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ADRIATIC, its shores plundered by the Ge- EMILIANUS, consul of Rome, 244, 249, 259, noese fleet, 1351.

ADRYMETTUM, council of, 1283.

ADULIS (NOW ARKEEKO), a port on the Red Sea, where Ptolemy Euergetes erected a statue, B.C. 225.

ADVENTUS, Consul of Rome, 218. ADVERTISEMENTS, duty on, repealed, July 21, 1853.

FACES, reinstated in Samos, B.C. 494, EBOTAS, Olympic victor, B.C. 756. EDESIUS, pupil of Iamblichus, succeeds him in the chair of philosophy, 329visited by Julian, and d. 355. EDUI, resist Cæsar, B.C. 52. EGE. See PHILIP II., of Macedon. EGEUS, K. of Athens, B.C. 1283 (1284 H.) EGIALEUS, K. of Sicyon, B.C. 2089 (1813 C.) EGIDIUS, resists Ricimer, in Gaul, 461-ESCHINES, Olympic victor, B.C. 760. k. of the Franks, 462-defeats the Visi- ESCHINES, the orator, b. B.C. 389-present goths, near Orleans, 463-d. 464. at the battle of Tamynæ, 350-leaves EGINA, war with Athens, B.C. 491-taken Athens, 330-d. 314. by the Athenians, 455-asylum of Demosthenes, 324.

ÆSCHYLUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 777. ÆSCHYLUS, the tragic poet, b. B.C. 525excels Choerilus and Pratinas, 499-obtains the prize, 484-"Persæ," 472"Oresteia," 458-d. 456-a bronze statue erected to him, 337.

ESIMIDES, Athenian archon, B.C. 742. ESOP, the fabulist, lived, B.C. (619, 571, or 564). See PHÆDRUS.

ÆTIUS, consul of Rome, 432, 437, 446, 454 -supports John Primicerius, 423-employs a body of Huns, 424-enters into the service of Valentinian III., 425relieves Arles, 426-deceives Bonifacius, 427-defeats Clodion, 428-his duplicity is discovered by Bonifacius-repulses the Germans in Gaul, 430-is defeated by Bonifacius, takes refuge among the Huns, and regains his power, 432-defeats the Burgundians, 435-again, 436 -employs an auxiliary force of Huns, 437-Merobaudes writes his panegyric, 443-the Britons apply to him for assistance, 446-allies with the Visigoths against Attila, and defeats him, at Chalons, 451-murdered by Valentinian III., 454.

ETIUS, Eccles., instructs Eunomius in his doctrines, 353.

ETOLIA, subdued by Antipater, B.C. 322invaded by Philip V., 218. See GREECE. ETOLIANS, seize the mountain-passes to Delphi, B.C. 290-league together against Lysimachus, 284-war with the Achæans, 241-attacked by Demetrius II., 239 -Ariston, prætor, 221-defeat the Achæ ans at Caphyæ, 220-alliance with Rome, 211-assisted by a Roman fleet, 208-defeated by Antiochus, at Panium, 198assist Flaminius at Cynoscephalæ, 197alliance with Antiochus, 193-L. Scipio

ÆGISTHEUS, k. of Mycenæ, B.C. 1183.
EGOSPOTAMUS, battle of, B.C. 405.
EGYDRUS, K. of Sicyon, B.C. 1891.
ÆLIA CAPITOLINA, built, 131.
ELIAN, the sophist, fl. 222.
ELIANUS, Consul of Rome, 187.
ELIANUS, Cn. Papirius, consul of Rome,

ELIANUS, L. Roscius, consul of Rome, 223.
ELIANUS, Tacticus, fl. 97.

ELIUS SPARTIANUS (supposed to be the
same as El. Lampridius and Vulcatius
Gallicanus), writes his Augustan His-
tory, 297.
ELIUS VERUS, adopted by Hadrian, 135-
receives the title of Cæsar, 136-d. Jan.
1, 138.

ELLA lands in the south of Britain, 477
-king of Sussex, 490-takes Andreads.
ceaster, 491-first Bretwalda, 506.
ELLA, or ELLA, K. of Deira, 560-588.
EMILIANUS, Qu. Fabius Max., consul of
Rome, goes to Spain against Viriathus,
B.C. 145.

