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BORIS GODUNOW, czar of Russia, 1598-bis cruelty causes a revolt in Russia, 1604he commits suicide, 1605. BORLASE, William, the antiquary, b. 1695 -d. 1772.

BORNEO. See BROOKE, Sir James. BORNHOLM, naval battle near; the revolted Danes and the Hanse Towns defeated by Gustavus Vasa and Christian III., 1535. BORNHÖVET, battle of; the duke of Saxony defeats Waldemar II., k. of Denmark, 1227. BORODINO, battle of the; Napoleon repulses Kutusoff, and advances to Moscow, Sept. 7, 1812. BOROUGHBRIDGE, battle of; Edward II. defeats the barons, 1322. BOROUGHS IN ENGLAND, first enclosed or fortified places so called by the AngloSaxons; Alfred settles the Danes in five of them, 890-their representatives first summoned to parliament by Henry III., 1265-twenty-two new ones added by qu. Mary, 1553-the decayed, or "Rotten,"disfranchised by the Reform Act, 1832-the Municipal Reform Act comes into operation, Nov. 25, 1835-debate in the House of Lords on the recent appointment of borough-magistrates, Feb. 23, 1836. BORRADIOTES, Theodosius, patriarch of C. P., 1178-deposed by Andronicus I., 1183.


BONOSUS raises a rebellion in Gaul; defeated by the emperor Probus, and put to death, 280.

Books, the sale of, introduced at the fair of Leipsic, 1592-discount on, regulated at a meeting of London booksellers, Dec. 29, 1829-decision of lord Campbell against this regulation, May 19, 1852. BORDEAUX, the ancient Burdigala, the synod of, condemns Priscillian and his followers, 385-Richard, son of Edward the Black Prince, born at, Jan. 6, 1367-John of Gaunt arrives at, after a harassing march from Calais, 1373-opens its gates to John Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, 1453 ---entered by marshal Beresford, Mar. 12, 1814-the mayor and chief inhabitants declare for the Bourbons, and send deputies to London to invite Louis XVIII., who arrives in France, March 25. BORDEAUX, Henry Charles Ferdinand, duke de, son of the duke de Berry, b. Sept. 29, 1820-marries Maria Louisa of Modena, 1846-interview with the duke of Nemours, at Frohsdorf, Nov. 17, 1853. BOREL, count, of Barcelona, defeated by Almansor, 984. PORGHESE, prince, marries Pauline Bonaparte, and sells Guastalla to the kingdom of Italy, 1806. See BONAPARTE, PAULINE. BORGIA, Alfonso, becomes pope, 1455. See CALLISTUS III.



BORGIA, Cæsar, Rodrigo's son, a cardinal; given as a hostage by his father; makes his escape, 1495-lays aside the purple, resumes the position of a layman, and murders his brother John, 1497-created duke of Valence by Louis XII. of France, 1498-murders Alfonso of Aragon, his brother-in-law, 1500-created duke of Romagna by his father; captures Faenza, and puts its lord, Astorgio de' Manfredi, to death, 1501-seizes Urbino and other cities, 1502--deprived of his plunder and imprisoned by Julius II., 1503-released, 1504 again imprisoned, and sent to Spain, where he is killed in a skirmish, in Navarre. BORGIA, cardinal, viceroy of Naples, 1620. BORGIA, John, eldest son of Rodrigo, made

duke of Benevento, and assassinated seven days after, 1497.

BORGIA, Lucretia, daughter of Rodrigo, divorced from her husband, John Sforza, 1497-her third husband, Alfonso of Aragon, murdered by her brother, Cæsar, 1500-married to Alfonso d'Este, son of the duke of Ferrara, 1502. BORGO, Pozzo di, b. 1768-d 1842. BORIS, K. of Bulgaria. See BULGARIA.

BORROMEO, Carlo, abp. of Milan, procures the election of cardinal Michele Ghislieri as pope (Pius V.), 1566-narrowly escapes assassination in his oratory, Oct. 26, 1569 d. 1584. BORROMEO, Filippo, a citizen of San Miniato, takes refuge in Milan, and is founder of an illustrious family, 1370. BORSO D'ESTE, the marquis, created duke of Modena and Reggio by the emperor Frederic IV., 1452.

