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AUTOMENES, last k. of Corinth, B.C. 746. AVENTINENSIS, L. Genucius, consul of Rome, AUTOSTHENES, Athenian archon, B.C. B.C. 362. 668.

AVENTINENSIS, L. Genucius, consul of AUTRONIUS, P., elected consnl of Rome, but Rome, B.C. 303.

set aside and punished for bribery, B.C. AVENTINUS, L. Genucius, consul of Rome, 65.

B.C. 365. AUTUN, the ancient Augustodunum, En- | AVERNUS, Lake, destroyed by a volcanic

menius, professor of rhetoric there, en- eruption, B.c. 1538. deavours to restore its schools, 299— AVERROES, the Arabian physician, fl. at addresses his Orat. Panegyric. to Con- Morocco, 1199. stantine there, 310-obtains from him a | AVERSA (the ancient Atella), granted to remission of taxation for Autun, 311- the Normans, 1029-Conrad II, confirms Magnentius revolts, 350-reduced by the them in their fortress, 1038Andrew of Saracens, 725 - Ermengarda, queen of Hungary, husband of queen Joanna, Provence, after surrendering Vienne, murdered there, Sept. 18, 1345—taken by returns to Autun, 882—council of, ex- Alfonso V. of Aragon, 1440.

communicates Philip of France, 1094. AVICENNA, Med. Arab, f. 1003--d. 1037. AUVERGNE, invaded by Euric, k. of the AVIENUS, Faustus, junior, consul of Rome, Visigoths, 470-ceded to him by Ecdi

502. cius, 474.

AVIENUS, Gennadius, consul of Rome, 450. AUXIMUM (now Osimo), surrendered to Avienus, Rufus Magnus Faustus, consul Belisarius, 539.

of Rome, 501. Ava, a British embassy received at, Sept. Avignon, possessed by Okbah, who is ex17, 1855.

pelled by Charles Martel, 737—removal AVARS, send an embassy to Justinian, 557 of the papal see to, 1309 – confirmed,

- to Justin II., 565-succeed the Longo- 1316_visit of Robert of Naples to pope bardi and Gepidæ in Pannonia, 568-in- John XXII., 1319-sold by Joanna, queen vade Thrace, but are repulsed by Tibe- of Naples, to pope Clement VI., 1348— rius, 570-defeat him on the Danube, 574 Clement VII. resides at, and begins the -under their khan Baian, they harass schism of the West, 1378---taken possesThrace and threaten the empire, 587-- sion of by Louis XIV., 1663-restored by Maurice marches against them, 592- him to the pope, 1690-seized by Louis Priscus drives them across the Danube XV., 1768-restored to Clement XIV., and compels them to make peace, 593— 1769---annexed to France, by the National Peter, brother of Maurice, breaks the Assembly, Sept. 23,1791--many royalists peace, and they defeat him, 594--are de- massacred there--ceded to France by the feated by Priscus, and remain inactive pope in the treaty of Tolentino, Feb. 19, some months, 595----repulsed by him at 1797. Tomi, 598-defeat Comentiolus; 12,000 A VIOLA, ACILIUS, cons!ıl of Rome, 122. prisoners massacred, 599—they are again AvioLA, M. ACILIus, consul of Rome, 54. defeated by Priscus,600-occupy Thrace, Aviola, consul of Rome, 239. 609—treacherously attack Heraclius, 619 Avisa, daughter of the earl of Gloucester, --make peace with him, 620 — break divorced by king John, 1200. through the long wall, advance to the Avitus, consul of Rome, 144. gates of CP., and after many unsuccess- Avitus, consul of Rome, 209. ful attacks, retire; from this time their Avitus, proclaimed emperor of the West, power declines, 626 - Bertaridus, the 455 — sends count Fronto to negotiate Lombard, expelled by Grimoald, seeks with the Spanish Suevi; abdicates, and their protection, 662–Grimoald employs dies soon after, 456. them in his service, and is obliged to Avitus, bp. of Vienne, noted for his eloexpel them from his kingdom, 666— quent homilies, letters, and poems, 496. called by some historians, Huns; they AxErdis, k. of Nineveh and Assyria, B.C. invade Bavaria and Friuli, and are re- 670. pulsed, 788-campaign of Charlemagne A YBAR, battle of; victory of Muhamad against them; are defeated by the duke over Garcias, k, of Navarre, 882. of Friuli, 791- finally subdued by Char- AYESHA, daughter of Abu Beker, marries lemagne, and their accumulated spoils Mohammed, 619 - supports Moawiyah seized by him, 799.