EMILIANUS, Pub. Corn. Scipio Africanus
(son of Paulus Æmilius) conducts the
war in Spain, B.C. 151--as consul, takes
the command in Africa, 147-destroys
Carthage, 146-sent to conduct the war
in Spain, 144-ambassador to Egypt, 143
-consul II., proceeds to Spain, 134-re-
duces Numantia, 133-d. 129.
EMILIANUS, Niger's gen., defeated by Se-
verus, 194.


ENEAS, in Italy, B.C. 1182 (doubtful, C.)
EOLIAN migration, B.C. 1123.

EOLIS, added to the kingdom of Perga-
mus, B.C. 263.

ÆOLUS, K. of Phthiotis, B.C. 1383 (1380 C.) AQUI, war with Rome, B.C. 464-besiege the consul Minucius in his camp, 458again attack Rome, and are totally routed, 446-part of their dominions taken by the Romans, 426-lose Bolæ, 414annexed to Rome, 303.

EMILIANUS, Fulv., consul of Rome, 206. EMILIANUS, Valerian's gen., saluted emperor by his army, and killed, 253. EMILIANUS, rebels in Egypt against Gallienus, 262-put to death, 263.

ROPUS, K. of Macedon, B.C. 602. ÆROPUS, guardian of Orestes, son of Archelaus, B.C. 399.

Esc, k. of Kent, 488-512.

grants them a truce of six months, 190| -they give up Ambracia and Cephalonia, and pay tribute, 189.

AFER, Domitius, fl., 45-superintends the public aqueducts, 49-d. 59. AFFGHANS. See ATTOCK. AFRANIUS, Burrus, prætorian præfect, 51 -d. 62.

AFRANIUS, L. consul of Rome, B.C. 60supports Pompey in Spain, 49. AFRICA, Battus arrives, B.C. 640. See CYRENE.-Territories of Carthage extended, 550. See CARTHAGE.-Expedition of A gathocles, 310-unsuccessful, 307-the Romans land, 256-withdraw, 255-ravage the maritime districts, 253 - Ptolemy Euergetes extends his empire, 225. See EGYPT and ADULIS. - P. Corn. Scipio seeks an alliance with Syphax, 206lands with his army, 204-close of the second Punic War, 201-P. Corn. Scipio Emilianus arrives, 147-terminates the third Punic War, 146. See ROME.Africa laid waste by locusts, 125-reduced to obedience by Pompey, 82Cæsar defeats Cato and Juba, 46.

Rebellion of Tacfarinas, A.D. 17—24— first bishop in Africa, at Alexandria, 70the Gordians proclaimed, 238-revolt of Sabinianus, 240-Donatist heresy, 313318. See DONATISTS.-Tyranny of Romans, 336-revolt of Firmus, 372-of Gildo, 397-398-Heraclian rebels, 413Bonifacius invites the Vandals, 428they land, 429-Bonifacius repents, fails in his efforts against them, and returns to Italy, 431-the greater part of Africa is assigned to Genseric, 435-Genseric appoints Arian bishops, 437-takes Carthage, Oct. 19, 439-Genseric d., 477Hunneric, k., 477-484-Gundamund, 484496-Thorismund, 496-523-Hilderic, 523 -grants religious freedom; deposed by Gelimer, 531-Belisarius lands, 533sends Gelimer to Constantinople, and restores the Roman province; Solomon defeats the Moors, 534-a mutiny quelled by Belisarius, 536-peace restored by Solomon, 540-the Moors renew the war, and he is slain, 543-Heraclius and Nicetas proceed from Africa to depose Phocas, 610.

Gregory, prætorian prefect, assumes the purple, 646-defeated and slain by Abdallah, the Saracen, 647-Akbah, or Okbah, begins his conquests, 665-defeats the exarch Gregory, and penetrates into Mauritania, 667-Cairoan founded, 670-Invasion of Hassan, 693-Carthage finally taken, and destroyed, 698-Musa completes the conquest, 707-Christianity supplanted in Africa by the Mohammedan faith, 749-invaded by Boniface, marquis of Tuscany, 828- piratical at

tempts on Spain, 917-Al Hakem employs agents to purchase or copy MSS., 962-war for the recovery of Fez, 972974. See FEZ and MOROCCO.