BORT XEZAR, or PASS OF RONCESVALLES, in the Pyrenees, battle of; the Saracens defeat the Franks, 824. BORZIVOI I. and II. See BOHEMIA. BoSCAWEN (afterwards) admiral, b. 1711— fails in an attack on Pondicherry, Oct. 6, 1748 sails with his fleet for Newfoundland, Apr. 27, 1755-captures the Alcide and the Lys-sails for America, Feb. 19, 1758 in concert with gen. Amherst, takes Louisbourg and Cape Breton, July 27-defeats the French fleet in Lagos Bay, Aug. 17, 1759-d. 1761. BoSCOBEL, a village in Shropshire, where Charles II. escapes from his pursners after the battle of Worcester, concealed in an oak-tree, 1651. BOSCOVICH, Father, b. 1711-d. 1787. BOSNIA, a dependency of Servia, 1350-of Hungary, under Louis I., 1375-invaded

by the Turks, who are repulsed by Matthias Corvinus, 1463-conquered by the Turks after the battle of Mohacz, 1526 -the pasha defeated by prince Louis of Baden, 1688-a part ceded to Austria by the peace of Passarowitz,1718-recovered by the Turks, 1738-conquered by marshal Laudon, 1788-restored to the Turks by the peace of Szistova, 1790. Boso, duke of Lombardy and Provence, brother of the empress Richilda, marries Ermengarda, daughter of Louis II., 877assumes the title of king of Provence, Arles, and Burgundy, 879-the French and German kings make war on him, and besiege Vienne, which is defended by Ermengarda, 880-d. 887. BOSON supplants his brother, Lambert, duke of Tuscany, 931-ejected by Hugh, k. of Italy, 936.

BOSPHORUS, Cimmerian, the Strait between
the Palus Mootis (Sea of Azof) and the
Euxine; its shores first peopled by Cel-
tic tribes; explored by the Milesians,
who make it the abode of Cimmerian
darkness and scene of early fable, about
750 B.C.; occupied by Scythians, Massa-
getæ, or early Goths, about 600. See
BOSPORUS. Naval expeditions of the
later Goths prepared there, A.D. 258.
BOSPHORUS, Thracian, the Strait between
the Propontis (Sea of Marmora) and the
Euxine; Greek colonies founded on its
shores; Chalcedon on the Asiatic side,
B.C. 674-and Byzantium on the Euro-
pean, at its point of junction with the
Propontis, 657-crossed by Darius on a
bridge of boats, 505-the Goths pene-
trate through it on their way to Ephesus,
A.D. 262-Constantinople founded on the
site of Byzantium, 324-the Persians,
under Chosroes Purvis, penetrate to its
shore, 609-crossed on the ice, 764-the"
Crusaders conveyed over it by the em-
peror Alexius, 1096-7-naval battle in
front of Constantinople; the Genoese
defeat the Venetians and their allies,
Feb. 13, 1352.


BOSPORUS, the kingdom of, founded on the eastern side of the Tauric Chersonesus (Crimea) by a mixed Greek and Scythian (Gothic) race, about B.C. 480-the first rulers known only as Archæanactidæ ; Spartacus I., k., 438-Seleucus, 431-Satyrus I, 407-Leucon, 393-Spartacus II., 353-Parysades, 348; d. 310-civil war of his three sons; Satyrus II. reigns 9 months, and falls in battle; Prytanis is slain by his brother, Eumelus, who becomes king, 309-is succeeded by his son, Spartacus III., 304-its history unknown for two hundred years; conquered by Mithridates VI., of Pontus, 108