against Ali; made prisoner and sent to AVein, near Luxemburg, prince Thomas Medina, 656—d. 677.

of Savoy defeated there by the marshals AYLESFORD, battle of, between the Britons de Chatillon and de Bresse, 1635.

and Saxons, 455. AVENTINENSIS, Cn. Genucius, consul of AYLMER, Lord, gov.of Canada, d. 1834. Rome, B.C. 363.

AYOUB, a Saracen commander in Spain, 717.

AYOUBITES, defeated near Gaza, by the qu. Elizabeth, and release Mary, qu. of Carismians, 1243.

Scots; detected and punished, 1586. AYR, commemoration of the poet Burns BABINGTON, Dr., b. 1757d. 1833. at, Aug. 6, 1844.

BABYLAS. See ANTIOCH, bishops of. AYR steamer runs down the Comet steamer, BABYLON, conquest of (by what people in the Clyde, Oct. 21, 1825.

uncertain), B.c. 2059 (2233 C.)-date of AYUB. See ABU AYUB.

earliest astronomical observations at, A ZAHRA, the magnificent palace of Abder- 2234 (2230 H., 2233 C.) of the first re

ahman III., at Cordova, built, 936. corded eclipse of the moon, observed at, AZAKE, or public hospital, erected at Gra- Mar. 19, 721-subdued by Cyrus, 538– nada by Muhamad V., 1376.

revolts; taken after a siege of twenty AZARIAH, Jewish high-priest, B.C. 959. months, by Darius, 518—by Alexander, A ZNAR, son of Eudes, drives out the Sara- 331—Harpalus flees from, with great

cens, and erects an independent power treasure, to Athens, 325—Alexander rein Aragon, 737.

turns to, 324-Seleucus, gov. of, 321AZOF. See AsoF.

expelled by Antigonus, 315—restored, AZORES, the, discovered by the Portuguese, 312.

1432-colonized by them, 1450-expedi- BABYLONIAN empire commences, under tion of Antonio of Portugal against, 1582 Nabonassar, b.č. 747—followed by -the authority of queen Maria esta- Nadius, 733. blished there, 1830.

Chinzirus, and Porus, 731. Azzo, marquis of Este, leads the Guelph Jugæus, 726.

faction in Ferrara, 1196-expelled by Sa- Mardocempadus, or Merodach Baladan, linguerra, leader of the Ghibelines, 1209 721. -he recovers his power in Ferrara, 1211 War with Assyria, 713. -d. 1212.

Archianus, 709. Azzo VII., marquis of Este, 1215-1221—

Anarchy, 704, expelled from Ferrara by Salinguerra, Hagisa. Baldanes. Belibus, 702. 1222 — the emperor Frederic concerts Asordanes, or Apronadius 699 measures against him, 1232-defeated at Regihalus, 693. Padua, 1238 — takes Ferrara, 1240-re- Mesesimordachus, 692. covers the Este territories, and takes the

Anarchy, 688. city of Padua, 1256–d. 1264.

A saridinus, 680.
Azzo VIII., marquis of Este; his sister, Saosduchinus, 667.

Beatrice, married to Galeazzo, son of Chinaladanus, 647.
Matteo Visconte, 1300—marries Bea- Nabopalassar, 625.
trice, daughter of Charles II. of Naples, Nebuchadnezzar, 606.
1305—loses his ascendancy in Modena Capture of Nineveh. See ASSYRIA.
and Reggio, 1306-d. 1308.

Conquest of Judah, 605—of Tyre, 572. Azzo, duke of Spoleto, 651.

Evilmerodach, or Elvarodam, 563.
Azzo, son of Galeazzo Visconte, defeats Neriglissar, 559.

the Florentines and their allies at Cappi- Laborosoarchod, 556.
ano, 1325—he succeeds his father, 1328 Belahazzar, or Nabonadius, 555.