The Greek emperors invite the Saracens of Africa to oppose Otho, 982-Bona taken by the Pisans, 1035-conquests of the Almoravides, 1067-their power increased by Yusef Ben Taxfin, 1070-he assists the Mohammedans of Spain, 1086 -conquers them, 1091-El Mehedi begins the power of the Almohades, 1121-defeat of Taxfin by Abdelmumen, 1144Roger of Sicily attacks the coast, 1146conquests of Abdelmumen, 1151-Roger takes Tunis, Bona, and other towns, 1152 -Tunis taken by Abdelmumen, 1158he passes into Spain, 1160-his son, Yuzef Jakub, k. of the Almohades, 1163— flight of Mohammad Abdallah, k. to Africa, 1212-the Merines rise in power, 1238-crusade of Louis IX., of France, 1270-the Genoese take Tripoli, 1355Muhamad, k. of Granada, retires into Africa, 1359-leaves, 1361.

The coasts explored by the Portuguese beyond Cape Bojador, 1433-Bartholomew Diaz reaches the southern extremity, 1486. See CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.Vasco de Gama passes it, 1497-Pedro Alvarez Cabral visits the eastern coast, 1500-conquests of Ferdinand of Spain on the northern coast, 1510-the Dutch settle at the Cape of Good Hope, 1650the French possess themselves of Algiers, 1830. See ALGIERS. AFRICAN corsairs infest Italy, 813. AFRICANUS, consul of Rome, 236. AFRICANUS, Iulus Antonius, consul of Rome, B.C. 10.

AFRICANUS, Pub. Corn. Scipio, takes the command in Spain, 211-takes Carthago Nova, 210-advances into the interior, 209 reaches Gades, 207 - negotiates with Syphax, 206-consul, and proceeds to Sicily, 205-lands in Africa, 204-defeats Hannibal, at Zama, 202-peace, return and triumph, 201-consul II., unpopular at Rome, 194 assists his brother, Lucius, in Greece, 190-accused of peculation, retires in disgust to Liturnum, 188-d. 183. AFRICANUS, P. Corn. Scipio Emilianus. See EMILIANUS. AFRICANUS, T. Sextius, consul of Rome


AGAMEMNON, K. of Mycenae, B.C. 1201 (1200 C.)

AGAMESTOR, Athenian archon, B. C. 795.
AGAPETUS, consul of Rome, 517.
AGAPETUS, bp. of Rome, 555-his mission
to C.P., 536.
AGAPETUS II., pope, 946-956.

AGAPIUS, claims the bishopric of Bostra, | AGIS, Agidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 1059 394.

AGAPIUS, the disciple of Proclus, fl. 511. AGATHARCIDES, of Cnidus, hist. fl. B.C. 113. AGATHARCUS, Olympic victor, B.C. 536. AGATHIAS, begins his History, 553-writes 1.v., 559-concludes, 562-the five extant books written, 582. AGATHO, pope, 678-682-orders the restoration of Wilfrid to York, 678. AGATHOCLES, Athenian archon, B.C. 357. AGATHOCLES, obtains absolute power at Syracuse, B.C. 317-defeated at Himera, passes into Africa, 310-returns, 307poisoned, 289. See SYRACUSE. AGATHON, receives the prize for tragedy, B.C. 416.

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AGESILAUS, Agidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 927-883.

AGESILAUS II., Proclidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 398-361 commands the Grecian army in Asia, 396-gains a victory near Sardis, and penetrates into Phrygia, 395recalled from Asia, victorious at Coronea, 394-in the Gulf of Corinth, and at Le chæum, 393-defeated by Iphicrates, 392 -invades and conquers Acarnania, 391 -390-compels the Thebans to give up Platea, 386-besieges and takes Phlius, 881-379-invades Boeotia, 378-377invades Arcadia, 370-assists the Egyptians against Persia, and d. 361. AGESIPOLIS I., Agidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 394-380-invades Argolis, 390takes Mantinea, 385-d. in the third campaign against Olynthus, 380. AGESIPOLIS II., Agidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 371.

