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AL HAKEM I., caliph of Spain, 795-his uncles Suleiman and Abdallah raise a civil war, 797-he recovers Huesca and Lerida, 798-defeats and expels his uncles, 799-pursues them into Tadmir; they retire into Africa, 800-recovers Saragossa, Pampeluna, and Huesca, 802 -returns to Cordova, and makes an alliance with Edris Ben Edris, k. of Fez, 804 makes a treaty with Alfonso II., k. of the Goths, 805-a plot at Cordova against him, 806-his son Abderahman delivers Tortosa, 808-makes peace with Alfonso and Charlemagne, 810-proclaims Abderahman as his vicegerent and successor, disaffection begins to prevail at Cordova, 815-his cruelty drives many thousand Andalusians into Africa, 817-becomes insane, and Abderaliman takes the government, 820d. 821.

AL HAKEM II., caliph of Spain, 961-employs agents in Africa and Arabia to purchase or copy MSS., and forms a large library, 962-attacks the frontiers of Leon, on the Douro, 963-destroys the vine-grounds in Spain, to check the drinking of wine; concludes a treaty of peace with Sancho I., 965-sends a powerful army into Africa, under Calib, 973 -his authority restored in Fez and Western Africa, 974-d. 976. ALHAMA taken from the Moors, 1482. ALHAMBRA at Granada, founded by Mo

hamad I., 1253.

ALHANDIC, victory gained at, by Abderahman III., according to Arabian writers,


ALHASAN Ben Edris, k. of Fez, struggles against Muza, 924.

AL HASSAN, the last Edrisite k. of Fez, surrenders, and is treacherously beheaded by Almansor, 984. ALHAUG YAHIX fortifies Gibraltar, 1160. ALHAUR OF ALCHAME, commands in Spain, 718.

ALHMUND, bp. of Hexham, 766-d. 780. ALI. Supposed time of his birth, 597 or 599 -Mohammed's vizir, 613-venerated by the Persian Mohammedans, 644. See SHIITES.-Elected caliph, 655-Moawi

yah revolts: Ali's victory, on the "day of the camel," 656-campaign on the plain of Seffein; vain efforts to settle their quarrel by single combat or arbitration; insurrection of the Karegites, 657-his partisans are expelled from Egypt by Amrou, 658-he subdues the Karegites, 659-is assassinated by one of them, 660. ALI, gov. of Africa, lands in Spain with an army, and proclaims Almausor, 761the expedition fails, he is killed, and his head sent to Cairoan, 762. ALI. See HYDER ALI.

ALI PACHA, gov. of Albania, is resisted by the people of Parga, 1817-obtains the town from the English, May 10, 1819 -revolts, and urges the Greeks to assert their independence, 1820-captured and put to death, 1822.

ALI, vizir, assassinates the British envoys at Benares, Jan. 14, 1799. ALI BEN HAMUD, takes arms against Soleiman, caliph of Spain, 1014-defeats and slays him, and becomes caliph, 1016 -drowned in a bath by his attendants, 1017.

ALI BEN YUSSEF, recognized as heir to the thrones of Spain and Africa,1103-caliph, 1105-defeats the Christians at Urcesia, 1108-repulsed at Toledo, returns to Africa, 1109-drives the Almohades from the siege of Morocco, 1123-defeated by them, 1130-sends for his son, Taxfin, from Spain, to support him, 1138-d. 1143. ALIBAUD attempts to assassinate Louis

Philippe, June 25, 1836. ALICANT, ceded to the Saracens, by Theodemir, 713-bombarded by the French fleet, 1691.

ALICE Mand Mary, second daughter of
Queen Victoria, b. April 25, 1843.
ALID, near Lorca, besieged by the Moham-
medans, relieved by Alfonso III.,


ALIEN ACT, introduced by lord Grenville, Dec. 19, 1792.

ALIEN priories, in England, suppressed by parliament, 1414.

ALIFIA, Musa Ben Abi, invades Fez, 917.
ALIMENTUS, L. Cincius, the hist., contem-

porary of Q. Fabius Pictor, в C. 225---
taken prisoner by Hannibal, 218.
ALISON, Archibald, death of, 1839.
ALIWAL, battle of, defeat of the Silks,
Jan. 28, 1846.
ALJUBARROTTE, near Leyria, battle of,
July 29, 1385.