- he and his brothers repulse the papal Overthrown by Cyrus, 538.
legate from Ferrara, 1333—he obtains BACCANCELDE (Beckenham); Wictred
possession of Como and Crema, 1335— holds a council at, 694.
takes Brescia, 1337—d. 1339.

BACCHANALIAN orgies interdicted at Rome,

and in all Italy, by the senate, B.c. 186. BACCHIS, k. of Corinth, B.C. 925.

BACCHUS, the theatre of, at Athens, the B

first of stone in Greece, built, B.C. 478. BACCHYLIDES, lyric poet, A. B.c. 450.

BACCHYLUS, bp. of Corinth, 196. BAASHA, k. of Israel, B.c. 953.

Bacciocchi, husband of Napoleon's sister, BABBAGE invents his calculating machine, Elise, is made prince of Lucca and Tus1822.

cany, June 23, 1805. BaBER, a descendant of Timour, reigning Back, capt., returns from his arctic expe.

in Cabul, takes Lahore, 1524-Bengal, dition, Sept. 9, 1835. 1529.

Bacon, Francis (afterwards lord), b. 1561 BABEUF, forms a conspiracy against the -first distinguishes himself by his con

French Directory, May 10, 1796-exe- duct in the trial of the earl of Essex, cuted, May 25, 1797.

1600—defends monopolies in the House BABINGTON, Antony, plots to assassinate of Commons, 1601-debates with Sir Ed

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ward Coke on the Union of England and makes peace with the French republio, Scotland, 1607--created viscount St. Al- 1796—takes the title of elector, afterban's, and appointed lord chancellor, 1617 wards exchanged for that of grand duke, --confesses his acceptance of presents or 1803—gives his people a representative bribes, is deprived of his office, fined, government, 1818-joins the commercial and imprisoned ; James I. restores him union (Zollverein), and completes the to liberty, remits his fine, and allows frontier, 1835—driven from Carlsruhe him a pension, 1621 -- he writes his by his subjects, May 14, 1849-restored, " Novum Organum," and "De Augmen- June 23—the grand duke Chas. Leopold tis Scientiarum," 1624- d. while on a Frederic, d. Apr. 24, 1852—his eldest son, visit to the earl of Arundel at High- Louis, relinquishes the succession to his gate, Apr. 9, 1626.

brother, Frederic William, May 4. BACON, Sir Nicholas, appointed lord keep- BADEN, prince Louis of, takes Landan, er, 1558-d. 1579.

1702—with Marlborough, forces the BaBacon, Roger, b. 1214--proposes to pose varian lines at Schellenberg, and takes

Clement IV. a reformation of the ca- Donawert, July 2, 1704—and recovers
lendar, 1267——is forbidden to teach at Ox- Landau; drives Villars back over the
ford, and confined to his monastery, 1269 Rhine, and takes Hagenau, 1705.
-d. 1292.

BADEN, Dr. Richard, founds Clare Hall,
BACON, John, b. 1740—his group repre- Cambridge, 1326.

senting the Thames and its attributes BADON, MOUNT, called by Bede Baddesplaced in the quadrangle of Somerset down Hill, and a victory said to have House, Apr. 13, 1789—d. 1799.

been gained there by the Britons over ВАСТВА, ow Balkh, taken by Alexander, the Saxons in 493—by others in 511 and B.C. 330.

520.
BAÇTria, or BACTRIANA; Alexander passes BADONICUS. See GILDAS.

the winter in, B.C. 32G-revolts against BADVILA. See Totila.
Antiochus, 254–Theodotus founds the BAFFIN explores the Bay to which his
kingdom of, 250—-treaty of alliance with name has been given, 1616.
Parthia, 243—Theodotus II., d. 221—and BAGADIUS claims the bpric. of Bostra, 394,
is succeeded by Euthydemus, who is at- BAGAUDÆ of Gaul are repressed by Maxi-
tacked by Antiochus Magnus, 212-his mian, 285.
son, Demetrius, k., 200—Menander fol- BAGDAD, built by Almansor, 758—the ca-
lows; his time not accurately known; liphs of, sink into insignificance, 936–
Eucratides I. conquers part of India ; is Togrul Beg drives the Bowides from,
assassinated by his son, Eucratides II., 1055—stormed by Hulagou, and its ca-
who allies himself with Demetrius Ni- liph put to death, 1258-taken by Ti-
cator against Mithridates I. of Parthia, mour, 1401—first hostilities between the
140—is defeated, and loses a large por- pasha of, and the Wahabys, 1797.
tion of his territories, 138~is expelled BAGNAL, Sir Edward, defeated by Tyrone
from the rest by the wild Tartars, and on the Blackwater, 1598.

