1446created an archduchy by the emperor Frederic IV., 1453—the Netherlands acquired by the marriage of Maximilian to Mary, heiress of the deceased duke of Burgundy, 1477—the marriage of their son, Philip, to Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, forms the connection with Spain, 1496-treaty for the marriages designed to unite Hungary and Bohemia with Austria, 1506--they are solemnized, 1521—the union effected, 1526.
On the death of Maximilian, his eldest grandson, Charles, k. of Spain, succeeds in the Netherlands, and the youngest, Ferdinand, in the States of Austria, 1519--the Thirty Years' War begins, 1618. See GERMANY and AUSTRIANS.--To check this growing power, a league is formed by Venice, Savoy, and the United Provinces, 1619 - alliance with Spain and Savoy to resist the claims of France on Mantua, 1628– troops sent to occupy the Valteline, 1629—incorporation of the Tyrol, 1665 - the archduke Charles claims the crown of Spain ; his brother, the emperor Leopold, in alliance with Great Britain and Holland, commences the Spanish succession war, 1701. See GERMANY, and AUSTRIANS.
Charles succeeds his brother, Joseph I.; is elected emperor of Germany, and relinquishes Spain, 1711—by the treaty of Rastadt, the Netherlands are re-annexed to Austria, and Naples, Sardinia, and Milan acquired, 1714-Barrier treaty with the United Provinces, 1715 Charles obtains the assent of his hereditary States to his Pragmatic Sanction, which secures the succession of his daughter, Maria Theresa, 1723--it is acknowledged by Spain, 1725-guaranteed by Great ita 1731-Ma Theresa inarries Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine, afterwards grand duke of Tuscany, 1736-succeeds her father, 1740-is attacked by Prussia, France, Bavaria, and Saxony; appeals to the loyalty of her
AUSTRIA--continued. subjects; enthusiasm in her cause ; the principalities, 1854-proposes four George II. of Great Britain, and Charles conditions of peace, and sends conint Emanuel, of Sardinia, are the only sove- Alexander Esterhazy to Petersburg reigns who respect their obligations as to urge their acceptance, 1855-joins in guarantees of the Pragmatic Sanction, the negotiations in Paris, and concurs in 1741. See GERMANY, and AUSTRIANS. the treaty of peace; resists the inter
Secret alliance with Russia, 1753- ference of the pope with heretical books, alliance with France, and Seven Years' 1856. War, 1756. See GERMANY, and AUSTRIA AUSTRIA, Charles, archduke of, b. 1771 ANS.—Maria Theresa joins the combi- takes the command of the Austrian army nation against Poland, and marches an in Suabia; falls back on the Danube, army into the country, 1771--receives July 1796–is defeated by Moreau at Neher share of the first partition, 1772- resheim, Aug. 10 ; defeats Bernadotte at d. 1780- her son, Joseph II., attempts Neumarck, Aug. 23, and Jourdan at great reforms, 1781-is opposed by his Würzburg, Sep. 3 ; lays siege to Kehl, nobles and the pope, 1782 - Francis II. Oct. 26--captures it, Jan. 9, 1797--takes shares in the second partition of Po- the command in Italy; is defeated by land, 1793. For the coalitions against Bonaparte on the Tagliamento, March France, in 1792, 1799, 1805, 1809, and 16--crosses the Lech, March 4, 17991813, see GERMANY; AUSTRIA, CHARLES, defeats Jourdan at Stockach, March 22; ARCHDUKE of, and AUSTRIANS.
and drives him back to the Rhine; reFrancis II. relinquishes and abo- signs the command of the Austrian army lishes the title of emperor of Germany, April, 1800 — passes the Inn, April 9, and takes that of Francis I. as heredi. 1809-d. 1847. tary emperor of Austria, 1804–joins the AUSTRIA, archduke John, defeated by Mo"Holy Alliance," 1815-sends an army, reau on the Traun, Dec. 3, 1800-elected and crushes the revolution in Naples; regent of Germany, 1818--resigns, 1849. imprisons Alexander Ipsilanti on bis AUSTRIANS, defeated at Breitenfeld by Torsflight from Greece, 1821-recalls his am- tenson, 1642—at Villa Viciosa, by the bassador from Madrid; Great Britain Duke de Vendôme, Dec. 20, 1710-recover agrees to accept from him £2,500,000 in Messina, and all Sicily, 1719-defeated full payment of loans of £30,000,000, by count Montemar at Bitonto, May 27, 1823 — he releases Ipsilanti, 1828 - d. 1734-by the k. of Prussia at Molwitz, 1835.
1741 - and in Saxony, 1745 -- in conHis son and successor, Ferdinand, junction with the k. of Sardinia, drive confides in his minister, Metternich; the French out of Italy, 1746-besiege Cracow annexed to Austria, 1846-the Genoa, March 31 ; raise the siege, June Italian provinces demand reforms; Met- 10, 1747 - invade Prussia; advance to ternich declares against them; general Berlin, Oct. 17 ; retire before the prince insurrection; he resigns and takes of Anhalt Dessau; take Schweidnitz, flight; the emperor Ferdinand leaves Vi- Nov. 12; defeat the prince of Bevern, 22; enna, and gives up his crown to his take Breslau, 25; are defeated by Frebrother, Francis Joseph, 1848.
deric the Great at Lissa, Dec. 5, 1757Assisted by Russia to put down the lose Schweidnitz; defeat Frederic at revolt in Hungary ; defeat of Charles Hochkirch, 1758-take Leipsic and DresAlbert by Radetzky; the grand duke of den, 1759-in concert with the Russians, Tuscany restored by Austrian troops, take Berlin, Oct. 9, 1760 – reduce 1649--- Austria requires Turkey to give Schweidnitz, 1761 — sanguinary camTip Kossuth and other fugitives, Aug. paigns in Italy, Germany, and Switzer23-meeting of the emperors of Aus- land, 1796, 1799-defeated at Marengo, tria and Russia at Warsaw; the com- June 14, 1800 — at Austerlitz, Dec. 2, motions in Hesse Cassel repressed by 1805 peace concluded at Presburg, an Austrian army; threatened collision Dec. 20—battles of Aspern and Essling, with Prussia; the emperor Francis Jo- May 22, 1809-and of Wagram, July 5, seph proposes a mutual disarining, 1850 of Leipzic, Oct. 16--19, 1813--repulsed
unites with Prussia to restore the at Goito, May 30, 1848—reoccupy Milan, anthority of the king of Denmark in Aug. 6-invest Comorn, Jan. 3, 1819. Holstein and Schleswig, 1851-visits AUTHARIS, k. of Lombardy, 574 --- recogBerlin, 1852--wounded by an assassin ; nized by the turbulent dukes, 584-d. meets the emperor Nicholas at Olmütz, 591. 1853-enters into a treaty of alliance AUTO DA FE at Lisbon, where Malagrida with Great Britain and France; occupies and fifty others are burnt, Sep. 29, 1762.