given to his son, Pharnaces II., by Pompey, 63--Caesar, after the defeat of Pharnaces in Pontus, appoints Asander governor or tributary k. of Bosporus, 47-Pharmaces crosses the Euxine from Sinope, and takes Panticapæum and Theodosia he is killed by Asander, who rules thirty years; d. 17 - after his death commotions follow, which Agrippa, with a body of Jewish auxiliaries, puts down, and places Bosporus under Polemo I., k. of Pontus, 14-Polemo II. confirmed by Caligula, A.D. 38--dispessessed by Nero, 54. BOSRA. See BOSTRA. BossUET. J. B., b. 1617-preaches before Louis XIV., 1661-preaches a funeral oration on Henrietta Maria, widow of Charles I., Nov. 7, 1669-he publishes his "Exposition de la Doctrine de l'Eglise Catholique," 1671-writes his Universal History, to assist the education of the dauphin, 1679 - bp. of Meaux, 1681 the council of French clergy adopt his four propositions, 1682-holds a public disputation with the Protestant teacher Claude, 1685-publishes his "Histoire des Variations des Eglises Protestantes," 1688-controversy with Fénélon on the mystical doctrine of Molinos and Madame de Guyon, 1698-d. 1704. BOSTON, in Lincolnshire, a contraction of Botolph's-town, from the church built at Ycanho by Botolph, 654 BOSTON, in North America, built by English emigrants, 1627-tumults to resist the taxes imposed by parliament, 1768 -cargoes of tea destroyed, Dec. 18, 1773 -the port closed by act of parliament, March, 1774-battle of Bunker's Hill, and destruction of the suburb of CharlesTown, June 17, 1775.

BOSTON NEWS LETTER," the first newspaper published in North America, 1704. BOSTRA or BOSRA, taken by Corn. Palma, and made by Trajan the capital of his new province of Arabia, 106-birth-place of the emperor Philip, about 204-Titus, bp., 348-expelled by Julian, 363-the city taken by the Saracens, 632. BoSWELL, Sir Alexander, is killed in a duel by James Stuart, 1822.

BOSWELL, James, b. 1740-publishes his
Life of Dr. Johnson, 1790-d. 1795.
BosWORTH, battle of; Richard III. defeat-
ed and slain by the earl of Richmond,
who takes the throne as Henry VII.,
Aug. 22, 1485.
peror of the East.

BOTANY BAY, discovered by Cook, Apr.
28, 1770-first convicts transported there,

BOTHNIA, WEST, conquered by the Russians, 1809.

BOTHWELL-BRIDGE, battle of, the Scottish Covenanters defeated by the duke of Monmouth, June 22, 1679. BOTHWELL, James Hepburn, earl of, active against the lords of the Covenant, 1559concerned in a riot, and is pardoned by queen Mary, 1564-gains her favour, 1566 -is accused of the murder of Darnley, but acquitted, April 12, 1567-carries off the queen; is created duke of Orkney, and marries her, May 15-defeated at Carberry Hill, June 15-escapes to the Orkneys, and thence to Denmark, where he is imprisoned; loses his senses, and dies miserably, 1577. BOTOLPH. See BOSTON, in Lincolnshire. BOTTA, Carlo, b. 1767-d. 1837. BOUCHAIN, taken by Marlborough; his last achievement, Sept. 13, 1711-surrendered by the imperialists to the French, Oct. 19, 1712.

BOUCHIER, Thomas, cardinal abp, of Canterbury, 1454-crowns Henry VII., 1485 -d. 1486. BOUCICAULT, marshal, arrives at CP. with a fleet and troops to assist the emperor Manuel II., 1398 returns to France, accompanied by Manuel, 1399-appointed governor of Genoa, and restores order there, 1401-he escorts Manuel back with a Genoese fleet, provokes the Venetians, and is defeated by their admiral, Carlo Zeno, near Modon, 1403-unsuccessful attempt to surprise Milan; during his absence, the Genoese overpower and expel the French garrison, and place themselves under the protection of the marquis of Montferrat; he returns to France, 1409-d. 1421. BOUFFLERS, marshal, besieges Charleroi, 1692-negociates with the earl of Portland at Brussels, July 26, 1697-abandons Liege to Marlborough, Oct. 14, 1702 -is defeated by him and prince Eugene, at Malplaquet, Sept. 11, 1709. BOUGAINVILLE, sent out by the French government on a voyage of discovery, 1766 -returns, 1769-from a second voyage, 1776 d. 1811.

