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AMBUSTUS, Q. Fabius, military tribune of Rome, B.C. 390.

AMBUSTUS, C. Fabius, consul of Rome, B.C. 358.

AMBUSTUS, M. Fabius, consul of Rome, B.C. 360, 356, 354.

AMBUSTUS, Q. Fabius, consul of Rome, B.C. 412.

AMEERS of Scinde, defeated by Sir Charles James Napier, Feb. 17, 1843. AMEINIAS, Athenian archon, B.C. 423. AMELIA Adelaide Louisa Theresa, princess of Saxe Meiningen, b. 1792-marries the duke of Clarence, July 11, 1818-gives birth to a daughter, which soon dies, Mar. 27, 1819-becomes queen, June 26, 1830-visits Germany, 1834-d. Dec. 2, 1849. See ADELAIDE. AMELIA, daughter of George III., b. Aug. 8, 1783-d. Nov. 2, 1810. AMELIUS, a disciple of Plotinus, writes Expositions of their philosophy, 264. AMENEMHE III., k. of Egypt, about B.C. 2120, Leps.-the invention of the Egyptian alphabet and the construction of Lake Moris ascribed to him by Lepsius.

AMENOPHIS I., k. of Egypt, B.C. 1821 (about 1580 B. and Leps.) AMENOPHIS II., k. of Egypt, B.C. 1686 (1625 C., about 1500 Leps.) A MENOPHIS III., k. of Egypt, B.C. 1618 (about 1460 Leps.)

AMENOPHIS, K. of Egypt, B.C. 933. AMERICA, the northern part, first discovered by two Icelanders, Biorn and Leif, 1001-discovered by Columbus, 1492divided by the pope between the Spaniards and Portuguese, 1493-North America discovered by Cabot, 1497 - the name imposed by Amerigo Vespucci, 1499-the N.E. coast explored by Corte Real, 1500-first Spanish settlement on the mainland, 1510-the western coast first reached, 1513-introduction of the Inquisition, 1570 - Davis explores the north-eastern coast, 1585-and Hudson, 1608-first British settlements, by Sir Geo. Somers and others, 1606-1609-dissensions between the Spaniards and Portuguese colonists, 1736-encroachments of the French, 1754-commencement of the dispute between the British government and the colonists, 1765-renewed, 1772-the N.W. coast explored by Cook, 1778-by Vancouver, 1791-unsettled state of South America, 1824. See UNITED STATES, SPANISH AMERICA, BRITISH AMERICA, and CANADA. AMERICAN CONGRESS, meets at Philadelphia, and issues its Declaration of Rights, Sept. 5, 1774-the second assembles, May 10, 1775-the third proclaims

independence, July 4, 1776-first session at Washington, 1800. AMERICAN Stamp Act. See STAMP ACT, AMERICAN.

AMES, Joseph, secretary of the Antiquarian
Society, d. 1758.

AMHERST, gen., Jeffrey, b. 1717 - takes
Louisbourg and Cape Breton, July 27,
1758--Montreal surrenders to him, Sept.
7, 1760-d. 1797.
AMHERST, William, lord, departs on an em-
bassy to China, Feb. 8, 1816-returns
from his mission, unsuccessful, July 20,
1817-arrives in India, as governor-ge-
neral, Aug. 1, 1823-recalled, 1828.
AMIDA, taken by Sapor II., of Persia, 359
-by Cabades, 502-besieged by Celer,
504-recovered by him, 505 - relieved
from all taxes by Anastasius for seven
years, 506-taken by Heraclius, 625.
AMIENS, the cathedral of, commenced, 1220
-the league between England and the
duke of Burgundy is renewed there, Apr.
17, 1423-surprised by the Spaniards,
Mar. 11, 1597-recovered by Henry IV.
Sept. 15-treaty of peace signed, Mar. 27,
1802-railway to Boulogne opened, Mar.
13, 1847.
AMINTINUS, P. Volumnius, consul of Rome,
B.C. 461.