AGESIPOLIS III., last of the Agidæ, killed

by Lycurgus, k. of Lacedæmon, B. C. 219. AGETRUDA, mother of Lambert, defends Spoleto against Arnulf, 896. AGHRIM, battle of the Irish and French

defeated by Ginkel, July 22, 1691. AGILA, K. of the Visigoths, 549–554. AGILBERT, bp. of Dorcic, 650—of Paris, 660.

AGILULPH, duke of Turin, becomes k. of Lombardy, 591- renounces Arianism, 602-gives the valley of Bobium to Columbanus, 612-d. 615. AGINCOURT, battle of, Oct. 25, 1415.


AGIS II., Proclidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 427-398-defeated by Nicias, at Tanagra, 420-invades Attica, but retires, 425 -d. 398.

AGIS III., Proclidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 338-defeated and slain, by Antipater, 331.

AGIS IV., Proclidan k. of Lacedæmon, endeavours to revive the laws of Lycurgus, B.C. 244-assists the Achæans, 241-is killed, 240.

AGIS, Olympic victor, B.C. 572. AGLABITES, dynasty, founded at Cairoan and Tunis, 800.

AGNADELLO, battle of; the Venetians defeated by the French, May 14, 1509. AGNES, daughter of Wm., duke of Poitiers, marries Henry III., emperor of Germany, 1043-regent during the minority of her son, 1056-calls a council at Sienna, to elect a pope, 1058-nominates Cadalo, bp. of Parma, as anti-pope,1061retires to Rome, and is pardoned by pope Alexander II., 1062.

AGNES, daughter of Louis VII., of France
married to Alexius, son of the empero.
Manuel, 1178.

AGNEW, Sir Andrew, d. 1849.
AGNEW, Mr., murdered by the Sikhs, at
Mooltan, Apr. 21, 1848.
AGNON, Olympic victor, B.C. 568.
AGO, duke of Friuli, 651.
AGOBARD, abp. of Lyons, protests against
image-worship, 816- degraded, 835-d.


AGRA, taken by general Lake, Oct. 17,


AGRARIAN law, introduced at Rome by Sp. Cassius, B.C.486-causes violent contests, 482 violated by Licinius Stolo, 357.


AGRICOLA, Cn. Julius, Roman governor of

Britain, 78-his successful campaign in Caledonia, 80-totally defeats the Caledonians, builds the wall between the Forth and Clyde; his fleet sails round the north of Scotland, 84- recalled, 85d. Aug. 23, 93. AGRICOLA, Consul of Rome, 421. AGRICOLA, son of Severian, preaches Pelagianism in Britain, 429.

AGRICOLA, Calpurnius, sent to Britain to repel an incursion of the Brigantes, 162. AGRICOLA, L. Virius, consul of Rome, 230. AGRICULTURAL distress, committee on, ap

pointed Feb. 8, 1836-sits four months; makes no report. AGRICULTURAL produce advances in price, 1824.

AGRICULTURAL and Commercial bank of Ireland stops payment, 1836. AGRICULTURE, the Athenians instructed in, 3.c. 1383 (1384 H.).

AGRICULTURE, Board of, established, on the motion of Sir John Sinclair, May 31, 1793. AGRICULTURE, professorship of, established by Wm. Pulteney, at Edinburgh, Apr. 14, 1790. AGRIGENTINES, revolt against the Saracens in Sicily, 938. AGRIGENTUM, founded, в.c. 582-Phalaris put to death, 549-Theron rules, 488the republic restored, 472-conquered by Syracuse, 446-taken by the Carthaginians, 406-by the Romans, 262-the republic subverted by Rome, 210. AGRIPPA, Menenius Lanatus, consul of Rome, B.C. 503.

AGRIPPA the Younger, tetrarch of Judæa, 44-prevails on Claudius to reverse the orders of Cassius Longinus, 45-receives additional territory from Claudius, 48Trachonitis, Abilene, and other districts placed under his jurisdiction, 53. AGRIPPA, Herod, k. of Judæa, 37-receives the dominions of Herod Antipas, 39his territories still further enlarged, 41d. 44.

AGRIPPA, Furius Fusus., consul of Rome, B.C. 446.