AL KADER, caliph of Bagdad, restores the power and dignity of his office, 991d. 1031.

" ALL THE TALENTS," an administration so called, formed, Feb. 5, 1803. ALMA, river in the Crimea, battle of the; defeat of the Russians by the British and French, Sept. 20, 1854. ALMAGEST of Ptolemy, translated into Latin, by order of the emperor, Frederic li., of Germany, 1231. See PTOLEMY, CLAU

AL KAHER, caliph of Bagdad, 932-deposed, 934.

AL KAIM, caliph of Bagdad, 1031-1075. ALKALIES, fixed, decomposed by Humphrey Davy, by means of galvanism, 1808.

ALKMAAR, resists the duke of Alva, 1573battle of, duke of York defeated, Sept. 19, 1799. ALLAHABAD, treaty of; Bengal, Bahar, and Orixa, ceded to the East India Company, Aug. 12, 1765. ALLAN, Sir Wm., R. A., death of, 1850. ALLECTUS, treacherously murders Carausius, and assumes the government of Britain, 293-defeated and slain by Asclepiodotus, 296. ALLEGIANCE, a new oath of, imposed on occasion of the Gunpowder Plot: pope Paul V. forbids the English Romanists to take it, 1606-controversy concerning it, between James I. and cardinal Bellarmine, 1607. ALLEMANNI, their lands, on the river

Maine, invaded by Caracalla, who defeats them, 214-they appear on the borders of Italy, 256-penetrate into Italy and are defeated by Claudius, near Lake Benacus, 268-repelled from Gaul, by Constantine, 309-again, by Crispus, 320-infest Gaul, under Gundomad and Vadomar; are repulsed by Constantius II., and agree to peace, 354-attack Julian, at Sens, but are defeated, 356again, at Strasburg, and Chnodomar, their chief, taken prisoner, 357-again defeated by Julian, and Vadomar, their chieftain, taken, 360-harass Gaul, 365are defeated by Jovinus, 366-surprise and plunder Mentz; defeated by Valentinian, at Solicinium, 368-Burgundian mercenaries assist in repelling them, 370 their incursions in Gaul, are defeated by Gratian, at Argentaria (Colmar), and they make peace, 378-defeated by Clovis I., at Tolbiac (Zulpich), 496-repulsed with the Franks, in Italy, by Narses, 554.

ALLENIUS, Sex. Papinius, consul of Rome,


ALLEYNE, Edward, founds Dulwich College, 1619.

ALLIA, battle of the; the Romans defeated

by the Gauls (Celta), B.C. July 16, 389. ALLIANCE, the Holy. See ALEXANDER I., of Russia. ALLIFE, battle of; the Samnites defeated by Fabius, B.C. 308. ALLOBROGES, the, defeated by C. Sextius Calvinus. B.C. 122, and on the Isaras, near Vindalium, 121. ALL SOULS' College, Oxford, founded by Chicheley, abp. of Canterbury, 1437.


ALMAGRO, with Pizarro, discovers Peru, 1524-attacks Chili, 1535-is killed by Pizarro, 1538-Almagro, the son, assassinates Pizarro, and is executed by De Castro, 1541.

AL MAHDI, caliph of Bagdad, 775--expends 666,000 gold crowns in a pilgrimage to Mecca, 784-d. 785. ALMAMOUN, K. of Toledo, seizes Valencia, and deposes his son-in-law, Almudafar, 1064.