BOUILLON. See GODFREY. BOULAGH COMMON, near Ballingarry, the scene of Smith O'Brien's abortive attempt at rebellion, July 29, 1848. BOULOGNE, the ancient Gessoriacum, Bononia, or Portus Morinorum, station of the Roman fleet, commanded by Carausius, 287-seized by him, 289-recovered by Constantius Chlorus, 296-besieged by Henry VII., 1492-captured by Henry VIII., 1544-restored to the French, 1050-station of the flotilla, for the in

vasion of England; attacked by Nelson, Aug. 4, 15, 16, 1801-failure of the catamaran attack, Oct. 2, 1804-attacked by congreve rockets, 1806-railway. See AMIENS.-Louis Napoleon lands at, but is arrested, Aug. 6, 1840-arrives there, and offers his services to the republican government, Mar. 2, 1848-prince Albert arrives, to meet the French emperor, Sept. 5, 1854, BOULTON, Matthew, b. 1728-in partnership with James Watt, improves the steam-engine, and founds the establishment at Soho, Birmingham, 1774-gaslights introduced there, 1798-d. 1809. Bou MAZA, chief of the Kabyles, surrenders to marshal Bugeaud, 1847-liberated by Louis Napoleon, July 22, 1849. BOUNTY, QUEEN ANNE'S. See ANNE, qu. of Great Britain.

BoUNTY, mutiny of the, Apr. 28, 1789some of the mutineers settle in Pitcairn's Island, in the South Pacific; three of the others executed at Portsmouth, Oct. 29, 1792 the settlement discovered, 1814.

BOURBON, a seigniory in France, south-east of Berry, held by the family of Archambaud; the heiress, Beatrice, marries Robert, count de Clermont, sixth son of Louis IX.; d. 1317-their son, Louis I., receives the title of duke of Bourbon from Charles IV., 1327-his eldest son, Peter I., d. 1356--Blanche, daughter of Louis I,, marries Peter the Cruel of Castile. See BLANCHE DE BOURBON.-James, younger son of Louis I., commands the royal army against the insurgents, and is defeated by them at Brignais, near Lyons, 1361-from him descends the branch of La Marche; d. 1361-Louis II,, the Good, son of Peter I., joins a Genoese expedition against Tunis, which fails, 1389-marries Anne, heiress of Montpensier, 1400-d. 1410-his son, John I., d. 1433-his son, Charles I., joins in a rebellion against Charles VII., 1440d. 1456-Louis, second son of John I., inherits the lands of Montpensier, and is the father of that line of the Bourbons; d. 1486-John II., son of Charles I., d. without issue, and the title goes to his brother, Peter, sire de Beaujeu, and count de la Marche, 1488-who marries Anne, daughter of Louis XI. See ANNE and BEAUJEU. They leave only a daughter, Suzanne, who is married to the grandson of Louis, duke de Montpensier, Charles, constable of France; offended by the queen, Louisa, of Savoy, he withdraws into Germany, and receives the command of the imperial army in Italy, 1523-expels the French. invades

Provence, and besieges Marseilles, but is driven back into Italy, 1524-assists in the defence of Pavia and the defeat of Francis I., 1525-Milan is promised to him by Charles V., 1526-he turns his arms against pope Clement VII., the ally of Francis, and is killed while mounting to the assault of Rome, May 6, 1527-he leaves no posterity, and the duchy of Bourbon escheats to the crown. BOURBON, branch of La Marche and Vendôme.-John, son of James (younger son of Louis I.), marries the heiress of Vendôme; d. 1393-their eldest son, James, marries Joanna II, queen of Naples; deprives her of all authority, and imprisons or puts to death her favourites, 1415-she regains her power, and compels him to renounce his regal title, 1416 -he returns in disgust to France, 1419 -becomes a Franciscan monk; d. without issue, 1438-their second son, Louis, perpetuates the line; d. 1446-his son, John, d. 1477-his eldest son, Francis, marries Mary of Luxemburg, countess of St. Pol, and Dame d'Enghien; d. 1495 their son, Charles, d. 1537-his son, Antony, marries Jane D'Albret, and becomes k. of Navarre, 1585. See ALBRET, JANE D'., and ANTONY of BOURBON. -Their eldest son, Henry de Beaumont, d. young; on the failure of the elder branch of the descendants of Louis IX., their second son succeeds to the throne of France as Henry IV., and founds the royal dynasty of Bourbon, 1589. See HENRY IV., k. of France, and his successors. Charles, brother of Antony, cardinal, is put forward by the Guise party as king, with the title of Charles X., 1589-d. 1590-his brother, John, duke d'Enghien, fourth son of Charles, d. 1557-Louis, the fifth son, founds the line of Condé.