the kingdom of Bactria ends, 127. BAGNALO, treaty of, between the Italian BADAJOS, Ordonio II. pursues the Sara- States and Venice, Aug. 7, 1484.

cens to, and compels them to make BAGOAS, minister in Persia, places Arses,
peace, 918—Ramiro II, and Aben Isaac the youngest son of Ochus, on the throne
Ben Omeya advance to, 935-conquered after his father's assassination, B.C. 338
by Yussef, 1093—taken by the Moors, -kills Arses, places Darius Codomanas
1161-recovered by Alfonso, k. of Por- on the throne, and is put to death for
tugal, 1168—taken by Alfonso IX., 1229 his crimes, 336.

- besieged by the Portuguese, but with- BAGOT, Sir Charles, governor-general of
out success, 1705-treaty of, between the Canada, unites the most popular leaders
prince regent of Portugal, and France of all parties in official situations, 1842.
and Spain, Sept. 29, 1801 — taken by Bagot, Dr., bp, of Bath and Wells, b. 1783
Soult, Mar. 11, 1811-by Wellington, -d. 1854.
Apr. 6, 1812.

Bagsac, a Danish k., defeated by Alfred,
BADDESDOWN HILL. See BADON, Mount. and slain, 871.
BADEN, erected into a margraviate, by BAHAMA ISLANDS, the first discovery of
count Bernhard, 1430 — the margrave Columbus, 1492-English settlements in
joins the Protestant Leagne, 1608_com- 16294-taken by the Spaniards, 1782-
mands their army, and is defeated by restored, 1783.
Wallenstein, 1627-treaty of, between BAHAR, ceded to the East India Co., by the
the German empire, France, and Spain, treaty of Allahabad, Aug. 12, 1765.
signed Sept. 5, 1714 – the margrave BAHARAM,or Varanes. See Persia, kings of.

BAHRAM, the Persian gen., repelo the BALAKLAVA, capture of, Sept. 26, 1834

Turks, 586-at the head of a Persian battle of, Oct. 25. army, receives a total defeat from the BALBEC, the ancient Heliopolis in Syria; Roman gen. Comentiolus; is reproved and temple of the Sun built by Sept. Severus, insulted by Hormisdas, and revolts, 589 200— held by Odenathus and Zenobia, -usurps the regal power for a time, 590 262-72-taken by the Saracens, 637 —

-retires among the Turks, and d. 591. destroyed by the Carmathians, 900. BAIAN, khan of the Avars, harasses BALBINUS, D. Cælius, consul of Rome, II.

Thrace, and threatens the empire, 587– 213-elected emperor by the senate, is compelled to make peace by Priscus, murdered by the prætorians, 238. 593- conference with Priscus, after which BALBOA, Vasco Nunez de, reaches the hostilities are resumed, 595 - attacks American coast of the Pacific Ocean, Tomi, which is defended by Priscus, 598 1513. --holds a conference with Heraclius, 619 Balbus, M. Acilius, consul of Rome, B.C. -fails in his attacks on CP., 626.

150. BAILLIE, Joanna, b. 1763–d. 1851. BALBUS, M. Acilius, consul of Rome, B.C. BAILLY, president of the National Assem- 114.

bly, urges it not to separate at the BALBUS, D. Lælius, consul of Rome, B.C. 6. command of the king, June 20, 1789— BALBUS, L. Norbanus, consul of Rome, 19. mayor of Paris, July 16 - assists La BALBUS, Qu. Julius, consul of Rome, 129. Fayette to disperse a tumultuous assem- BALDASI, k. of Nineveh or Assyria, B.C. blage calling for the deposition of the 800 La. king, July 17, 1791-executed, Nov. 11, BALDIMER. See BULGARIANS. 1793.

