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ALEXANDRA, widow of Alexander Jannæus, governs Judæa, B.C. 79-d. 70. ALEXANDRA. See LYCOPHRON, B.C. 360. ALEXANDRIA, founded by Alexander the Great, B.C. 332 his body entombed there, 322-many thousand Jews transplanted to, by Ptolemy, 312- Euclid the mathematician fl. at, 300 Ptolemy adorns it with the Museum, the Serapeum, the Pharos, and other edifices, and begins the library, 298-Demetrius Phalereus takes the chair of philosophy at, 296-Ptolemy Philadelphus completes his father's works, 283-besieged by Antiochus, 169-relieved by the Roman victories in Macedon, 168-Ptolemy Physcon expeiled, 130-the library burnt, 48-Antony replaces it by the library of Pergamus, 32-dissensions between the Jews and Greeks at, A.D. 40-Claudius Ptolemy observes the vernal equinox, March 22, 139, 140-visit of Caracalla and massacre of the inhabitants, flight of Origen, 215-he returns and writes many of his works, 229-withdraws again, 231-the Bruchion and its library destroyed by a tumult, 263-besieged by Diocletian, and slaughter of the people, 297-Meletius, bp. of Nicopolis, degraded by a synod for heresy, 302-a council condemns Arius, ejects him from the church, 321-tumults of the sectarian factions, bp. Gregory killed, 349-Athanasius expelled, 356-George of Cappadocia killed and Athanasius restored, but almost immediately banished again, 362-again returns, 363-Theon takes observations to regulate the calendar, 364-a synod held, 430-seditious tumults, 516-conquered by the Persians, 616--taken by the Saracens, Dec. 22, 640-seized by the Andalusian emigrants, who are prevailed upon to go to Crete, 822-surprised and plundered by the k. of Cyprus, the Knights Hospitallers and others, 1365-occupied by the French, July 2, 1798-battle of; the

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ALEXANDRIA, bishops of :31. John I., Talaia, 482 483.

32. Peter III., Mongus, 483. 33. Athanasius II., 490.

34. John II., 496.

renounce the succession and put to
death, July 7, 1718.

ALEXIS, patriarch of C.P., 1025.
ALEXIS, the comic poet, fl. B.C. 356.
ALEXIUS I. (Comnenus), drives Nicephorus
Botoniates, emperor of the East, into a
monastery, and occupies his throne, 1081
-defeated by Robert Guiscard, at Du-
razzo-by Bohemond, 1083-sends am-
bassadors to the council of Placentia, 1095
-obtains from the Crusaders an oath of
fealty, and secures for himself the city
of Nicæa, conquered by them, 1097-
claims Antioch, 1106-attacked by Bo-
hemond in Epirus, 1107-aided against
him by the Venetians, and concludes a
treaty of peace, 1108-d. Aug. 15, 1118.

46. John V., 609, flies from the Persians ALEXIUS II. (Angelus), marries Agues, to Cyprus, 616.

35. John III., 506.

36. Dioscorus II., 517.


37. Timothy IV., 519. 38. Gaianus, 537.

39. Theodosius, 537-banished, 538. 40. Paulus, 538-deposed, 541.

41. Zoilus, 541-deposed, 551.

42. Apollinaris, 551.

43. John IV., 569.

44. Eulogins, 580.

45. Theodorus, 607.

47. George II., 616.

48. Cyrus, 630-expelled by the Sara-
cens, 640.

ALEXANDRIA, libraries of, commenced by
Ptolemy Soter, B.C. 298--enlarged by
Ptolemy Philadelphus, 266-Zenodotus,
librarian, 240-Eratosthenes, 223-Apol-
lonius Rhodius, 194-Aristonymus, 183
-destroyed in Cæsar's war, 48-re-
stored by Antony and Cleopatra, 32-
that of the Bruchion burnt in a popular
tumult, A.D. 263-that of the Serapeum
by bp. Theophilus, 390-asserted, but
doubtful destruction of another by the
Saracens, 640.
ALEXANDRIA, Mundane Era of, commenced
1498 years before 4004, the generally
believed date of the creation, so that
A. Alex. 5503 corresponds with our
A.D. 1. In A.D. 285 ten years were sub-
tracted and 5787 was called 5777. There-
fore, to reduce the Alexandrian to the
Christian era, deduct 5502 years till A.D.
285, and afterwards 5492.
ALEXANDRIA, Greek era of. See ERA OF