Bourbon, Orleans branch. - Philip, youngest son of Louis XIII., first duke of Orleans, d. 1701-his son, Philip II., regent, 1715-d. 1723-his son, Louis, d. 1752-his son, Louis Philip, d. 1785-his son, Louis Philip Joseph (Égalité), guillotined, 1793-his son, Louis Philip, b. 1773, k. of the French, 1830. See CHARTRES and ORLEANS, Dukes of, aud LOUIS PHILIP, k. of the French.

son, Louis II., named le Grand, b. 1621 --general of Louis XIV.; d. 1686-his son, Henry-Jules, d. 1709-Louis III., d. 1710-Louis Henry, prince of Condé, and duke of Bourbon, minister to Louis XV., 1723-dismissed, 1726-d. 1740-Louis Joseph, one of the first emigrants, leaves Paris, July 1, 1798-d. 1818-Louis Henry Joseph, b. 1755-d. 1830- his son, Louis Antony Henry, duke d'Enghien, murdered at Vincennes, Mar. 20, 1804. See ENGHIEN and CONDE, dukes and princes of.

BOURBON, Spanish Branch.-Philip, duke of Anjou, second son of the dauphin, Louis, and grandson of Louis XIV., made k. of Spain, 1700. See PHILIP V., k. of Spain, and his successors. BOURBON, Neapolitan Branch. — Carlos, third son of Philip V., of Spain, made duke of Parma, 1731-k. of Naples, 1735. See CARLOS, k. of Naples, and his suc


BOURBON, Branch of Parma. - Philip, fourth son of Philip V., of Spain, after the removal of his brother Carlos, to Naples, is made, by the treaty of Aix-laChapelle, duke of Parma, 1748-d. 1765 -his son, Ferdinand, b. 1751. See PARMA, and LUCCA, Dukes of. BOURBON PRINCES, of France, Spain, Naples, and Parma, join in the Family Compact, Aug. 15, 1761-demand from pope Clement XIII. the total suppression of the Jesuits, 1769. BOURBON and ORLEANS PRINCES, formally reconciled in an interview at Frohsdorf, Nov. 17, 1853.

BOURBON, ISLAND OF, colonized by the French, 1654-1672-becomes prosperous, 1718--taken by adm. Rowley and col. Keating, July 3, 1810.

BOURCHIER, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Bourchier, of Fitstead, in Essex, married to Oliver Cromwell, at St. Giles's, Cripplegate, Aug. 22, 1620-on his death, goes to live with their son-inlaw, Mr. Claypole, at Norborough, in Lincolnshire, 1658-d. 1665. BOURDALOUE, the French pulpit-orator, d.

1704. BOURDEAUX. See BORDEAUX. BOURGEOIS, Sir Francis, b. 1755-d 1811leaves his collection of paintings and other property to Dulwich College. BOURGEOIS GENTILHOMME," the. See Mo

Bourbon, Condé branch.--Louis, the first duke (fifth son of Charles, duke of" Vendôme), leader of the Huguenots, assassinated, 1569- his son, Henry I., prince de Condé, another leader of the Huguenots, d. 1588-is followed by Henry II., who marries Charlotte de Montmorency; he also places himself at the head of the Huguenots; d. 1646-his


BOURGES, capital of Berry, the appointment of the abp. contested between Louis VII. of France, and pope Eugenius III., 1143- council of, 1225-remnant of the kingdom of France, preserved by Charles VII. after the battle of Verneuil,