BALDRED, k. of Kent, 805-conquered and BAINES, E., b. 1774-d. 1818.

expelled by Egbert, 823. BAIRD, Sir David, captures the Cape of BALDULF, bp. of Witherne, 791.

Good Hope, Jan. 8, 1806-d. 1829. BALDWIN I., emperor of the East, 1204BAJAZET 1. (Tuerim), sultan of the Otto- defeated and made prisoner at Adriano

mans, 1389-compels the emperor John ple hy the Bulgarians and revolted V. to destroy his new fortifications, and Greeks; he dies in captivity, 1205. See his son, Manuel, to attend him at the BALDWIN IX., count of Flanders. siege of Philadelphia, 1390—defeats Si- BALDWIN II., brother of Robert de Courtegismund, k. of Hungary, with a con- nay, succeeds him as emperor of the federate army of French princes and East, with John de Brienne as acting nobles, and the knights of Rhodes, at colleague, 1228-takes the government the battle of Nicopolis, Sept. 28, 1396– into his own hands, and visits Flanders his designs against CP. are interrupted to implore assistance from Western by the approach of Timour, 1400-to- Europe, 1237--returns to Constantinople tally defeated, and made prisoner at the • with a large army, raised by the sale of battle of Angora, July 28, 1402-.d. in the holy crown of thorns, and other relics, сар

to the k. of France, 1239 campaig BAJA ZET II., sultan of Turkey, succeeds against Vataces; loses almost all his pos

to the throne after a contest with his sessions in Asia; his Latin auxiliaries, brother, Dschem, 1481--makes war on

receiving no pay, abandon him, 1240— Kaitbai, sultan of Egypt, 1490—resigns again visits the West to beg support, the throne to his son, Selim, 1511 — 1244 -- pleads before the Thirteenth put to death, 1512.

General Council at Lyons for assistance, BAKER, Sir Richard, the chronicler, b. 1568 1245 - truce with Michael Palæologus, d. 1645.

1260_expelled from Constantinople, 1261 BAKER, Sir Robert, censured for having -cedes the suzerainty of Achaia to

allowed queen Caroline's funeral to pass Charles of Anjou, 1267-d. 1272. through the city, resigns his office of BALDWIN, count of Hainault, brother of magistrate, 1821.

Godfrey de Bouillon, joins the first cruBAKEWELL, Robert, b. 1726-d. 1795.

sade, 1096—quarrels with Tancred, seBALA, Alexander, rebels in Syria, B.C. 153 parates from the army, and obtains for

-establishes himself at Ptolemais, is himself the principality of Edessa, 1097 recognized by Rome, and supported by -on the death of Godfrey, succeeds him Jonathan Maccabæus, 162. See ALEX- as Baldwin I., k. of Jerusalem, 1100ANDER BALA.

defeats the Turks, and takes Ptolemais, BALAAM, the prophet, lived B.C. 1480. 1104-assisted by a Venetian fleet, takes BALAGUER, taken by the count D'Har- Tripoli, 1109—niarries Adelaide, widow court, 1645.

of Roger, count of Sicily, 1113. at BALAK, k. of Moab, B.c. 1480.

Rhinoscorura 'El Arisch), 1118,

BILDWIN II. (de Bourg), count of Edessa, under the protection of Charlemagne,

elected k. of Jerusalem, 1118defeats 799-submit to the Almoravides, 1097 -
the Turks at Antioch, 1119—taken pri- taken by the Pisans, 1114—by James ing
soner by the Saracens, 1122-ransomed, k. of Aragon, 1232-given to James,
attacks Aleppo, and is defeated by Gen- brother of Pedro III., 1276-taken froin
ghi, Atabek of Mosul, 1127-defeated him by his nephew, Alfonso III., 1286.
near Damascus, he d. 1131,

See MAJORCA, and MINORCA.
BALDWIN III., succeeds his father, Fulk, BALEG, a Saracen commander in Spain, 742.

k. of Jerusalem, his mother, Melusina, Baleus, or XERXES, k. of Assyria, B.C.
regent, 1142 – takes Ascalon, 1153 — 1857 (1980 C.).
d. 1162.