ALEXANDRIA on the Issus (Scanderoon),

Heraclius lands at, 622. ALEXANDRINA Victoria, princess, b. May 24, 1819-attains her majority, May 24, 1837-queen, June 20, 1837. See VICTORIA, queen of Great Britain. ALEXIANUS, Cousin of Elagabalus, studies under Julius Frontinus and the most eminent philosophers of Rome, 220--declared Cæsar under the name of Alexander Severus, 221. See ALEXANDER SEVERUS, emperor of Rome. ALEXIAS, Athenian archon, B.C. 405. ALEXIS, czar of Russia, pernicious influence of his tutor the boyar Morouzoff, 1645— d., 1676. ALEXIS, eldest son of Peter the Great, persecuted by his father, compelled to

daughter of Louis VII. of France, 1178 -succeeds his father, Manuel, 1180murdered, 1183.

ALEXIUS III., emperor of the East, de-
thrones his brother, Isaac Angelus, 1195
-expelled by the Crusaders, 1203.
ALEXIUS COMNENUS, founds the empire of
Trebizond, 1204-d. 1222.
ALEXIUS II., ninth emperor of Trebizond,
1297 concludes a commercial treaty
with the Genoese, 1316--d. 1330.
ALEXIUS COMNENUS III., seventeenth em-
peror of Trebizond, 1349-endows the
monastery of Sumelas, 1365-defeated
by the Turkoman tribes, 1366-d. 1390.
ALEXIUS IV., nineteenth emperor of Tre-
bizond, 1417 - murdered by his son,
John, 1446.

ALEXIUS, son of the deposed emperor
Isaac Angelus, escapes and goes to Italy,
1201-he joins the Crusaders, 1203-pro-
claimed with his father, as Alexius IV.,
1203-put to death, 1204.

ALEXIUS, son of John IV., emperor of Trebizond, set aside by his uncle, David, 1458.

ALFIERI, b. 1749-d. 1803.
ALFITNA, the civil war of the, begins
among the Almohades, 1223.
ALFONSO I., a descendant of k. Recared,
joins the Asturians, and marries Pe-
layo's daughter, 722-elected k., 739-
extends his kingdom in Gallicia and
Castile, 740-conquers the north-west
of Spain, along the Douro, from Sentica
to Calle, 751-d. 757.
ALFONSO II., k. of the Goths in Spain, or
of Oviedo, son of Froila, taken by Silo
as his colleague, 775-excluded from the
throne by Mauregatus, 783-obtains it
by the resignation of Veremundus, 791
-refuses to pay the stipulated tribute
to the Saracens, and defeats them, at
Ledos, 793-adorns Oviedo with palaces

and churches, 802-makes a treaty with Al Haken, 805-founds Santiago de Compostella, 808-gains another victory, and makes peace with Al Hakem, 810d. 843.

ALFONSO III., the Great, k. of the Goths in Spain, 862- extends his conquests beyond Salamanca, 867-successfully resists Almondhir, 872-defeats him near the river Urbicus, 874-foils Almondhir in Gallicia, 876-drives him from Zamora, 878-his victories are followed by the embassy of Dulcidius, and a truce for three years, 881-maintains peace with Abdallah, and defeats an irregular force of Arabians, at Zamora, 900-Abdallah sends an embassy to renew his treaty, 901-defeats a rebellion of his son, Garcias, at Zamora, 907-he resigns his crown to his sons, 910-takes the field again to assist them, and gains his last victory, soon after which he dies, at Zamora, 912. ALFONSO IV., k. of the Goths in Spain, or of Leon, 924-retires from the throne, 931.

ALFONSO V., k. of Leon, Gonsalvo is his guardian, and regent, 999-his lost territories regained through the dissensions of the Saracens, 1010-killed at the siege of Viseu, 1028, ALFONSO VI., k. of Castile, 1072-pope Gregory VII. exacts an annual tribute from him, 1077-makes an alliance with Aben Omar, 1079 driven back from Toledo by Alaftas, king of Badajos, 1081-takes it, 1084 defeated at Zalacca, 1086-drives the Mohammedans from the siege of Alid, and compels Yussef to re-embark for Africa, 1089marries his daughter to Henry of Besançon, and makes him duke of Portugal, 1095 defeated at Ucles; his son, Sancho, slain, 1108-d. 1109. ALFONSO VII., k. of Castile. See ALFONSO I., el Batallador, k. of Aragon; and ALFONSO, k. of Gallicia. ALFONSO VIII., k. of Castile, 1158-defeated by the Moors, at Alarcos, 1195– takes Biscay, Alava, and Guipuscoa from Sancho VII., of Navarre, 1200marries his daughter, Garsenda, to Alfonso IX., of Leon, 1201-d. 1214.-The schools founded by him at Palencia, are transferred to Salamanca by his grandson, Ferdinand III., 1240. ALFONSO IX., k. of Leon, 1188-marries Garsenda, daughter of Alfonso VIII., of Castile, 1201-bis kingdom is laid under an interdict, because he refuses to annul his marriage, 1202-after a struggle of twelve years, he is compelled to divorce bis queen; the pope acknowledges the