AL MAMUN, caliph of Bagdad, dethrones his brother, AI Amin, 813--protects the Shiites, and patronizes literature, 814 -employs astronomers to observe the sun's greatest declination, 816-revolt against him, 817-d. 833. ALMANACS, first printed at Buda, 1472in England, by Pynson, 1497-Moore's first printed, 1713. ALMANSOR, caliph, introduces learning among the Arabians, 754-builds Bagdad, 758-proclaimed in Spain, by Ali, gov. of Africa, 761-d. 775 ALMANSOR, or the Illustrious; under this name, Muhamad Abdallah governs Spain during the minority of Hixem II., 977he collects an army against the Christians of Leon, 979-defeats them, and captures Zamora, 981-takes Leon and Astorga, 983-defeats Borel, count of Barcelona, and takes the city, 984 treacherously beheads Al Hassan, the last Edrisite k. of Fez, 984-invades Navarre, 986-takes Osma and Alcobriga, in Castile, 987-takes Coimbra and Santiago, 988-sets apart a fund to promote literature; learned men from the East resort to Cordova, 989-a poetical tournament held in his palace, 991-invades Gallicia, and carries away the bells from the church of Santiago as trophies, 993invades Navarre, 994-after gaining two victories, makes peace with Bermudo, k. of Leon, 995-his son, Abdelmelic, defeats Zeir Ben Atia, 997-defeats the Christians at Hisn Dhervera, 1000-totaily defeated by the Christian princes, at Calat Anosor, is wounded, and dies soon after, 1002. ALMANSOR, Jakub, k. of the Moors in Spain, 1184-defeats Alfonso VIII., of Castile, at Alarcos, 1195 d. 1198. ALMAREZ, taken by gen. Hill, May 19, 1814.

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ALMEIDA, Lorenzo de, forms a Portuguese settlement in Ceylon, 1507. ALMEIRA, Francesco de, Portuguese viceroy in India, establishes factories in Malabar, 1505.

ALMENARA, battle of, gained by the combined army, under Charles of Austria and gen. Stanhope, July 27, 1710. ALMERIA, conquered by Yussef, the Almoravide, 1091-taken by the kings of Castile, Aragon, and Navarre, assisted by a Genoese fleet, 1147-recovered by the Moors, 1157 - besieged by Ferdinand, 1488-captured, 1489. ALMERIC, AMALRICH, or AMAURY, K. of Cyprus, and titular k. of Jerusalem, marries Isabella, 1198 d. 1206. ALMETUAKEL, k. of Badajos, put to death by Yusef, 1093. ALMOATAMAD, Muhamad, takes Cordova, and is the most powerful of the Moorish kings in Spain, 1060-d. 1068. ALMOGAVARES, or ADVENTURERS, Sail from Lisbon to explore the Atlantic, 1014 ALMOHADES, partisans of El Mehedi, in Africa, 1121-lay siege to Morocco, and are repulsed by Ali, 1123-El Mehedi dies, and is succeeded by Abdelmumen, 1129-defeat of Ali, 1130-his son, Taxfin. supports him, 1138-is defeated. 1144-the Almohades conquer Morocco, and enter Spain, 1145-take Seville, 1146 -Cordova, 1148-Granada, 1156-rule in Africa and Spain, 1163-decline in Spain, 1212-divided by civil war in Africa, 1223-end of their dominion in Spain, 1232-finally extinguished in Africa by the Merines, 1278.

AL MOHTADI, caliph of Bagdad, 869-murdered by the Turkish guards, 870. AL MOKTAD, caliph of Bagdad, 1075-1094. AL MOKTADER, caliph of Bagdad, 908— deposed and blinded, 932.

AL MOKTAFI, caliph of Bagdad, 902-908. AL MOKTA, a supporter of Abdallah, son

of Zobeir, killed at Cufa, 686. ALMON, John, tried for selling Junius's Letters, June 2, 1770-d. 1805. ALMONDHAR, the Moorish k, of Saragossa, assassinated at Granada, 1031. ALMONDHIR, Son of the caliph Muhamad, blockades Toledo, 854-storms Rosas, and disperses the army of the rebel, Omar. 866-is successfully resisted by Alfonso III., 872-defeated by him, near the river Urbicus, 874-foiled by him in Gallicia, 876-besieges Zamora; driven by him from the siege of Zamora, 878

caliph, 886-slain in battle by Calib, 888.

ALMORAVIDES, founded in Africa about 1050-extend their conquests, 1067-invited into Spain, 1086-Valencia betrayed to them by Ahmed Ben Gehaf, 1092recovered by the Cid, 1094-retaken by them, 1100-general insurrection of the Moors in Spain against them 1143-overcome by the Almohades, 1145. AL MORTADER, Caliph of Bagdad,1094-1118. AL MOSTADHI, caliph of Bagdad, 1170-1180. AL MOSTAIN, raised to the caliphate by the Turkish guards, 862-murdered by them, 866.