AMISUS, founded by the Phocians, B.C. 563 -besieged by Lucullus, 72-surrenders,


AMMENEMES, k. of Egypt, B.C. 1215.
AMMENEPHTHES, k. of Egypt, B.C. 1255.
AMMONITES conquer Israel, B.c. 1206 (1263
H., 1256 C.)-defeated by Jephtha, 1188
(1245 H., 1238 C.)
AMMONIUS, Olympic victor, B.C. 256.
AMMONIUS, preceptor of Plutarch, 66.
AMMONIUS SACCAS, founder of the new Pla-
tonism at Alexandria, 201 - teacher of
Origen, 206-of Plotinus, 232.
AMMONIUS, a Greek poet, celebrates the
war of Gainas, 438.
AMNESTY, proclaimed by Thrasybulus at
Athens, B.C. 403-by Radetzky in Italy,
Aug. 18, 1849-by Napoleon III., Feb. 4,

AMON, K. of Judah, B.C. 644. AMORGUS. See SIMONIDES. AMORITES Settled in Palestine, at least as early as B.C. 1965 (2088 C.) AMORIUM, in Phrygia, birth-place of Michael II., who becomes emperor of the East, 820 destroyed by Al Motassem, 838.

AMOs, prophesies, B.C. 795.
Aмos, bp. of Jerusalem, 594.
AMOUR, William de St., condemned by
Alexander IV., for his book against the

Dominicans, and is obliged to take flight from Paris, 1256.

AMOY, taken by the English, Aug. 27, 1841 -by the Chinese insurgents, Mar. 18, 1853-recovered from them, Nov. 11. AMPFING, OF MUHLDORF, battle of, 1322. AMPHICTYON, k. of Athens, B.C. 1497 (1499 H., fictitious, C.) AMPHICTYONIC LEAGUE instituted, B.C. 1113 C.-make war on the Cirrhæans, 595take Cyrrha, 591-Philip of Macedon elected chief, 346-he leads them against the Locrians, and conquers at Chæronea, B.C. 338.

AMPHIGYES, K. of Sicyon, B.C. 1107 (doubtful).

AMPHILOCHIUS, recommended as bp. of Iconium by Basilius, 373-presides at the synod of Side, in Pamphylia, against the Messalians, 383. AMPHION, British frigate of 38 guns, blown up in Plymouth Sound, with loss of all (more than 250) on board, Sept. 22, 1796.

AMPHIPOLIS, on the river Strymon, an Athenian colony planted by Agnon, B.C. 437-captured by Brasidas, 424-Lacedæmonians engage to give it up, 421retained by them, 420-held by the Olynhians, 360-taken by Philip of Macedon, 358. AMPHITHEATRE, See COLOSSEUM, TITUS, and FIDENÆ. AMPHITRITE, the planet, discovered by Marth, Mar. 3, 1854. AMPHITRITE, convict ship, 103 women, 12 children, and 16 crew, all lost (excepting 3 of the crew) on the Boulogne Sands, Aug. 30, 1833. AMPTHILL, Katharine of Aragon retires to, 1531.

AMROU, invades Egypt, aided by the Jacobite or Monophysite Copts, 639-reported interview with Joannes Philoponus, 640-Egypt flourishes under him; recalled, 644- supports Moawiyah against Ali, 656-sent into Egypt by Moawiyah, and expels Ali's partizans, 658-gov. of Egypt, 661-d. 663. AMROU, son of Said, revolts, is defeated and killed by Abdalmelik, 688. AMRU. See JUSUF. AMSTERDAM, taken by the Hollanders, 1578 -supplants the commerce of Antwerp, 1609-repulses the statholder, William 11., 1650-gives currency to a French translation of the Scriptures, 1667 taken by the French, Jan. 19, 1795-declared the third city of the empire by Napoleon, July 9, 1810-entered by the Prussian gen. Bülow, and the prince of Orange proclaimed, Dec. 6, 1813. AMSTERDAM, New. See NEW YORK.

AMUND, the Dane, establishes himself at Cambridge, 875.

