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earthquake in, 1667-revolt of Ali Pasha in, 1820.
ALBANIANS, of Epirus, defeated by Andronicus III., 1337-under Scanderbeg, support Ferdinand in Naples, 1461. ALBAN'S, St., Abbey built by Offa, 793battle of; the Lancastrians defeated, May 23, 1455-they conquer in the second battle, Feb. 17, 1461-borough disfranchised, for bribery, 1852. ALBAN'S, ST., Hall, Oxford, founded, 1547. ALBANY, the duke of, brother of Robert, k. of Scotland, puts to death his nephew, David, 1405-regent, 1406. ALBANY, John, duke of, escapes from his brother, Jas. III., into England, 1479invades Scotland with an English army, 1482.
ALBANY, duke of, regent of Scotland, 1514
-war against England, and truce, 1522 -killed at the battle of Pavia, Feb. 24, 1525,
ALBANY, duchess of, natural daughter of the Pretender, d. 1789. ALBATEGNI, Arab. astron., observes the autumnal equinox, Sept. 19, 882. ALBEMARLE, earl of, defeats David I., k. of Scotland, in the battle of the Standard, Aug. 22, 1138.
ALBEMARLE, duke of, d. 1670. See MONK. ALBEMARLE, lord, commanding part of prince Eugene's army, defeated by Villars, at Denain, July 24, 1712. ALBEMARLE, lord, and admiral Pococke, conquer the island of Cuba, 1762. ALBERADA, wife of Robert Guiscard, divorced, 1058.
ALBERCHE, a river of Spain; battle near it, 832. ALBERGATI, Nicholas,_cardinal, opens the council of Ferrara, Jan. 8, 1438. ALBERIA, daughter of Alfonso VII., k. of Castile, married to Roger, count of Sicily, 1120. ALBERIC, Son of Marozia, expels her husband, Hugh, and governs Rome, 932they are reconciled, and he marries Alda, daughter of Hugh, 936-again reconciled, 939-d. 954. ALBERICO, marquis of Camerino, first husband of Marozia, 925. ALBERICO, Count of Tusculum, purchases
the papal chair for his son, 1033. ALBERONI, b. 1664 prime minister in Spain, 1714 intrigues against Great Britain, 1716-fails in his attempt to prolong the war between the Turks and the empire, and in a plot against the duke of Orleans, 1718-dismissed, 1719 -d. 1751.
ALBERT I., made duke of Austria, by his father, the emperor, Rudolf, 1282-rejected as emperor by the nobles of Ger
many, 1291-elected and crowned, Aug. 24, 1298-oppresses the Swiss, 1304assassinated, 1308.
ALBERT, of Mecklenburg, son of Magnus Smek's sister, invited by the Swedes, 1363-k. of Sweden, 1364-1389-defeats Haco VIII. of Norway, and takes his father prisoner, at Enkiöping, 1365defeated by Margaret, at Falköping, captured, and loses his crown, 1389. ALBERT the Younger, of Mecklenburg, son of Margaret's sister, aspires to the throne of Denmark, 1375. ALBERT, duke of Austria, assists Fran cisco da Carrara against Venice, 1373. ALBERT II., of Austria, marries Elizabeth, daughter of Sigismund, 1422-k. of Hungary, Germany, and Bohemia, 1437 crowned, and defeats Casimir of Poland, at Tabor, 1438--his expedition against the Turks stopped by his sudden death, Oct. 27, 1439.
ALBERT III., duke of Bavaria, 1550-1579. ALBERT of Brandenburg, Culmbach, Teu tonic grand-master in Prussia, 1512-embraces Lutheranism, and becomes duke of Prussia, 1525- marries the princess Dorothea, of Denmark, 1527is put to the ban of the empire, 1532d. 1568.
ALBERT the Younger, margrave of Brandenburg, defeated at Sievershausen, 1553. ALBERT, made by the pope marquis of Tuscany, 1127.
ALBERT, count of Biandrate, leads his crusade, 1100.
ALBERT, brother of the emperor Frederic IV., rebels, 1460.