AL MOSTAKFI, caliph of Bagdad, 944. AL MOSTANJID, caliph of Bagdad, 1160-1170. AL MOSTANSER, instigates the Turkish guard to murder his father, Al Motawakkel, and is raised by them to the caliphate, 861-assassinated by them, 862. AL MOSTANSER, caliph of Bagdad, 12261243.

AL MOSTARSHED, caliph of Bagdad, 1118


AL MOSTASEM, last caliph of Bagdad, 1243 -put to death by Hulagou, 1258. AL MOTADHED, caliph of Bagdad, 892-902. AL MOTAKI, caliph of Bagdad, 940-944. AL MOTAMED, caliph of Bagdad, 870-892. AL MOTASSEM, caliph of Bagdad, 833-defeats Theophilus, and destroys Amorium, 838-839-d. 841. AL MOTAWAKKEL, caliph of Bagdad, 847— assassinated, 861.

AL MOTAZ, caliph of Bagdad, 866-endeavours to remove his Turkish guards; is deposed and slain by them, 869. AL MOTI, caliph of Bagdad, 945-974. ALMUATEDID Muhamad, caliph of Spain,

1068-sent a prisoner to Africa by Yussef, the Almoravide, 1091.

ALMUDAFAR, k, of Valencia, deposed by his father-in-law, Almamoun, 1064. ALMUTARAF, son of the caliph Abdallah, rebels, and defeats his father's army, at Jaen, 889-assassinated, 894. AL NASER, caliph of Bagdad, 1180-1225. ALNWICK, battles of; Malcolm III., k. of

Scotland, killed by Roger Mowbray, 1093 -William the Lion defeated and made prisoner, 1174-the Castle taken by the French, 1462-abandoned after the battle of Hexham, 1463.

ALOPO, Pandolfo, the chamberlain and favourite of Joanna II., of Naples, put to death by her husband, James of Bourbon, 1415.

ALOST, siegc of, 1128.

ALOYSIUS, an architect, employed by Theodoric to repair and preserve the public edifices of Rome, 500.

ALP ARSLAN, succeeds his uncle, Togrul

Beg, 1063-conquers Armenia, 1065-Georgia, 1068-defeats and captures Romanus Diogenes, 1071 assassinated,Į 1072. ALPHABET, Egyptian, invented by Memnon, B.C. 1822 (ascribed by Lepsius to Amenemhe III., about 2120)—the Ionian adopted at Athens, 403. ALPINE, K. of Scotland, 833-836. ALPS, the, crossed by Hannibal, B.C. 218by Hasdrubal, 207-first crossed by the Romans, 154-by the French army, under Bonaparte, May, 1800.

AL RADHI, caliph of Bagdad, 934-940.
AL RASHID, caliph, 1135.

ALRIC, K. of Kent, 760-fights the battle
of Otford with Offa, k. of Mercia, 773.
ALSACE, traversed by the army of Gusta-
vus Adolphus, 1631- occupied by the
French, 1638-ceded to France by the
peace of Westphalia, 1648-Louis XIV.
makes new claims, 1680-feudal rights
of the German princes abrogated by
the National Assembly in France, Aug.
4, 1789-their restoration demanded, 1791
-formally refused, Sept. 23.
ALSAMA, or ZAMA, a Saracen commander
in Spain, invades Southern Gaul, 720-
defeated by Eudes, and slain in the
battle of Toulouse, 721.
ALSTAN, bp. of Sherbourne, forces Ethel-
wulf to resign the crown of Wessex, 854

-d. 867.

