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the Sonnites, or orthodox Mussulmen, on of the Asturian Goths, 737-killed by a the accession of Moawiyah, 661-perse- bear while hunting, 739. cuted by the Ommiades, retire into Per. Favorinus, the philosopher, excites the sia, where they multiply and assist the jealousy of the emperor Hadrian, 118. Abbassides to gain the caliphate, 750-- Favras, marquis de, the first jadicially found the Edrisites in Africa, 787---are condemned victim of the French revoluprotected by the caliph Almamun, 814- tion, executed, Jan. 18, 1790. found the dynasty of the Taherites at Fawkes, Guy, gunpowder conspirator, seizKhorasan, 820 — found an empire in ed, Nov. 5, 1605-executed, Jan. 31, 1606. Egypt, under Mohammed Al Mahdi, 908 FAYETTE, See LAFAYETTE. -expelled from Fez by Muza the Agla- FEDERAL REPUBLIC attempted in Italy, and bite, 924-regain Fez, 932. See FEZ- repressed by the Austrian troops, 1831. The Fatimite empire in Egypt extended FEES and sales of offices in the English to Syria and Cairoan by Maiz Ad Din ; law-courts, abolished, 1825. he builds Cairo, 969—Syria taken from FEHRBELLIN, battle of; the elector of Branthem by the Seljukian Turks, 1076— denburg defeats the Swedes, 1675. their army defeated by the Crusaders at FELICIANUS, consul of Rome, 337. Ascalon, Aug. 12, 1099 — their rule in Felix, brother of Pallas, appointed procuEgypt overthrown by Saladin, 1171- rator of Judæa, 52—Paul defends himself oppressed in Persia by the Turkmans of before him at Cæsarea, 59-superseded the Black Sheep, 1406—and by those of by Festus, 61. the White Sheep, 1468-expel their per- Felix, consul of Rome, 428-another, 511. secutors, and establish the new Sofi dy- FELIX. See SYLLA. nasty, under Ismail I., 1501.

FELIX I., bp. of Rome, 269-275. FAUBOURG ST. ANTOINE, battle of the; FELIX II., bp. of Rome, 355-358. Condé defeats Turenne, 1652.

FELIX III., bp. of Rome, 483-492. FAUCHER, Leon, b. 1793-denounces the FELIX IV., bp. of Rome, 526-530.

expense and abuses of the national work-FELIX V., anti-pope. See AMADEUS VIII., shops, June 23, 1848–d. 1854.

duke of Savoy. FAULCONBRIDGE, viscount, marries Mary, Felix, bp. of East Anglia, fixes his see at

daughter of Oliver Cromwell, 1657. Dummoc, 631--d. 618. FAULFISCH, Hieronymus. See JEROME of Felix, bp. of Seville, appointed arch bp. of Prague.

Toledo, 693. FAUNTLEROY, Henry, the banker, executed Felix writes a history of Croyland Abbey, for forgery, Nov. 30, 1824.

730. Faust, John, improves Koster's invention, Felix, of Urgel, introduces the Adoption

sets up a press at Mentz, and prints the heresy, 787-condemned by the council Tractatus Petri Hispani, 1442.

of Ratisbon, recants his opinions, 792– FAUSTA, daughter of Maximian, married disavows his recantation, and is support

to Constantine, 307—said to have been ed by Eliprand, archbp. of Toledo; they put to death, 327—(doubted by Gibbon are condemned by a council at Francfortand Niebuhr).

on-the-Maine, 794. See ALCUIN.- He FAUSTINA, daughter of Annins Verus, and writes a defence of his heresy, 798—

wife of the emperor Antoninus Pius, d. again recants, 799. 141.

FELLENBERG system of education introFaustina, daughter of Antoninus Pius, duced by Pestalozzi, 1775. marries M. Aurelius, 139-—he overlooks FELLOWES, Dr. Robert, author of “Religion her vices, 169—she accompanies him to without Cant," b. 1770- d. 1847. the East, and d. at the foot of Mount FELTON, John, assassinates the duke of Taurus, where Faustinopolis is built in Buckingham at Portsmouth, Aug. 23,1628. her honour, 175.