AMURATH, or MURAD I., sultan of the Ottomans, 1359-takes Ancyra and Demotica, 1360-takes Adrianople, and makes it his residence, 1361-turns his arms against the Bulgarians and Servians, takes Philippopolis and Serres, 1363makes a treaty of commerce with the republic of Ragusa, 1365-his progress alarms John V., emperor of the East, 1368-punishes his son, Saoudgi, for rebellion, by blinding him, 1375-protects John V., 1381-his conquests extend from Cilicia in the East, to Albania in the West, 1387-defeats the Servians at Kossova, and is assassinated, 1389. AMURATH, or MURAD II., sultan of the Ottomans, 1421-fails in his siege of Constantinople, 1423-takes Thessalonica, 1430 negotiates with Chalcocondylas and Phranza, 1435-37-conquers Servia, but fails in his attempt on Belgrade, 1439 -resigns the throne to his son, Mahomet II., and retires to Magnesia, 1442-recalled from his retirement and resumes the command, 1443-concludes the treaty of Segedin with Hungary; the truce being broken by Ladislas, he defeats him in the great battle of Varna, Nov. 10, and retires again to Magnesia, 1444 -the insubordination of the Janizaries compels him again to leave his retirement; he leads them to attack the Morea, imprisons Chalcocondylas for his arrogant demands, 1445-breaks through the fortified hexamilion of the Isthmus of Corinth, his war with Scanderbeg, 1447-he defeats John Huniades at Kossova, 1448-d. 1451. AMURATH III., sultan of the Ottomans, murders his brothers, 1574--Queen Elizabeth enters into a treaty of commerce with him, 1579-long war with Persia, 1580-invasion of Hungary, 1592-conquest of Raab, 1594-d. 1595. AMURATH IV., sultan of the Ottomans, 1623-war with the Cossacks; Asof taken by them, 1637-d. 1640. AMYNTAS, k. of Assyria, B.C. 1480 (1450 C.)

AMYNTAS I., k. of Macedon, B.C. 540called upon to do homage to Darius Hystaspes, 506-d. 500.

AMYNTAS II., k. of Macedon, B.C. 393unsuccessful in wars with the Illyrians, 392-ally of the Lacedæmonians in their war against Olynthus, 382-d. 369. AMYNTIANUS dedicates to the emperor Marcus Aurelius a work in praise of Alexander the Great, 167. AMYRTÆUS, prolongs the revolt against Persia, and maintains himself in Lower

Egypt, B.C. 455-restores the independence of Egypt, 414.

ANABAPTISTS, under John of Leyden, gain possession of Munster, 1534-suppressed, 1536-burnt, in England, 1538. ANACHARSIS, the Scythian (Gothic) traveller, arrives at Athens, B.C. 592. ANACHARSIS THE YOUNGER, Travels of. See BARTHELEMY.

ANACLETUS, bp. of Rome, 79-91. ANACLETUS II., set up as anti-pope, gains possession of the Lateran, and is consecrated there, 1130-still retains all the fortified posts in Rome, 1133-d. 1138. ANACREON, writes lyrics, B.C. 557-invited to the court of Polycrates, in Samos, 532 -goes to Athens, 525. ANAFESTUS, the first doge of Venice, 697717.

ANAGNI, treaty of, 1295-pope Boniface VIII. is surprised at, by William de Nogaret, 1303-Gregory XI. fixes his residence at, 1377. ANAKBARBETH-HIRA, or SHIMISHBAL-BITHKIRA, k. of Nineveh or Assyria, B.C. 1180 La.

ANAKU MERODAK SHIMISH BAR, K. of Nineveh or Assyria, B.C. 960 La. ANAPA abandoned by the Russians, July 15, 1855.

ANASTASIUS I., emperor of the East, 491 -accords liberty of conscience, and remits oppressive taxes; consul I., 492his statues are thrown down at Constantinople, 493-consul II., 497-sends Sabinianus against Mundo, 505-remits all taxes to Amida for seven years, 506builds the long wall for the protection of| Constantinople, and fortifies Dara, in Mesopotamia; consul III., 507 -concludes a treaty of peace with Theodoric, 508-sends the ensigns of consulship to Clovis; receives Theodoric's announcement of Felix being appointed consul for the ensuing year, 510-expels and banishes Macedonius, bp. of Constantinople, and appoints Timotheus, 511accused of heresy and persecution, 512having relieved his subjects from many taxes, still by his economy accumulates a large sum in his treasury; panegyrized by Procopius, of Gaza, 513- religious war excited against him by Vitalianus, 514-treaty between them, 515-redeems the captives led away by the Goths, 517 -d. July 9, 518. ANASTASIUS II., emperor of the East, 713 -prepares an armament against the Saracens, 714-resigns to Theodosius III., 716-attempts to regain his throne with the aid of the Bulgarians, who give him up to Leo III., and he is put to death, 719

ANASTASIUS I., bp. of Rome, 398-402. ANASTASIUS II., bp. of Rome, 496-498. ANASTASIUS III., pope, 911-913. ANASTASIUS IV., pope, 1153-d. 1154. ANASTASIUS I., patriarch of Constantinople, 730-754.