ALBERT, archduke of Austria, surprises Calais, 1596-marries Isabella, daughter of Philip II., who resigns the sovereignty of the Netherlands to them, 1598-defeated by prince Maurice, 1600-besieges Ostend, 1601-negotiates for peace, 1607 -unable to continue the war, he concludes a truce with the United Provinces, Mar. 30 (Apr. 9, N.s.), 1609-d. 1621. ALBERT, prince of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, b. Aug. 26, 1819-marries Queen Victoria Feb. 10, 1840-lays the first stone of the Infant Orphan Asylum, at Wanstead, 1841; and of the new Royal Exchange, Jan. 17, 1842-embarks at Woolwich for Scotland; returns, Sept. 17; embarks at Southampton, and visits Falmouth, Aug. 28, 1843 visits the royal family of France, and lands again at Brighton, Sept. 9-visits the king of the Belgians at Ostend, Sept. 13-elected chancellor of Cambridge, Feb. 28, 1847-installed at Buckingham Palace, Mar. 25, and at Cambridge, July 6-lays the first stone of the Grimsby docks, April 18, 1849
opens the new Coal Exchange, London, Oct. 30-lays the foundation stone of the Edinburgh National Academy, Aug. 30, 1850-promotes the Great Exhibition; dinner at the Mansion House, Mar. 21at York, Oct. 25, 1850-vindicated from false charges brought against him, Jan., 1854-visits Boulogne to meet the French emperor, Sept. 5-visits Hull, and inspects the new works at Grimsby, Oct. 13; visits the emperor and empress at Paris, Aug. 18-27, 1855. ALBERT, a leader of the Parisian Communists, arrested, May 15, 1848-condemned by the tribunal of Bourges to transportation for life, April 2, 1849. ALBERT the Bear, created margrave of Brandenburg, 1142.
ALBERT the Great, teaches at Cologne, 1249 - d. 1280.
ALBERT AZZO of Canossa, protects Ade-
ALBINUS, Sp. Postumius, consul of Rome,
ALBINUS, L. Postumius, consul of Rome,
ALBINUS, Sp. Postumius, consul of Rome, B.C. 186.
ALBINUS, A. Postumius, consul of Rome, B.C.180-151, II., writes history in Greek. ALBINUS, L. Postumius, consul of Rome,
B.C. 173. ALBINUS, L. Postumius, consul of Rome, B.C. 154. ALBINUS, Sp. Postumius, consul of Rome, B.C. 110-commands in Africa, where he leaves the conduct of the war to his brother Aulus, who concludes a treaty with Jugurtha, not ratified by the senate, 109.
ALBINUS, P., Roman gov. of Judæa, 63-recalled, 64. ALBINUS, Clodius, gen. to Commodus, settles commotions in Dacia, 183-gov. of Britain, 192-proclaimed emperor, 193-receives the title of Cæsar, and is made consul, 194-takes his forces into
Gaul, 196 is defeated and slain by Severus at Lyons, Feb. 19, 197. ALBINUS, Nummius, consul of Rome, 206. ALBINUS, consuls of Rome of this name, 227, 246, 263, 11., 345, 444, 493. ALBINUS, Rufius, consul of Rome, 335. ALBINUS, the senator, put to death by The
ALBINUS, Abbot of St. Augustin's, Canterbury, friend of Bede, 709-d. 732. ALBION mills, near Blackfriars bridge, destroyed by fire, Mar. 3, 1791. ALBIUS. See TIBULLUS. ALBOIN, chief of the Longobardi, subdues the Gepida, kills their king Cunimund, and marries his daughter Rosamund, 567-invades Italy and founds the Kingdom of Lombardy, 568-takes Milan and conquers Liguria, 569-Pavia besieged, 570-surrenders, 571-grants to his chief captains lands and titles, 572-murdered by Rosamund, 573. ALBOIN, a Saxon chief, submits to Charlemagne, and professes Christianity, 785. ALBORNOZ, Cardinal, restores order in Rome, 1354-recalled to Avignon, 1357 -again legate at Rome, 1358-Bologna given up to him, 1360-d. 1367. ALBRET, John D', in right of his wife Katharine De Foix, k. of Navarre, 1483expelled by Ferdinand, 1512-d. 1516. ALBRET, Henry D', son of John, allowed by Francis I. to retain Lower Navarre, with the title of king, 1516-taken prisoner at Pavia, 1525-marries Margaret, sister of Francis, 1527-d. 1555. ALBRET, Jane D', daughter of Henry, married to Antony de Bourbon, 1548--her son Henry born, 1553-Queen of Lower Navarre, 1555-encourages the Reformers, 1562-issues an edict in favour of Calvinism, 1567-poisoned, June 10, 1572.