AGRIPPA, Dec. Haterius, consul of Rome,


AGRIPPA, Marcus Vipsanius, consul of Rome, B.C. 37, 28, 27-crosses the Rhine, to secure the frontier of Gaul, 37-defeats Sextus Pompeius, and receives a naval crown, 36-Edile, restores the public edifices and fountains of Rome, 33-assists at the battle of Actium, 31--aids Octavius in regulating the state and adorning the city, 28-builds the Pantheon, 25appointed prefect of the city, and marries Julia, daughter of Augustus, 21-his son, Caius Cæsar, b. 20-subdues the Cantabri, 19-tribune for life, 18-birth of his son, Lucius; his two sons are adopted by Augustus; visits Syria, 17 --and Jerusalem, 16-goes to put down a disturbance in Bosporus, 14-returns to Rome, 13-d. Mar. 22, 12. AGRIPPA, M. Asinius, consul of Rome, 25. AGRIPPA, math., observes a conjunction of the moon with the Pleiades, Nov. 29, 7 p.m., 92.

AGRIPPA, M., adopted by Augustus, 4murdered by Tiberius, 14. AGRIPPA, H. Cornelius, b. 1486; d. 1535. AGRIPPINA, daughter of M. Vip. Agrippa, and wife of Germanicus, brings the ashes of her husband to Rome, 20-Sejanus Plots against her and her sons, 26-banished, 30-put to death, Sept. 17, 33.

AGRIPPINA, daughter of Germanicus, is married to Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, 28-to Claudius, 49-prevails on him to adopt Nero as his successor; founds Colonia Agrippina, 50-poisons Claudius, Oct. 13, 54-courts Britannicus, 55murdered by Nero's order, Mar. 20, 59. AGRIPPINA. See COLOGNE. AGRIPPINUS, bp. of Alexandria, 168. AGUERO and the insurgent Cubans defeat the Spanish troops, July 4, 1851-their rebellion suppressed, Sept. 1. AGUESSEAU, D', chancellor of France, d.


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AHENOBARBUS, Cn. Domitius, marries
Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus, 28
-consul, 32.
AHENOBARBUS, L. Domitius, consul of
Rome, B.C. 94.
AHENOBARBUS, L. Domitius, consul of
Rome, B.C. 54.
AHENOBARBUS, L. Domitius, consul of
Rome, B.C. 16.
AHIMAAZ, Jewish high priest, B.C. 990.
AHMED, Mohammedan k. of Saragossa,
slain by Alfonso VII., k. of Castile, 1109.
AHMED, the Turk, establishes the office
of Emir al Omra, at Bagdad, 944.
AHMED Ben Gehaf betrays Valencia to the
Almoravides, 1092-burnt alive, 1094.
AHMEDNUGGUR, captured by Sir Arthur

Wellesley, Aug. 12, 1803. AIDAN, bp. of Lindisfarne or Holy Island, 635 d. 650.

AIGUES MORTES, interview of Charles V. and Francis I. at, 1538. AIGUILLON, duc d', tried by the parliament of Paris, 1770. AIKIN, Arthur, d. 1854. AIKIN, Dr. John, d. 1822.

AILESBURY, earl of, d. 1856. AILLY, Peter d', abp. of Cambray, and chancellor of the university of Paris, urges, at the Council of Constance, the reforms recommended by the university, 1414-d. 1425.

AIMOIN, the monk-historian of France, d. 1008.

AIMON, the Pacific, count of Savoy, 1329. AINSWORTH, W. H., b. 1805. AIRE, taken by the allies, Nov. 9, 1710. AISLABIE, chancellor of the exchequer, implicated in the South Sea fraud, resigns his office, 1721.

AIX, the first Roman colony in Gaul (Aqua Sextiæ), founded by C. Sextius Calvius, B.C. 122-defeat of the Teutones, 102treaty between Aragon and France, 1291 -massacre of royalists, 1791. AIX, the Isle of, taken, Sept. 23, 1757. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, enriched with mosaics and marbles from Ravenna, 784-Charlemagne makes it his capital, 795council of, 809-diet of, 831-plundered by the Danes, 851-council of, 862Henry, son of Conrad II., crowned, 1028 -diet of, 1099-Frederic II., crowned, 1215-William, count of Holland, 1247-Richard, earl of Cornwall, 1257--Rudolf of Habsburg, 1276--Adolphus of Nassau, June 24, 1292-Albert of Austria, 1298--Sigismund, 1414- Albert II., of Austria, 1438-peace between France and Spain, May 2, 1668-negotiations commenced, 1747-cessation of hostilities proclaimed, Aug. 10; peace concluded, Oct. 7, 1748-congress, Sept. 9 to Nov. 22, 1818.