ANASTASIUS I., bp. of Antioch, 559--banished, 570-restored, 593-d. 599. ANASTASIUS II., bp. of Antioch, 599-murdered by the Jews, 610. ANASTASIUS, bp. of Jerusalem, 458-478. ANASTASIUS, unsuccessful candidate for the papacy, 855. ANASTASIUS, the librarian, writes the Life of pope Nicholas I., 868. ANASTASIUS, FL., consul of Rome, 517. ANATOLIA, or ASIA MINOR, the Southern

Mongols advance to, 1214-re-united to Romania, by Mahomet, son of Bajazet, 1413. ANATOLICO besieged by Omer Vrioni, relieved by the Suliotes and Mavrocordato, 1822. ANATOLIUS, consul of Rome, 440-checks an invasion of the Persians, 441. ANATOLIUS, bp. of Constantinople, 449. ANATOLIUS, bp. of Laodicea, noted for his study of philosophy, 279. ANATOMY, prohibited in Bologna by pope Boniface VIII., 1297-taught by Mondini de' Luzzi, 1315-about 1516 by Bartolomeo Eustachi, and Gab. Fallopio, and by And. Vesalius, of Brussels, with plates from drawings made by Titian; about 1750 by Albinus-John Hunter author of the modern system, about 1770. ANAXAGORAS, phil., b. B.C. 500-teaches at Athens, 480-leaves Athens, 450-returns, is accused of impiety, and retires to Lampsacus, 432-d. 428. ANAXANDER, Agidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 676-637. ANAXANDRIDES, Agidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 560-520. ANAXANDRIDES, poet of the middle comedy, fl. at Athens, B.C. 375. ANAXICRATES, Athenian archon, B.C. 307again, 279. ANAXIDAMUS, Proclidan k. of Lacedæmon, B.C. 686-648. ANAXILAUS, K. of Rhegium, B.C. 494-d. 476. ANAXIMANDER, the phil., b. at Miletus, B.C.

610-first designer of maps, 547. ANAXIMENES, the phil., fl. B.C. 548. ANAXIPPUS, the comic poet, fl. B.C. 303. ANAZARBUS, in Cilicia, overthrown by an earthquake, 525-John II., emperor of the East, dies of a wound received while hunting there, 1143.

ANBAR, conquered by the Mohammedans,


ANCHIALUS, in Thrace; Maurice leaves

his troops there, 592-Justinian II. defeated by Terbelis, 708-plundered by the Bulgarians, 1193. ANCHISES, Athenian archon, B.C. 488. ANCIENT HISTORIANS of the Realm, complete editions of, ordered by parliament to be printed, July 24, 1822. ANCIENTS, Council of, established in France, Oct. 28, 1795.

ANCONA, the harbour of, constructed by Trajan, 107-given up to the pope by Desiderius, 756-invested by Frederic, 1167-the siege raised by William Adelard, a citizen of Ferrara, and Aldruda, countess of Bertinora, 1174-annexed to the papal States, 1198-governed by Milo, bp. of Beauvais, 1230-the expope, Gregory XII., made gov. of the March, 1415- - occupied by Francesco Sforza, 1433-ceded to him for life by pope Eugenius IV., 1434-recovered by Alfonso, k. of Naples, 1443-pope Pius 11., while collecting an armament there against the Turks, dies, Aug. 15, 1464seized by Gonzaga, the papal gen., 1532 -destroyed by an earthquake, 1672surrenders to the French, Feb. 9, 1797taken by the Austrians, Nov. 13, 1799— occupied by the French, Feb. 22, 1832--evacuated, 1838-bombarded and captured by the Austrians, June 18, 1849. ANCRE, Concini, marshal d', assassinated, 1617.