ALTADES, K. of Assyria, B.C. 1702 (1808 C.). ALTAI, Mount, the original seat of the Turks, mission of Zemarchus to them,


AL TAI, caliph of Bagdad, 974-991. ALTENBURG, battle of; the Austrians defeated by the Hungarians, May 7, 1849. ALTENKIRCHEN, defeat of the Austrians at, June 4, 1796. ALTHORPE, lord, b. 1782-chancellor of the exchequer, Nov. 1830-announces the Reform Bill, Feb. 3, 1831-the abolition of the taxes on coals, candles, and printed calicoes, and reduction of other duties, 11; carries up the Reform Bill to the House of Lords, Sept. 19; resigns, May 9, 1832-resumes office, 18; presented with a gold cup, Nov. 6; announces a large surplus revenue, Feb. 14, 1834-brings in a bill to amend the poor laws, April 17; also a plan for the abolition of church rates, 21; announces a further surplus of revenue, and reduces more taxes, July 25; succeeds his father, as earl Spencer, Nov. 19. See SPENCER, John Charles, earl.

ALTIERI, cardinal. See CLEMENT X. pope, 1670.

ALTON, in Hampshire, battle of, victory of the Danes, 1001.

ALTONA, in Holstein, burnt by the Swedish gen. Steinbock, 1713-the duke of Brunswick dies there after the battle of Jena, Nov. 10, 1806.

ALTRANSTADT, treaty of, dictated by Charles XII. to Augustus, k. of Poland, Sep. 14, 1706.

ALUM, manufactured at Phocæa by Dominico Catagna and a Genoese colony, 1330 -their works removed to Pera, and thence to the isle of Ischia; others established at Tolfa, for pope Pius II. by John di Castriot, 1459-a bed discovered at Volterra, is claimed and appropriated by the government of Florence, 1472-discovered by Sir Thomas Chaloner at Guisborough near Whitby, and manufactured there, 1608. ALVA, Francis Alvarez de Toledo, duke of, b. 1508-seht by Philip II. to invade the papal territories, 1556- holds a conference at Bayonne with Katharine de' Medici, for the destruction of the Protestants, 1565-sent into the Netherlands, 1567-governs there in a sanguinary manner, 1568-continues his barbarous course, 1569-opens a secret intercourse with Mary, qu. of Scots, 1571 -takes Haarlem, and puts the inhabitants to the sword; fails before Alkmaar, and is recalled, 1573-d. 1582. ALVANLEY, lord; see ARDen, Pepper, d. 1804. ALVAREZ, chaplain to Roderigo de Lima in his embassy to Abyssinia, 1520-returns and misrepresents the religious sentiments of that country to the Conference at Bologna, 1533. ALVINZI, Austrian general, defeated by Bonaparte at Arcola, Nov. 15, 16, 17, 1796. AL WATHEK, caliph of Bagdad, 841-the splendour of the office declines, he d. 847.

ALWYN, bp. of Winchester, 1032-d. 1045. ALYATTES, k. of Lydia, expels the Cimmeriana, B.C. 617-makes peace with Thrasybulus of Miletus, 612-war with Cyaxares, k. of Media, 603-d. 560. ALYPIUS, a Roman governor of Britain under Constantius II., afterwards employed by Julian to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem, 363.

AL ZAHER, caliph of Bagdad, 1225. AMADEUS, Count of Maurienne, becomes

count of Savoy, 1109-d. in Cyprus, 1148. AMADEUS III. or IV., count of Savoy, 1233 -1253.

AMADEUS IV. or V., count of Savoy, 1285 -assists the Knights Hospitallers to defend Rhodes against Othman, 1315d. 1323.

AMADEUS V. or VI., the Green, Count of Savoy, 1343-peace concluded through


his mediation, between Venice and Genoa 1381-d. of the plague, 1383. AMADEUS VII., the Red, count of Savoy, 1383-1390.