ALBUERA, Alfonso V. of Portugal, defeated, Feb. 24, 1479-John II., king of Portugal, d. at, Sep. 14, 1495-battle of; Soult defeated by Beresford, May 16, 1811. ALBUQUERQUE, & Portuguese commander, discovers Zanzibar, 1503 - founds a settlement on Ormus, 1507-sends the Abyssinian envoy to Lisbon, 1509-superseded and d. 1515. ALBUQUERQUE, duke of, Spanish ambassador in London; d. 1814. ALBUS, Aulus Postumius, consul of Rome, B.C. 496.
ALBUS, Aulus Postumius, consul of Rome, B.C. 464.
ALBUS, Sp. Postumius, consul of Rome, B.C. 466.
ALBUS, Sp. Postumius, consul of Rome, B.C. 432.
ALCADIR, K. of Valencia, slain, 1092. ALCEUS I., Athenian archon, B.C. 537. ALCEUS II., Athenian archon, B.C. 422. ALCEUS, the lyric poet, fl. B.C. 611-ba
nished by Pittacus, from Mitylene, 589. ALCEUS of Messenia, poet, fl. B.C. 197. ALCALA de Henares (olim Complutum), taken by the Moors, 1197-Birth-place of Katharine, afterwards Qu. of England, 1485-university founded, 1510-Complutensian polygot, 1517-Loyola studies there, 1526. ALCAMENES, Agidan king of Lacedæmon, B.C. 783.
ALCANTARA taken by the earl of Galway,
ALCASIM, put to death by his father Abdallah, 902.
ALCASIM, brother of Ali Ben Hamud, opposes Abderahman IV., 1017-driven from Cordova by Yahye, 1019-agrees to share the kingdom with him, 1020expelled by the people of Cordova and imprisoned by Yahye, 1021. ALCAZARQUIVIR, battle of, Sebastian of Portugal killed, 1578. ALCETAS, king of Macedon, B.C. 572. ALCHAMA or Alhaûr, a Saracen commander in Spain, 718-dereated by Pelayo and slain, 719.
ALCIBIADES, saved by Socrates, B.C. 429takes part in public affairs, 423-negotiates an alliance between Athens and Argos, 420-leads an Athenian expedition into the Peloponnesus, 419 - to Sicily; recalled and takes refuge in Sparta, 415-adviser of the Lacedæmonians; 413-negotiates an alliance between them and Persia, 412-recalled by the Athenians and placed at the head of the army in Samos, 411-defeats the Lacedæmonians near Cyzicus, 410takes Selymbria and Byzantium, 408again banished, 407-killed by Persian soldiers, 404.
ALCIDE and Lys, two French frigates, cap
tured by admiral Boscawen, 1755. ALCISTHENES, Athenian archon, B.C. 372. ALCMEON, Athenian archon, B.C. 754. ALCMAN, the Lydian poet, fl. B.C. 671. ALCOBAÇA, royal sepulchre of Portugal.
See PETER I. of Portugal, and INEZ DE CASTRO.
ALCOBRIGA, taken by Almansor, 987. ALCOCK, John, bishop of Ely, founds Jesus
college, Cambridge, 1496.
ALCORAN. See KORAN and MOHAMMED. ALCORAZA, defeat or the Mohammedans
by the Cid, 1087. ALCRED, king of Northumberland, 765expelled, 774.
ALCUIN, born, 735- studies at York, 760teaches theology in England, 768-in-¦
vited to France by Charlemagne, 782writes against Felix of Urgel, and Eliprand, abp. of Toledo, 794-obtains the release of the Saxons from slavery, 796 -d. 804.