1424-the Pragmatic Sanction of, declares the pope subordinate to a general council, and annuls his fiscal rights in France, 1438-tribunal of, for the trial of political offences; sentences Barbès, Albert, and other democrats, Apr. 2, 1849. BOURIENNE, Louis de, b. 1769-d. 1834. BOURMONT, Count de, commands the French

expedition against Algiers, May 25,1830 -lands, June 13-takes the city, July 5. BOURSA. See BURSA. BOUSSOLE, LA, one of La Perouse's ships, last heard of. 1788. See PEROUSE, LA. BOUVINES, or BOVINES, battle of; the emperor Otho IV. defeated by Philip Augustus, k. of France, 1214. BOVIANUM, battle of; the Samnites totally defeated by L. Postumius Megellus, the consul of Rome, B.C. 305. BOWDITCH, T. E, the African traveller, b. 1794 d. 1824.

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BOYDELL, Alderman, b. 1719-d. 1804. BOYER succeeds Petion in one portion of Haiti, 1818-obtains the whole on the death of Christophe, 1820-becomes president of the whole island, by the submission of the Spanish part, 1822, BOYLE, David, president of the court of Session, b. 1772-d. 1853. BOYLE, Hon. Robert, b. 1626-one of the founders of the Royal Society, 1660-a. 1691-cominencement of divinity lec-| tures founded by him, 1692. BOYNE, a river in Ireland, on which Wil liam III. defeats the rebels commanded by James II., July 1, 1690. BOYNE, man-of-war, accidentally burned in

Portsmouth harbour, May 4, 1794. BRABANT, in the division of Charlemagne's empire, forms part of the territories allotted to Lothaire, son of Louis I., 843on his death and the partition of his share, goes to his second son, Lothaire, and remains attached to Lotharingen or Lorraine, 855; see LORRAINE.-Made a separate duchy by Godfrey I., called first Lower Lorraine, afterwards Brabant, 959-given to Godfrey of Bouillon,

1087-Antony, duke, killed in the battle of Agincourt, 1415-his son, John IV., marries Jaqueline, heiress of Holland and Hainault, 1418. See JAQUELINE OF BRABANT.-In his contest with the duke of Gloucester for her states, he is supported by his uncle Philip III., duke of Burgundy, 1424-after his death Brabant is inherited by his uncle, and is thenceforth attached to the duchy of Burgundy, 1429. See BURGUNDY.-Transferred to Austria, 1477. See NETHERLANDS.William of Nassau, prince of Orange, enters with an army and is repulsed, 1568a part ceded to Holland, 1648-to France, 1668--78-the remaining Austrian portion united to France, 1795-and the Dutch part, May 15, 1810-part of the new kingdom of the Netherlands, 1814 -of that of Belgium, 1830. BRABANT, duke of, heir-apparent of Belgium, marries Maria Henrietta, archduchess of Austria, Aug. 22, 1853. BRACCIO DA MONTONE, the Condottiere, dislodged from Rome by Sforza di Cotignuola, 1417-Spoleto recovered from him, 1419-he submits to pope Martin V., and recovers Bologna for him, 1420-engaged by Alfonso of Arragon and Joanna, queen of Naples, against Louis of Anjou, 1421 defends Naples, 1422 - defeated and slain at Aquila, by Jacopo Caldora and Francesco Sforza, 1424. BRACCIOLINI, Poggio, b. 1380-revives literature, 1425-writes his dialogue, De Varietate Fortunæ, 1430--d. Oct. 30, 1459.

BRACTON, Henry, writes De Legibus Angliæ, 1269. BRADDOCK, general, takes troops to Virginia, Jan. 14, 1755-defeated and killed near Fort du Quesne, July 9. BRADFORD ON THE AVON, battle of; the Britons defeated by Kenwalk, king of Wessex, 652.

BRADLEY, James, b. 1693-distinguishes himself as an astronomer-d. 1762 BRADSHAW, John, chief justice of Chester, made president of the high court of justice for the trial of Charles I., Jan. 10, 1649-appointed president of the council of state, Feb. 6th, imprisoned 1655d. Oct. 31, 1659-his body disinterred, and exposed at Tyburn, 1660. BRADSTREET, Colonel, defeats the French

on the Onondaga, July 3, 1756. BRADUA, consul of Rome, 185, 191. BRADUA, Appius Annius, consul of Rome,


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