legitimacy of their children, 1214-on his death, Leon is re-united to Castile, 1230.

ALFONSO X., the Philosopher, while prince of Asturias, concludes the treaty which establishes the supremacy of his father, Ferdinand III., in Murcia, 1240-succeeds him on the throne, 1252-the Astronomical Tables of, framed, 1253-conquers Xeres, Medina Sidonia, and other cities in the south of Spain, 1254-knights Edward, son of Henry III., at Burgos, and affiances his sister, Eleanora, to him, 1255-chosen k. of the Romans by some of the German nobles, 1257-Muhamad, k. of Granada, breaks his alliance with him, and encourages the Moors in Andalusia and Murcia to rebel, 1261-Xeres and other revolted cities submit, 1263 -makes peace with Muhamad, who pays tribute, 1264-continues to claim the title of k. of the Romans, but has no authority, 1271-some Castilian nobles detected in a conspiracy, retire to Granada, 1272-has an interview with Muhamad II., at Seville, and concludes a treaty, 1273-assists in the taking of Alessandria, 1274-has an interview with the pope, at Beaucaire, and asserts his title as k. of the Romans, 1274-being threatened with excommunication, renounces his claim; stops the progress of the Merines in Spain, 1275-concludes a truce with Abu Yusef, 1276-repulsed at the siege of Algesiras, 1278-leagues with the Merines against his son, Sancho, who had seized Cordova, in alliance with the k. of Granada, 1281-d. June 21, 1284. ALFONSO XI., k. of Castile, 1312-he takes

the government into his own hands, 1324 -involves himself in many troubles by his illicit attachment to Eleanora de Guzman, 1330-besieges the Merines of Africa, who had taken Gibraltar, 1333relieves Tarifa when besieged by the Moors, and defeats them near the river Guadacelito, 1340- Algesiras besieged by him, 1342-taken, and a truce made for ten years with the k, of Granada, 1343-dies of the plague in his camp before Gibraltar, Mar. 26, 1350. ALFONSO I. (el Batallador), k. of Aragon and Navarre, 1104-is acknowledged in Castile as Alfonso VII., 1109-defeats and slays Ahmed, the Mohammedan k. of Saragossa, 1109-repairs Soria, Uxama, and other cities; quarrels with his queen, Urraca, and imprisons her, 1111 -defeats her partisans in Castile, 1112leagues with the Moorish k. of Saragossa; the Almoravide gen., Mez-deli, is defeated and slain by them; they take Lerida,

1117-he takes Saragossa, 1118-Calatayud, 1119-Roger, count of Sicily, marries his daughter Alberia, 1120-makes an incursion into Murcia and Granada, 1123 on the death of Urraca, he resigns Castile to her son, Alfonso, k. of Gallicia, 1126-defeats Taxfin in Andalusia, 1130-bequeaths Aragon to the Knights Hospitallers and Templars, but his will is not carried into effect, 1131-lays siege to Fraga, 1132-defeated and slain there, 1134. ALFONSO II., k. of Aragon; regency of

his mother, Petronilla, 1162-d 1196. ALFONSO III., k. of Aragon, 1285-takes the Balearic Islands from his uncle, who had assisted the French invasion of Aragon, 1286-concludes a treaty of peace, with France, at Aix, but before it can be executed, dies, June 18, 1291. ALFONSO IV., k. of Aragon, 1327 1336.