FEMERN, the island of, occupied by the FAUSTINOPOLIS. See FAUSTINA.

Danes, July 16, 1850. FAUSTINUS, consul of Rome, 262.

FENCING-SCHOOLs closed in London, by Edw. FAUSTINUS, M. Acilius, consul of Rome, I., 1284 ; at Berlin and other cities, 1819. 210.

FENELON, François Salignac de la Motte, FAUSTINUS, bp. of Iconium, d. 373.

b. 1651-preceptor of the duke of BurFaustus, consul of Rome, II. 298_others, gundy, grandson of Louis XIV., 1689 483, 490.

archbp. of Cambray, 1695-controversy FAUSTUS, Anicius Acilius Glabrio, consul with Bossuet on the mystical doctrine of of Rome, 438.

Molinos and Madame Guyon, 1698-his Faustus, Corn. Sylla, consul of Rome, 52. doctrines condemned by a papal Bull; FAVELL, Samuel, b. 1760—d. 1830.

his "Telemachus" published in Holland, FAVILA, son of Pelayo, succeeds him as k. 1699 d. 1715.

FENESTELLA, the historian, f. 14.

of Sweden in Germany, 1630-treaty of FENWICK, Sir John, attainted for partici- Barenwald concluded by the Protestant

pation in the assassination-plot, Nov. 9, States with France, 1631-Louis XIII. 1696--- beheaded, Jan. 28, 1697.

declares war against the emperor, 1635 FEODOR I., son of Iwan IV., czar of Rus- - peace of Prague between him and the sia, 1584—d. 1598.

electors of Saxony and Brandenburg, FEODOR II., son of Boris Godunow, after a 1635-Ferdinand d. 1637.

reign of a few days, expelled by the pre- FERDINAND III., emperor of Germany, son tender Dmitri, 1605.

of Ferdinand II., b. 1608 - crowned in FEODOR III., son of Alexis, czar of Russia, Hungary, 1625 ; in Bohemia, 1627-while 1676-d. 1682.

archduke of Austria, by his victory FEODORA, daughter of the duchess of Kent over the Swedish gen., Horn, at Nord

by her first husband, the prince of Lei- lingen, Sept. 6, n.s. 1634, retrieves the ningen, married to the prince of Hohen- Catholic cause in Germany; elected emlohe Langenburg, Feb. 18, 1828.

peror, Feb. 15, 1637. See GERMANY. FERDINAND I., emperor of Germany, second Nearly surprised at Ratisbon by the

son of Philip and Joanna of Spain, b. Swedish gen., Banner, 1640 -- concludes 1503 - declared heir of the Austrian the peace of Westphalia, 1648-d. April States, 1506-made vicar of the empire 2, 1657. by his brother, Charles V., 1522—is re- FERDINAND FRANCIS, son of Ferdinand III., ceived as k. in Bohemia on the death of emperor of Germany, 6. Sept. 8, 1633 Louis I., 1526-promulgates the decree elected k. of the Romans, 1653–d. July of the Diet of Spires for freedom of re- 9, 1654. ligion, 1526–crowned k. of Hungary, FERDINAND, emperor of Austria, son of 1527-is elected k. of the Romans, and Francis, b. April 19, 1793; succeeds to crowned at Francfort, Jan. 11, 1531-de- the throne, 1835-confides in Metternich; feated by Soliman, 1541-obtains posses- withdraws his army from Rome, 1838sion of Transylvania, 1551-his brother annexes Cracow to his dominions, 1846— resigns the empire to him; his title dis- tumults at Vienna; resignation and puted by pope Paul IV., 1556-generally flight of Metternich ; the emperor proacknowledged, and crowned at Francfort, mises a constitution, March 13-15, 1848 Mar. 14, 1558--acknowledged by pope -leaves Vienna, May 17; returns from Pius IV., 1560-d. July 25, 1564.