ANCUS MARTIUS, k. of Rome, B. C. 640-621. ANCYRA, or ANGORA, Council of, 314-taken by the Persians, 620-pillaged by the Paulicians, 868-captured by Amurath I., 1360-battle of, defeat of Bajazet I., July 28, 1402. ANDALUSIA Occupied by the Vandals, 419 -abandoned by them, 429-invaded by Alfonso VII.; Taxfin, son of Ali Ben Yussef, defeated, 1130-part conquered by Ferdinand III., 1236-rebellion of the Moors against Alfonso XII., 1261. ANDALUSIANS, many thousands are driven into Africa by Al Hakem's cruelty; some settle at Fez, others in Egypt, 817whence they obtain Crete, and build Candia, 822. ANDERNACH, battle of; Charles the Bald is defeated by Louis II., Oct. 8, 876. ANDERSON, lieut., murdered by the Sikhs, at Mooltan, April 21, 1848. ANDHUN, gen. of Ethelwalch, defends Sussex, 686. begin


their dispute about the time of celebrating Easter, 197.

ANDICA, K. of the Suevi in Spain, subdued by Leovigild, 584. ANDOCIDES, orator, b. B.c. 467-commands the Athenian ships at Corcyra, 432-ac

cused of having broken some statues of Mercury, imprisoned and exiled, 415returns, 403-takes part at Athens with Archinus and Cephalus, 402-banished from Athens for advising peace, and dies in exile, 391.

ANDORIA; the army of Robert, k. of Naples, defeated at, 1321. ANDOVER UNION inquiry, Mar. 5, 1846. ANDRAGATHIUS, murders Gratian, at Lyons, Aug. 25, 383-kills himself, 388. ANDRE, major, hanged by the Americans as a spy, Oct. 2, 1780. ANDREADCEASTER, or ANDERIDA, taken by Ælla, 491.

ANDREOSSY, the French ambassador, arrives in London, Nov. 6, 1802-departs, May 16, 1803.

ANDREW I., called by the people to be k. of Hungary, 1046-war with the emperor Henry III.; pope Leo IX. mediates between them, 1052 killed by his brother, Bela, 1060. ANDREW II., k. of Hungary, 1205-obliged by pope Honorius III. to begin the fifth crusade, 1217-returns and finds his son Bela in rebellion against him, 1220-appeases the troubles of Hungary by his Golden Bull, granting privileges to the nobles and clergy, 1222-death of his daughter, Elizabeth, 1231-he marries Beatrice of Este, 1234-d. 1235. ANDREW III., the Venetian, k. of Hungary, 1290-defeats Charles Martel, who had been set up against him, by the pope, at Zagrab, 1292-last of the race of Arpad, d. 1301.

ANDREW I., son of George Dolgorucki, becomes prince of White Russia, 1157attacks Mstislav II., and storms Kiow, 1169-killed by his subjects, 1176. ANDREW II., grand duke of Russia, 1249

expelled by the Golden Horde, 1252. ANDREW III., grand duke of Russia, 1294– 1304.

ANDREW, second son of Charles Robert, k. of Hungary, is affianced to Joanna,granddaughter of Robert, k. of Naples, and sent into Italy to be educated, 1333-she manifests extreme aversion for him, and is crowned without him, 1343- he is murdered at Aversa, Joanna is accused of having instigated the deed, Sep. 18,


ANDREW's, St., university of, founded, 1411 ANDREWS, Henry, maker of "Moore's Almanack," d. 1820.

ANDRIA, the count of, imperial general defeated and slain at Ascoli, 1190. 583-"ANDRIA," the. See TERENCE.

ANDRISCUS, Pseudo-philippus, pretends to be a son of Perseus, and lays claim to Macedon, B.C. 149-defeats and kills the

prætor P. Juventius; is himself defeated and slain by Metellus, 148. ANDROCLUS, Olympic victor, B.C. 768. ANDROMAQUE. See RACINE. "ANDROMEDA." See EURIPIDES. ANDROMENES, Olympic victor, B.C. 308. ANDRONICUS I., second son of Constantine