ALFONSO V:, the Wise, k. of Aragon, 1416 -adopted as heir by Joanna II., queen of Naples, 1420-engages Braccio in their service, 1421-puts an end to the hostilities of pope Martin V., by threatening to recognize again Benedict XIII., 1422

his adoption annulled; he attacks and plunders Marseilles, 1423 appoints the ex-pope Clement VIII. bp. of Majorca, 1429-arrives in Sicily with a fleet, and renews his project of obtaining the succession to Naples, 1432-on the death of Joanna takes the title of k. of Naples; lays siege to Gaeta; in a naval battle with the Genoese, Aug. 5, he is defeated and taken prisoner; sent to Milan; the duke releases him without a ransom, and enters into a league with him against the pope, Eugenius IV., 1435-arrives at Gaeta, and is acknowledged by many towns in the Abbruzzo and other provinces, 1436-takes Aversa, and besieges Naples, 1440- takes the city of Naples, and the whole kingdom submits to him, 1442-Eugenius acknowledges him, and employs him to recover the March of Ancona, 1443-disputes the possession of the states of the late duke of Milan with Francesco Sforza, 1447-pope Nicholas V. mediates peace between him and the republics of Florence and Venice, 1450-visited by the emperor Frederic IV., 1452 -opposed by Regnier d' Anjou, 1453-he refuses to agree to the treaty of peace concluded at Lodi, 1454-pope Nicholas V. prevails upon him to assent to the peace of Lodi, and to join the league against the Ottomans, 1455 - redresses grievances in the diocese of Sienna, 1456--he makes war on Genoa, and quarrels with

pope Callistus, 1457-he besieges Genoa; dies at Naples, June 27, 1458. ALFONSO, k. of Gallicia, 1109-protects his mother, Urraca, 1112-obtains possession of Castile on her death, and continues the title of Alfonso VII., 1126-protects the kings of Aragon and Navarre, 1132 -invades Murcia, 1146-assists in taking Almeria, 1147-d. 1157. ALFONSO I., k. of Naples. V., king of Aragon. ALFONSO II., k. of Naples, conciliates the pope, 1494-resigns the crown to his son, Ferdinand, Jan. 23, 1495-retires to a monastery at Mazzara, where he dies, Nov. 19.


ALFONSO I., k. of Navarre, 1104. See AL

FONSO (el Batallador), k. of Aragon. ALFONSO I., count of Portugal, his mother, Theresa, regent, 1112-gains a victory over the Moors at Ourique, on the river Corbes, and assumes the title of king, 1139-takes Lisbon, 1147-Evora, 1166defeats Yusef Abu Jakub, 1184-d. 1185. ALFONSO II., k. of Portugal, 1211-1223. ALFONSO III., k. of Portugal, 1248-his kingdom placed under an interdict in consequence of his having divorced his queen and married another, 1257-he acquires the sovereignty of Algarve, 1269 -d. 1278.

ALFONSO IV. the Brave, k. of Portugal, 1325-defeats the Moors of Fez and Granada, when besieging Tarifa, near the river Guadacelito, 1340-orders his son's wife, Inez de Castro, to be put to death, 1354-d. 1357. ALFONSO V., the African, k. of Portugal, 1438-regency of his uncle, Henry of Viseu; marriage of his sister, Eleanora, to Frederic IV., of Germany, 1452conquers Tangier and Arzilla, forms the province of Algarve beyond the sea, and receives the name of the African, 1471 -affianced to Joanna, daughter of Henry IV.; he claims Castile; takes Zamora, 1474-is defeated by Ferdinand of Castile, near Toro, and applies in vain to Louis XI., of France, for assistance, 1476 -defeated, at Albuera, Feb. 24; makes peace with Castile, 1479-d. at Cintra, July 28, 1481.

ALFONSO VI., k. of Portugal, 1656-set aside for imbecility; his brother, Pedro, marries his destined queen, Maria Francisca, of Savoy, and assumes the government as Pedro VI., with the title of regent, during the life of Alfonso, who is secluded in Cintra, 1667-till his death, 1683.

ALFONSO, brother of Louis IX., of France, affianced to the only daughter and heiress of Raymond, count of Toulouse, 1229

on their death, without issue, their nephew, Philip III., inherits their lands,


ALFONSO DE LA CERDA, son of Ferdinand, the deceased eldest son of Alfonso X., of Castile, is excluded from the throne by his uncle, Sancho IV., 1284-his right is supported by a strong party, 1289-coalition of many States in his favour, 1296 -by the treaty of Campillo, a suitable provision is made for him and his brother Juan, and they acknowledge their cousin, Ferdinand IV., 1305. ALFONSO, prince of Castile, is declared by the grandees to be the legitimate heir of his brother, Henry IV., 1464-proclaimed k. by them, 1465-his death opens the way to his sister, Isabella, to the throne, 1468.