Innspruck, Aug. 12; flight to Olmütz, FERDINAND II., emperor of Germany, son Oct. 7; he gives the command in Hun

of the archduke Charles, b. 1578-adopted gary to Jellachich, ban of Croatia, and in by his cousin, the emperor Matthias, Austria to prince Windischgrätz, 16; who resigns Bohemia to him; he is they bombard Vienna, 28; resigns his crowned at Prague, and begins to oppress crown, at Olmütz, to his nephew, Franthe Protestants of that kingdom, 1617 – cis Joseph, Dec. 2; his resignation not. takes away their privileges, on which accepted by the Hungarian Diet, 19, they make themselves masters of the 1848. kingdom, 1618-and give it to the elector FERDINAND I., the Just, king of Aragon, Palatine, 1619 - Matthias relinquishes brother of Henry III., k. of Castile, reHungary to him, 1618 -- he is elected gent in Castile for his nephew, John Ill., emperor of Germany at Francfort, Aug. 1406-elected k. of Aragon, resigns his 28, 1619—is besieged in Vienna by the regency, and accepts the crown, 1412– Bohemians, and reduced to great ex- goes to Perpignan to hold a conference tremity, when some troops, sent by the with pope Benedict XIII. and the emgrand duke of Tuscany, arrive and relieve peror Sigismund, 1415-d. on his return, him; the duke of Bavaria and the elec- April 2, 1416. tor of Saxony espouse his cause, 1619- FERDINAND I., k. of Castile, son of Sancho battle of Prague, 1620-his armies tri- III., k. of Navarre, in the division of his umphant in Germany, and he gives the father's States, receives Castile, and palatinate of the Rhine to Maximilian founds the kingdom, 1035 - conquers of Bavaria, 1623-concludes a peace with Leon, and annexes it to Castile, 1037 Bethlem Gabor, prince of Transylvania, takes Viseu and Coimbra, 1040-exacts 1624--his son, Ferdinand III., is crowned tribute from his Moorish neighbours, k. of Hungary, 1625-in sts Wallen- 10 - extends his conquests to Ma stein with the duchy of Mecklenburg, and Toledo, 1046--makes war on his bro1628--refuses to ratify the treaty of Susa; ther, Garcias III., k. of Navarre, who by the “Edict of Restitution" requires falls in battle, 1053-gains his last vicmany church lands to be giver up by the tories over the Moors of Catalonia and Protestants, 1629-Gustavus Adolphus Valentia, 1064d. Dec. 27, 1065.

FERDINAND II., son of Alfonso VII., k. of releases him, 1483 — takes Ronda and

Castile, inherits Leon as a separate king- other towns, 1485 - defeats Abdallah el dom, 1157– fouuds the order of Knights Zagal, and lays siege to Velez Malaga ; of S. Iago de Compostella, 1161-sepa- endeavours to preserve the peace of rated from his queen by pope Alexander southern Italy, 1486 — invests New MaIII., 1175-d. 1188.

laga, 1487 — takes it, 1488 - conquers FERDINAND III., k. of Castile, son of Al- Guadix, Almeria, and Baza, 1489- Ab

fonso IX., k. of Leon, b. 1200; inherits dallah el Zagal gives up his territories, Castile from his mother, Garsenda, dau. 1490—Granada besieged, 1491-surrenof Alfonso VIII., 1217-joins the other ders, and the Moorish rule in Spain ends, Christian kings in war against the Jan. 2, 1492_Columbus fitted out for his Moors, and takes Huesca, 1224-on his voyage, Aug. 3. See COLUMBUS.-By the father's death, succeeds in Leon and re- treaty of Narbonne, Charles VIII. of unites the two kingdoms; pushes his France restores Roussillon and Cerdagne conquests to Jaen, 1230 - attacks the