ALDA. See ALBERIC, 936.
ALDRED, bp. of Worcester, brings Edward, son of Edmund Ironside, from Cologne, 1054-abp. of York, accompanied to kome by Tostig, earl of Northumberland, 1061 -d. 1069. ALDROVANDINO, marquis D'Este, 1212-d.
ALDROVANDINO III., marquis D'Este, 1852
ALDUS MANUTIUS sets up his press at Venice, 1494.
ALDWICH, bp. of Sidnaceaster, 733. ALDWULF, K. of East Anglia, 664-713. ALDWULF, bp. of Rochester, 727. AL EDRISI, writes his Nubian geography, 1153. ALEMANNI. See ALLEMANNI. ALEMBERT, D', b. 1717 -commences the publication of the "Encyclopédie," 1751 -d. 1783. ALENÇON, duke D', taken prisoner, 1424revolts against Charles VII., 1440arrested, 1473.
ALENÇON, Francis, duke D', joins the Huguenots, 1574-created duke d' Anjou, 1578. See ANJOU.
ALEPPO, the ancient Beroa, surrenders to the Mohammedans, 638-attacked by Baldwin II., 1127 taken by Saladin, 1193-sacked by Timour, 1400-battle of; Khansou Ghori, sultan of Egypt, defeated and killed, 1516-plague at, 1797 -earthquakes at, 1822-1830-massacre of the Christian inhabitants at, Oct. 16, 1850. See BEREA. ALESSANDRIA, founded by the Lombard league, 1168-repels the emperor Frederic I., 1174-submits to Frederic II., 1240 taken, 1274--capture of William, count of Montferrat, 1290-taken by the papal legate, 1323-by the French, 1527. ALETES, K. of Corinth, B.C. 1068. ALEXANDER, K. of Corinth, B.C. 783. ALEXANDER I., k. of Macedon, B.C. 500-454 ALEXANDER II., k. of Macedon, B.C. 369
367. ALEXANDER III. (the Great), k. of Macedon, b. B.C. 356-Aristotle his preceptor, 342-his accession, 336-his first conquests in Thrace and Thebes, spares the orators
of Athens, 335-crosses the Hellespont, battle of the Granicus, May 22, 334-reduces Lycia and Syria, Damascus taken, besieges Tyre, defeats Darius near Issus, Nov., 333-takes Tyre, conquers Phonicia, Jerusalem, and Egypt, and founds Alexandria, 332-crosses the Euphrates, penetrates into the interior of Asia, battle of Arbela, Oct. 1; flight of Darius, extinction of the Persian empire, 331conquers Parthia, Media, Bactria, to the borders of the Caspian sea, 330-crosses the Oxus and Jaxartes, drives back the Scythians and founds new cities, 329Sogdiana occupies his seventh campaign, 328-marries Roxana, invades India and defeats Porus, builds ships on the Hydaspes to facilitate the return of his army, 327- descends to the mouth of the Indus, and marches overland to Carmania, 326-passes through Gedrosia, to Susiana, where Nearchus joins him with the fleet, 325-returns to Babylon, allows all Greek exiles to return to their homes, builds cities, plants colonies, and promotes intermarriage between Greeks and Persians, 324-d. April 21 (May or June, Cl.), 323-his body is entombed at Alexandria, 322-his sarcophagus brought thence by Dr. E. D. Clarke, 1806. ALEXANDER GAS, son of Alexander the
Great, murdered with Roxana, B.C. 311. ALEXANDER, Son of Cassander, disputes the throne of Macedon with his brothers, B.C. 296-invites the aid of Demetrius Poliorcetes, 295-killed by him, 294. ALEXANDER (of Phera), succeeds Poly
phron, B.C. 369- treacherously makes Pelopidas prisoner, 368-attacked by Pelopidas, 364-unsuccessfully resists the Athenians, 362-slain, 359. ALEXANDER I. of Epirus, called into Italy by the Tarentines, B.C. 337-makes a treaty with Rome, 335-slain at Pandosia by the Lucanians and Bruttians, 332. ALEXANDER II. of Epirus, B.C. 272-his attempts on Macedon defeated by Antigonus Gonatas, 266. ALEXANDER BALA, overthrows Demetrius
Soter and ascends the throne of Syria, B.O. 150-defeated and slain by Demetrius Nicator, 146. See BALA. ALEXANDER ZEBINA, Overcomes Demetrius Nicator and claims the throne of Syria, B.C. 125-slain, 123. ALEXANDER, k. of Egypt, B.C. 107-puts his mother Cleopatra to death, is expelled from Egypt, 89. ALEXANDER II., k. of Egypt, B.C. 81killed, 80. ALEXANDER III., k. of Egypt-a competitor of Ptolemy Auletes, assumes this title, without real power-d. B.C. 65.