XIII. Ducas, was proclaimed Augustus by his father with this title, and nominal colleague of his eldest brother, Michael VII., but had no real power, 1071. ANDRONICUS I., grandson of Alexius I.Comnenus, acquires the administration of the Greek empire for Alexius II., 1182-murders him and usurps the throne, 1183deposes the patriarch Theodosius; is killed in a popular tumult, 1185. ANDRONICUS II. Palæologus, emperor of the East, breaks the union of the Eastern and Western churches, 1282- marries Violante, or Irene, daughter of William, marquis of Montferrat, 1284-defeated by Othman at Baphæon, 1301-employs Roger di Flor and the Catalans, 1303his son Theodore inherits Montferrat, 1305-assassinates Roger di Flor, is attacked by the Catalans and defeated at Aspros, 1307-civil war with his grandson Andronicus, peace made at Rhegion, war renewed in the autumn, 1321-treaty of Epibates between them, 1322-third rebellion, Constantinople taken by Andronicus the younger, and the old emperor resigns the crown to him, 1328-he dies in a monastery as the monk Antony, Feb. 13, 1332. ANDRONICUS III. (for his previous history See ANDRONICUS II.), emperor of the East, 1328-is defeated by the Ottomans at Pelekanon, reconquers Chios from the Genoese, 1329-concludes a treaty of peace with the Ottomans, 1330-defeated in an attempt on Phocæa, 1334-conquers the Albanians and takes the despotat of Epirus, 1337-d. 1341. ANDRONICUS IV. conspires against his father John V., is overcome and his eyes put out; cedes the island of Tenedos to the Genoese to gain their support, 1375 -shut up in the tower of Anemas, 1376 -escapes ard again rebels, 1378-makes his father prisoner, 1379-shares the empire with him, and resides at Selymbria, 1381-gives way to his brother Manuel II., 1391. ANDRONICUS, consul of Rome, 310. ANDRONICUS GHIDOS, emperor of Trebizond, 1222-1235.

ANDRONICUS II., emperor of Trebizond, 1263-1266.

ANDRONICUS III., emperor of Trebizond,

1330 d. 1332. ANDRONICUS, president of Libya, excom

municated by Synesíus for oppression, recalled and punished, 411. ANDRONICUS. See LIVIUS. ANDRONICUS of Rhodes, employs Tyrannio to copy Aristotle's works, B.C. 68. ANDROS, taken by the Venetians, 1125. ANDROTION, becomes conspicuous as an

orator at Athens, B.C. 385. "ANECDOTA." See PROCOPIUS. ANEMAS, the Tower of. See ANDRONICUSIV ANGARI, public messengers or postmen employed in Persia, B.C. 513. ANGELO, Sanudo, second duke of Naxos,


ANGELO, son of Niccolo Acciaiuoli, mort

gages Corinth to Nerio, 1370. ANGELO, Michael, born, 1474-d. 1564. ANGELO, St., the castle of, the site of the Moles Hadriani, built by Hadrian as his sepulchre, 137-the anti-pope Cadalo gains possession, and is besieged, 1063escapes, 1065-Pope Gregory VII. besieged there, 1084-it is held by the party of Guibert, 1092-pope Urban II. gets possession of it, 1099-taken by Urban VI., 1379-by Ladislas, king of Naples, 1413-pope ClementVII.,a prisoner there, receives the envoy of Henry VIII., 1527. ANGELUS, Michael, founds the Greek despotat of Epirus, 1205. ANGELUS. See ALEXIUS, ISAAC, and THEO


ANGERS, taken by John, k. of England, 1206-prince Edward, son of Henry VI., educated there by Sir John Fortescue, 1467-taken by the Vendeans, June, 1793. ANGERSTEIN, John Julius, death of, 1823his collection of pictures purchased for the National Gallery, 1824. ANGILBERGA, wife of Louis, emperor of Germany, accompanies him to Venice, 856-surprised and captured with him in Beneventum by Adelgiso, 871. ANGLESEA, Ethelwulf penetrates to the isle of, 853. ANGLESEY, Henry, marquis of, b. 1768; lord lieutenant of Ireland, Mar. 21, 1828-recalled for encouragement given by him to agitation, Dec.-reappointed by lord Grey, 1830-d. 1854. ANGLIA. See EAST ANGLIA and ENGLAND. ANGLO-SAXON poetry of Cædmon, 680

translation of the four Gospels by Egbert, abbot of Iona, 721-of Boethius, Orosius, and other Latin writers by Alfred, commenced, 888-Chronicle, the early part of it supposed to have been compiled by Plegmund, archbishop of Canterbury, 890 completed, 1154-School at Rome endowed by Ina, king of Wessex, 728by Offa, king of Mercia, 792-burnt, 816 -restored by Ethelwulf 855-Laws of

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