to Spain, 1493 - Ferdinand joins in a Moors in Seville, 1232 – takes Ubeda, league against him, 1495-marries his 1235-conquers Cordova and part of An- daughter, Joanna, to Philip, son of the dalusia, 1236—his supremacy establish- emperor Maximilian, 1496-and Philip's ed by his son, Alfonso, in the Moorish sister, Margaret, to his only son, John, kingdom of Murcia; he founds the uni- who d. in Oct. 1497—compels the Moors versity of Salamanca, and transfers to to embrace Christianity or quit Spain, it the schools of his grandfather, Alfonso. 1499 — marries his youngest daughter, VIII., at Palencia, 1240—Mahomed gives Katharine, to Arthur, prince of Wales, upJaen to him, and places Granada under Nov. 14, 1501 ; conquers Naples, in conhis protection, 1243 — he lays siege to cert with France, 1501-quarrel about the Seville, the Moors of Granada assist him, spoil, 1502—obtains the whole of Naples, 1246—Seville surrenders, 1247-d. at Se- 1503-death of his queen, Isabella, 1504 ville, May 30, 1252.

--he retains the government of Castile; FERDINAND IV., k. of Castile, son of Sancho jealous of his son-in-law, Philip; con

IV., b. 1285; succeeds him, with his mo- cludes a treaty of peace with France, ther, Maria, regent, 1295-coalition of and marries Germaine de Foix, niece of France, Navarre, Aragon, Portugal, and Louis XII., who gives as her dowry all Granada, with the malcontent princes, his claims on Naples, 1505—on the death Alfonso and Juan, against him; his mo- of Philip and the insanity of Joanna, ther, with the assistance of Juan Lara, Ferdinand continues to hold Castile for maintains the throne, 1296-peace with their young son, Charles; quarrels with Portugal 1297 ; with Granada, 1304 - the emperor Maximilian; visits Naples, divides Murcia with the k. of Aragon by 1506-confers with Louis at Savona, 1507 the treaty of Campillo, 1905-takes Gib- -accedes to the league of Cambray raltar, and, by a treaty of peace, ac- against Venice, 1508 - conquers the quires other territory in Granada, 1308 northern coast of Africa, 1510_joins the -d. 1312.

Holy League of pope Julius II. against FERDINAND de la Cerda, eldest son of Al- France, 1511-conquers Navarre, 1512

fonso X., k. of Castile, d. 1275—his sons truce with France, 1513-leagues with are excluded from the throne by their the emperor and pope against Francis I. uncle, Sancho IV., 1284. See ALFONSO on his ascending the throne of France, DE LA CERDA.

1515-d. Jan. 23, 1516. FERDINAND, son of John II., k. of Aragon FERDINAND VI., k. of Spain, son of Philip

and Navarre, b. 1453—marries Isabella, V., b. 1713—succeeds, 1746 — treaty of daughter of John II., k. of Castile, and commerce with Great Britain, 1750 heiress of the kingdom, 1469_succeeds ministry of Ricardo Wall, 1755- d. Aug. as joint sovereign with her, and is Fer. 10, 1759. dinand V. of Castile, 1475 – rebuts the FERDINAND VII., k. of Spain, son of Chas. claims of Joanna, the alleged davghter IV.,6. Oct. 14, 1784-his father abdicates of Henry IV., and defeats her affianced, in his favour, Mar. 19, 1808--he resigns Alfonso V. of Portugal, at Toro, 1476- at Bayonne, and is sent by Napoleon to on the death of his father, succeeds as Valençay; the junta of Seville assumes Ferdinand II. of Aragon, which is hence- the government in his name. See SPAIN, forth united to Castile, 1479 - defeats GEORGE III., k. of Great Britain, WELAlfonso again at Albuera; makes peace; LINGTON, duke of, and NAPOLEON I. joins a league against the Turks, 1481— – Liberated by Napoleon and sent to makes war on the Moors of Grapada. Spain, Dec. 11, 1813 - dissolves the 1482-takes Abu Abdallah prisoner, and Cortes, abolishes the Constitution, reFERDINAND VII.--continued.