ALEXANDER JANNEUS, k. of the Jews B.C. 105-irritates the Jews by his cruelty, 97-massacres 1000 Pharisees, 95-uses great cruelty in quelling a sedition of the Jews, 86-d. 79. ALEXANDER SEVERUS, emperor (See ALEXIANUS), succeeds Elagabalus, 222 — is guided by his mother Julia Mamæa, selects for his counsellors Ulpian, Julius Paulus and other eminent senators, 223marries Sulpitia Memmia, 225-repairs the baths of Nero, thenceforth called Alexander's, 226-at Antioch prepares to resist the Persian demands by arms, 231-after a campaign in Mesopotamia, without any decisive results, claims a victory, and returns to Antioch, 232celebrates a triumph at Rome, and distributes money to the people, 233musters his forces in Gaul to repel the German invaders, 234-murdered with Mamæa by his soldiers, Feb. 10, 235. ALEXANDER, proclaimed by the army in Africa, 308-plunders Carthage, and falls, 311. ALEXANDER, brother of Leo VI. and colleague of Constantine X., emperor of the east, 911-d. 912. ALEXANDER I., k. of Scotland, 1107-1124. ALEXANDER II., k. of Scotland, 1214marries Jane, daughter of k. John, 1221. ALEXANDER III., k. of Scotland, 1249-1286 -his only child Margaret married to Erik, k. of Norway, 1281. ALEXANDER I., Newski, made grand duke of Russia by the Golden Horde, 1252intercedes with them for the people of Novogorod, d. on his journey homeward, 1263.
ALEXANDER II., grand duke of Russia, 1327 -offends the Golden Horde, and is expelled, 1328. ALEXANDER I., emperor of Russia, March 23, 1801 concludes a friendly treaty with England, June 17; appoints the duke of Richelieu governor of Odessa, 1803 urges the German states to demand satisfaction for the violation of the territory of Baden, May 7, 1804
requires the French to evacuate Hanover and Naples, and make compensation to the k. of Sardinia, July 21; his ambassador leaves Paris, Aug. 28; joins the third coalition against France, April 11, 1805-War with Turkey, 1806 meets Napoleon at Tilsit, July 2, 1807-breaks off all intercourse with Great Britain, Sep. 28; meets Napoleon at Erfurt, Sep. 27, 1808-offers to treat for peace, which England refuses, Oct. 12; alienated from Napoleon, 1809 -his contingent arrives too late to assist in the Austrian war; his army is de
feated by the Turks near Silistria, Sep. 26; breaks up the continental system, admits colonial produce and excludes French manufactures, 1810-relaxes in his operations against Turkey, to collect his forces for war with France, 1811; (for the events of this war, see FRANCE and RUSSIA)-makes peace with Turkey, May 28, 1812-visits the prince regent in London, June 7; departs, 27, 1814persuaded by the baroness Valerie de Krudener to form the "Holy Alliance," Sep. 26, 1815 - obtains the duchy of Warsaw, calls it the kingdom of Poland, and gives it a new constitution, Nov. 27; prohibits almost all British manufactures, 1816-establishes schools throughout Russia, 1817-visits Louis XVIII. Oct. 28, 1818-convokes the Polish diet and closes the session abruptly, 1820having no issue, he gives the succession by a secret family treaty to his second brother Nicholas, 1822-recalls his ambassador from Madrid, 1823-d. at Taganrog, Dec. 1, 1825. LEXANDER II., emperor of Russia, March 2, 1855, adheres to the policy of his father Nicholas; accepts the terms proposed as the basis of peace, and sends count Brunow to the congress of Paris, Feb. 16, 1856. ALEXANDER, K. of Poland, 1501-1506. ALEXANDER de' Medici, expelled with the family from Florence, 1527 - restored and made chief magistrate for life, 1530 -duke, 1532-uses his power tyrannically, 1535-assassinated, Jan. 6, 1537. ALEXANDER FARNESE, Son of Octavius duke of Parma and Margaret of Austria, takes the command of the Spanish army in the Netherlands, 1578- the ten southern provinces submit to him, 1579 -is joined by his mother in the government, 1580-objects, and she retires; he raises the siege of Cambray, 1581-restores the authority of Philip in the ten provinces, 1583-besieges Antwerp, 1584 -reduces the garrison by famine, 1585 -succeeds his father as duke of Parma, his resignation of his command not accepted, 1586-relieves Paris, 1590--and Rouen, 1591-d. at Arras, Dec. 2, 1592. ALEXANDER, bp. of Rome, 109--119. ALEXANDER II. (Anselmo da Badagio, bp.