ALFONSO, prince of Portugal, son of John II., marriage and death of, 1490. ALFONSO, of Aragon, duke of Biseglia, third husband of Lucretia Borgia, murdered by her brother, Cæsar, 1500. ALFONSO D' ESTE, duke of Ferrara, d., and his States are claimed by pope Clement VIII., 1597. ALFORD, battle of, the Covenanters defeat

ed by the earl of Montrose, July 2, 1645. ALFRED the Great, b. 849-sent to Rome, and anointed by the pope, 853-taken by his father, Ethelwulf, to Rome, 855-assists his brother, Ethelred, against the Danes, 868-" secondary," or assistant regent to his brother, 869-k., Apr. 23, 871-defeats the Danes in a sea-fight, 875-gains another victory at Swanewic (Swansea), and concludes a treaty with them at Exeter, 877-obliged to withdraw into the Isle of Athelney; defeats the enemy at Ethandun (Eddington), 878 -makes a new treaty with the Danes, giving them equal rights, and they acknowledge his supremacy, 880-defeats an attempt at invasion by Hasting, 882 -his missions to Rome and India, 883defeats the Danes at Rochester, 884his ships defeated by the Danes at the mouth of the Stour, in East Anglia, 885-repairs London; is said to have founded the university of Oxford; he improves the laws and government of England; patron of John Scotus Erigena, 886-begins his translations from Latin into Anglo-Saxon, 888-his wise measures produce security and order, 890-marriage of his daughter, Elfrith, 891-defeats the Danes at Farnham and Bemfleet; compels them to raise the siege of Exeter, and restores to Hasting his wife and son, who were made prisoners, 894-the Danes avoid an encounter with him, 895-he constructs a

powerful navy, defeats them near the Isle of Wight, and puts a final stop to their incursions, 897-his death, Oct. 28, 901-death of his widow, Elswith, 905thousandth year commemoration of his birth, at Wantage, Oct. 25, 1849. ALFRED, the Etheling, lands at Sandwich with a body of Normans, is made prisoner by Godwin, earl of Kent, and put to death, at Ely, 1036, ALFRED, son of George III., b. Sept. 22, 1780-d. Aug. 20, 1782.

ALFRED, Ernest Albert, second son of
Queen Victoria, b. Aug. 6, 1844.
ALFRIC, the grammarian, abp. of Canter-
bury, 995-d. 1006.

ALFRID, k. of Northumberland, 685-re-
stores bp. Wilfrid to York, 686-expels
him again, 691-encourages learning,
703-resists the papal mandate to restore
Wilfrid, 704-d. 705.
ALFWOLD, K. of Northumberland, 778—
slain, 789.

ALFWOLD, usurps Northumberland, 806Erdulf restored, 808. ALFWULD, k. of East Anglia, 746-749. ALGAR, the ealdorman, defeats the Danes, in Kesteven, on St. Maurice's day, Sept. 22; slain in a second battle, 869. ALGAROTTI, Count, d. 1764. ALGARVE. See Alfonso III. and V., kings of Portugal. ALGERIA, a French province, 1834-war with Abd el Kader, 1835-his incursions renewed, 1843-victory of Isly gained by marshal Bugeaud, 1844-attacked by the Kabyles, 1845--Abd el Kader surrenders, and hostilities cease; the duke d'Aumale gov., 1847-gen. St. Arnaud gov., defeats the Kabyles, May 11, July 17, 1851-a submarine electric telegraph to connect it with France, projected, May 24, 1853. ALGESIRAS, first incursion of the Saracens, 710-besieged by Alfonso X., 1278-given up to the k. of Granada by the Merines, 1294-besieged by the Castilians, 1342 -surrenders, 1343-naval engagements in the bay, July 6-13, 1801. ALGIDUS, a height held by the Senones, B.C. 360. See ALBAN, MOUNT. ALGIERS, a piratical State, founded by Horuc and Hayraddin Barbarossa, 1518 --attacked by the emperor Charles V. 1541-expedition against, under Gianandrea Doria, dispersed by adverse winds, 1601-Blake compels the dey to give up his English captives and desist from piracy, 1655-the fleet of Louis XIV. defeats the Algerines, 1665-they release their French captives and renounce piracy, 1670-he sends another expedition against them, 1681-Du

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