AMADEUS VIII., count of Savoy, 1391-receives the title of duke, 1416--joins the league against the duke of Milan, 1426-secedes on obtaining Vercelli. 1427saves the marquis of Montferrat from Francesco Sforza, 1431-retires into a hermitage at Ripaglia, 1434-elected pope by the council of Basle as Felix V., 1439 -the German electors threaten to declare for him, 1446-resigns his papal title and goes back to Ripaglia, 1449-d. Jan. 7, 1451. AMADEUS IX., duke of Savoy, 1465-negotiations for the marriage of his sister Bona to Edward IV. of England broken off, she marries Galeazzo Maria, duke of Milan, 1468-death of Amadeus, 1472. AMADIS DE GAUL, written by Vasco Lobeira, 1308. AMALABERGA, niece of Theodoric, marries Hermanric, k. of the Thuringians, 500. AMALAFRIDA, sister of Theodoric, married to Thorismund, Vandal k. of Africa, 499 -murdered by Hilderic, 527. AMALARICH, the infant son of Alaric II., proclaimed jointly with his natural brother, Giselich, k. of the Visigoths, Thiodes their guardian, 507-by the flight of Giselich, he is left sole king; marries Clotilda, daughter of Clovis, and makes Seville his residence. 528-falls in battle against Childebert, 531. AMALASONTHA, daughter of Theodoric, marries Eutharic, 515-is left a widow with one son, 523-on her father's death, governs as guardian to her son, Athalaric, 526 after his death, associates her cousin, Theodatus, in the government, and is murdered by him, 534. AMALFI, begins to flourish by commerce with the East, 776-repels the attack of Arigisius, duke of Beneventum, 786arms against the African and Spanish corsairs, 813-assists in the defeat of the Saracen pirates, 819-leagues with Beneventum and Capua, against the Saracens, 908-conquered by Robert Guiscard, 1077-recovers its independence, 1096 submits to Roger, k. of Sicily, 1131 -taken by the Pisans, when a copy of Justinian's Pandects is said to have been discovered there, 1135-gives the title of Count to Nicolo Acciaiuolo, 1348.

Tulum, one of them, 504-Eutharic also, 515.


AMALRICH, or AMAURY, k. of Jerusalem, 1162-invades Egypt, and takes and pillages Heliopolis, 1168-d. 1173. See AL


AMAND, ST., the French defeated at, May 8, 1793.

AMANTIUS, Consul of Rome, 345.
AMANTIUS, put to death for conspiracy by
Justin I., 518.

AMARIAH, Jewish high priest, B.C. 840. AMASIS, K. of Egypt, B.C. 569 (F. H.)death of, five months before the invasion by Cambyses, 526. AMAURY, K. of Jerusalem. See AMALRICH. AMAURY, son of Simon de Montfort, continues the war against the Albigenses, 1218.

AMAZIAH, k. of Judah, B.C. 837. AMAZON, West India Mail ship, destroyed. by fire at sea, Jan. 4, 1852. AMAZONS, river of the, explored by Orellana, 1540.

AMALGAMATED SOCIETY OF ENGINEERS in Manchester, make demands which their masters resist, Jan. 2, 1852-submit to their employers' terms, April 26. AMALI, the royal race of the Ostrogoths;


AMBIBULUS, L. Carius, consul of Rome, 126. AMBIORIX, a leader of the Eburones, B.C. 54. AMBISA, a Saracen commander in Spain,

722-slain, 725.

AMBLEF, battle of; Charles Martel defeats Raginfried, mayor of Neustria, 716. AMBLETEUSE, James II. lands at, 1688. AMBOISE, Charles VIII., k. of France, dies at, April 7, 1498-league of, 1560--compromise of, between the Romanists and the Huguenots, March 19, 1563. AMBOYNA, colonized by the Portuguese, 1511-taken from them by the Dutch, 1620-who massacre the English there, 1624-taken by the English, Feb. 16, 1796-restored to Holland, 1802-again taken, Feb. 21, 1810-and again restored, 1814. AMBRACIA, receives an Athenian embassy to counteract the designs of Philip, B.C. 343-given up to the Romans by the Etolians, 189-battle of Actium in its gulf, 31-on its site Augustus builds Nicopolis (now Prevesa), 30. AMBROSE, bp. of Milan, 375-holds a synod at Aquileia against Palladius and Secundianus, 381-pleads against the restoration of the Altar of Victory to the senate-house, 384-refuses the empress Justina one church for Arian worship at Milan, 385-persuades Theodosius to rescind the order for rebuilding the Jews' synagogue at Callinicum, 388-enjoins penance on him at Milan; encourages monachism, 390-d. 397. AMBROSIUS, the friend and disciple of Origen, assists him by paying clerks to copy for him, 235.

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