of Lucca), pope, elected without the imperial consent, 1061-the papacy secured to him by Godfrey of Tuscany, pardons the empress Agnes, 1062-d. 1073. ALEXANDER III. (Rolando da Siena, chancellor of the church), pope, 1159-excommunicates the antipope Victor IV., and the emperor Frederic I., 1160-acknowledged by Henry II. of England and Louis
VII., 1161-escapes to France, 1162-be declares void all the acts of his opponents, and fixes his residence at Sens, 1163-condemns the "Constitutions of Clarendon," 1164-returns to Rome, 1165-his Sicilian auxiliaries defeated by the emperor, 1167- Alessandria named in honour of him, 1168-joins the Lombards against Frederic, rejects his pacific overtures, 1170- inquires into Becket's death, 1171-meets the emperor at Venice, concludes a treaty of peace, 1177-returns to Rome, allows the senate to remain, but subordinate to him, 1178 -urges a new crusade, 1180-d. 1181. ALEXANDER IV. (Kolando di Segna, bp. of Ostia), pope, 1254-refuses to ratify the peace with Manfred, and offers Sicily to Edmund, son of Henry III. of England, 1255-condemns William de St. Amour's book against the Dominicans, 1256places Portugal under an interdict, 1257 -mediates a peace between Genoa, Venice, and Pisa, 1258 --- excommunicates Manfred, 1259-dispenses Henry III. from observing the "Provisions of Oxford," 1260-d. May 25, 1261. ALEXANDER V. (Pietro Filargo da Candia, abp. of Milan), pope, elected by the council of Pisa, and obeyed as the true pope by the greater part of Europe, 1409obtains possession of Rome, encourages Louis of Anjou to revive his claim to Naples, d. 1410. ALEXANDER VI., pope (Rodrigo Borgia), 1492-divides the New World between the Spaniards and the Portuguese, 1493 -quarrels with Ferdinand of Naples, 1493-confines Zizim in St. Angelo, 1494-leads a scandalous life; makes a treaty with Charles VIII. of France; leagues against him; retires to Perugia, 1495secularises church lands for a duchy for his son John, 1497-creates his son Cæsar, Duke of Romagna, and assists him to seize Faenza and other cities, 1501-d. 1503. ALEXANDER VII. (Fabio Chigi), pope, Apr. 7, 1655-aids the Venetians against the Turks, 1657-offended by the peace of the Pyrenees, 1659 dissensions with Louis XIV. 1662-1663-he submits to all the demands of Louis, and hostilities are averted by the treaty of Pisa, Feb. 12, 1664-d. May, 1667.
ALEXANDER VIII. (Pietro Ottoboni), pope, 1689-regains Avignon from Louis XIV., 1690-d. 1691. ALEXANDER, bp. of Alexandria, 313-calls the council against Arius, 321-attends the council of Nice, 325-d. 326. ALEXANDER, first bp. of CP., 326–340. ALEXANDER, bp. of Antioch, 413--420.