AJNADIN, battle of; Heraclius defeated by the Saracens, 633.

AJO, duke of Beneventum, slain in battle against the Sclavonians, 642.

AKBAH, or Okbah, sent to conquer Africa, 665-defeats the exarch, Gregory, and penetrates into Mauritania, 667-founds Cairoan, 670.

AKBAR KHAN, joins the Afghan insurgents, Nov. 25, 1841-invites Sir Wm. M'Naghten to an interview, and assassinates him, Dec. 25-massacres the British in their retreat, Jan. 1842-restores Lady Sale and other captives, Sept. 21. AKENSIDE, Mark, b. 1721-d. 1770. AKERMAN, taken by Potemkin, 1789-treaty between Russia and Turkey, 1827. ALABAMA, twenty-first State of the American Union, 1819.

ALACHIS, duke of Trent and Brescia, rebels against Cunibert, and falls in battle, 690. ALAEDDIN, Sultan of Iconium, 1222-gives

a settlement for 400 families of Oghusian Tartars in Asia Minor, 1231-poisoned by his son, 1236.

ALAEDDIN II., last of the Seljukian sultans, 1297.

ALAFTAS, k. of Badajos, repels Alfonso VI., of Castile, from Toledo, 1081. ALAHMAN. See MUHAMAD and YUSEF. ALALIA, founded, in Cyrnos (Corsica), by the Phocæans, B.C. 564.

AL AMIN, caliph, 809- dethroned by his brother, Al Mamun, 813. See ARABIA, caliphs of. ALAMUNDARUS defeats Belisarius, 531. ALAN, son of Mathuedoi, regent of Britanny, takes refuge in England, 913returns, 931-is established in Britanny by Athelstan, 937.

ALAND, the Isles of, taken by the czar Peter, 1714-conquered again by Russia, 1809-occupied by the allied fleets, 1854. ALANI, invade Parthia, 75-enter Spain, through Gaul, and establish a kingdom for themselves, 409-attacked by Wallia, 417-overcome by the Vandals, 419. ALARCOS, battle of, July 19, 1195. ALARIC, leader of the Visigoths, 382-assists Theodosius against Eugenius, 393— plunders Thessaly, 395-takes Athens, 396-overcome by Stilicho, retires into Epirus, 397-master-general of Eastern Illyricum, and k. of the Visigoths 398 -enters Italy, 400-advances, 402-defeated at Pollentia and Verona, and leaves Italy, 403-returns and besieges Rome, 408-receives a large ransom, and withdraws, takes Ostia, forms the second siege of Rome, and again spares the city 409-after a third siege, takes Rome, Aug. 24, and marches to the south of Italy, where he dies, at Consentia, 410.

ALARIC II., K. of the Visigoths, 485-contracted to Theudegotha, daughter of Theodoric, 495 legislates for his people, and employs Anianus to adapt the Theodosian code to his purpose; war with Clovis; Theodoric mediates. 506-defeated and slain, at Vouglé, near Poitiers, 507.

ALAVA, taken from Sancho VII., of Na

varre, by Alfonso VIII., of Castile, 1200. ALBA, on the lake Fucinus, the prison of

Syphax, B.C. 204-of Perseus, 168-and of Bituitus, k. of the Arverni, 121. ALBA. See ALVA. ALBAIDA, battle of; Musa defeated, 852. ALBAN, Mount, held by the Senones, B.C. 360. ALBANI, cardinal. See CLEMENT XI., pope. ALBANIA, near the Caspian Sea, winterquarters of Heraclius, 623. ALBANIA, in Epirus, invaded by Robert Guiscard, 1081-1084 - conquered by Amurath I., 1387-independent under Scanderbeg, 1443. See SCANDERBEG.

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