BALEUS, k. of Assyria, B.c. 1754 (1860 C.).
Baldwin IV., son of Amaury, k. of Jeru- BALFOUR, and other Covenanters, murder

salem, with Raymond III., count of Tri- Sharpe, abp. of St. Andrew's, May 1,
poli, his guardian, 1173 — repulses Sa- 1679.
ladin, 1179_disabled by leprosy, resigns Balista takes the imperial title at Edes-
his crown to his nephew, Baldwin V., sa, but is overcome by Odenathus, 262.
1183.

BALKAN, the, crossed by the Russians, 1829.
BALDWIN V., k. of Jerusalem, under the See KUNOBITZA.

regency of Raymond, 1183- d. 1186. BALKH, occupied by Houssein, brother-inBALDWIN, carries off Judith, danghter of law of Timour, 1366—taken by Timour,

Charles the Bald, is pardoned, and cre- 1367—the seat of his first sovereignty, ated count of Flanders, 862.

1368. See BACTRA. BALDWIN JI., count of Flanders, 879 BALLANTYNE, John, Sir Walter Scott's marries Elfrith, daughter of Alfred, 891 printer and publisher, b. 1776—d. 1821. d. 918.

BALLIOL, John, a descendant of David, BALDWIN (II.,count of Flanders, conjointly earl of Huntingdon, brother of Williain with Arnulf, 918-965.

the Lion, claims the crown of Scotland, BALDWIN IV., count of Flanders, 989— 1290—-refers to Edward I. of England,

seizes Valenciennes, 1006 -- resisted by 1291-the crown is awarded to him; he Henry II., emperor of Germany, 1007 — does homage to Edward, at Newcastle, d. 1036.

1292—he hesitates to obey a summons BALDWIN V., count of Flanders, 1036 — from Edward to appear in London, 1293

hospitably receives Emma, widow of -renounces his feudal subjection to
Canute, at Bruges, 1037 -- also Sweyn England,, and leagues with the k. of
Estritson, son of Ulf Jarl, and Canute's France, 1295--made prisoner at the bat-
sister, Estritha, 1045-rebels, is defeat- tle of Dunhar, Apr. 27, and resigns his
ed, and submits to the emperor Henry crown, 1296 — retires to France, and d.
111., 1049—his daughter, Matilda, mar- there in a private station.
ries William, duke of Normandy, after Balliol, Edward, son of John, claims the
wards k. of England, 1052 — he does crown of Scotland, collects an English
homage to the emperor Henry IV., 1057 army, and lands on the coast of Fife; is
--regent for Philip I. of France, 1060- crowned at Scone, Sep. 27; is soon after
Tostig, earl of Northumberland, takes defeated at Annan by Sir Archibald
refuge at his court, 1065-d. 1067.

Douglas; is driven into England, 1332BALDWIX VI., the Good, count of Flanders, restored and does homage to Edward 1067-d. 1070.

III., 1333 — he holds a parliament at BALDWIN VII., count of Flanders, 1111- Edinburgh, Feb. 19-excites the hatred

mortally wounded at the battle of Bren- of the Scotch; takes refuge at Carlisle, neville, 1119.

Dec. 24, 1334-is again conducted into BALDWIN VIII., count of Flanders, 1191- Scotland by Edward III., 1335-resigns 1194.

his claim on Scotland to Edward for a BALDWIN IX., count of Flanders, 1194– pension, 1355

joins the fourth crusade, 1201-emperor BALLIOL COLLEGE, Oxford, founded, 1263. of the East, 1204. See BALDWIN I., em- Balloon, invented by Mongolfier; tirst peror of the East.

ascent, 1783.

See PILATRE DE Rosier, BALDWIN DE RFDVERS, holds out in Exeter LUNARDI, BLANCHARI), Money, Gar

against k. Stephen, and is brought to NERIN, NASSAU. terms, 1136.

BALLOON TELEGRAPH. See FLEURUS Baldwin, tried for printing Junins's Let- battle of.

ters, and acquitted, July 13, 1770. BALLOT, motion for the, by Mr. Grote, reBALEARIC ISLANDS, conquered by Qu. Cæ- jected, March 7, 1837.

cilius Metellus, consul of Rome, B.C. 123 BALLYNAHINCH, the Irish rebels defeated ---occupied by the Vandals, A.D. 426 at, by gen. Nugent, June 12, 1798.

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