| 1461-defeats John of Anjou at Troja, stores the Inquisition, and treats the Aug. 18, 1462 — murders Jacopo Piccidefenders of the country with the basest nino, 1465-marries Joanna, daughter of ingratitude, 1814 -- he joins the Eu- John II., k. of Navarre, 1477--joins the ropean alliance, May 2, 1815-receives pope in war against Florence, 1478 - is a compensation from Great Britain for visited by Lorenzo de' Medici, 1479 abolishing the slave trade; retains Oli- concludes a treaty with the Florentines, vença, and quarrels with Portugal; go. Dec. 3, 1480-Otranto stormed by the verned by his priests, neglects the advice Turks; recovered from them, Sept. 10, of the allied sovereigns to abandon his 1481--the nobles resist the taxes imposed arbitrary course ; Porlier and Lascy are on them, 1485 — Innocent VIII. encouexecuted, 1817-insurrection at Valencia

rages their revolt, and incites the duke repressed, 1819–Riego and Quiroga at of Lorraine to claim Naples, 1486-exthe head of the troops assembled in the communicates and deposes Ferdinand for isle of Leon demand the restoration of refusing his annual tribute, 1489—the the Constitution of 1812, Jan. 5, 1820-he Anjou claim to the crown of Naples resubmits, Mar. 3-abolishes the Inquisi- vived, 1493–d. Jan. 25, 1494. tion, banishes the Jesuits, and convokes FERDINAND II., k. of Naples, son of Alfonso the Cortes, which meet, July 9 - dis- II., receives the crown on his father's simulation and secret treachery on his abdication, 1495 - obliged, by the inpart; Army of the Faith organized, 1821 vasion of Charles VIII., to retire to --conspiracy of sovereigns at Verona ; the isle of Ischia, 1495-recovers great France undertakes to crush the Spanish part of his kingdom, July 7-d. Oct. 5, patriots ; the royal guards at Madrid de- 1496. clare against the Constitution; a royalist FERDINAND III., k. of Naples, See FERDIjunta formed at Urgel, 1822—the Aus- NAND, k. of Castile and Aragon. trian, Prussian, and Russian ambassa- FERDINAND IV., k. of Naples, third son of dors recalled from Madrid; Louis XVIII. Carlos (Charles III. of Spain), b. Jan. declares war; a French army enters 12, 1751-receives Naples when his faSpain; arrives at Madrid, May 24, 1823 ther succeeds in Spain, 1759- takes the -the Cortes retire to Seville and take government into his own hands, 1767Ferdinand with them; thence to Cadiz, joins the coalition against France, 1793– where they give him liberty, Oct. 1- makes peace, Oct. 10, 1796-renews the Cadiz surrenders ; the Constitution is war, 1798-retreats to Sicily, Jan. 2, 1799 abolished; the reign of tyranny restored; -the French occupy Naples, and estaRiego executed as a traitor at Madrid, blish the Parthenopean republic, 23; Nov. 7-Ferdinand assists the partisans cardinal Ruffo, with British and Pussian of Don Miguel, 1826-death of his qu., aid, recovers Naples, June 13; the king Josephina Amalia; he marries Maria returns, July 10; concludes a treaty of Christina, daughter of Francis I., k. of peace at Florence, March 28, 1801 Naples, 1829-abolishes the Salic law, issues a Declaration of Neutrality, June and declares the throne of Spain to be 8,1803-French troops occupy his States ; heritable by females, March 29, 1830- is obliged to dismiss his minister, Acton, birth of his daughter, Maria Isabella, 1804-allows an Anglo-Russian army to the present queen, Oct. 11-protest and land in Naples, Nov. 20, 1805-Napoleon revolt of his brother, Carlos; acknow- declares that "Ferdinand IV. has ceased ledges Louis Philip in France; treach- to reign,” Dec. 27-retreats again into erous seizure and execution of Torrijos Sicily, and is protected there by a Briand his companions at Malaga, Dec. 4, tish naval and land force, Jan. 25, 1806 1831--falls ill, and appoints his queen -lord Wm. Bentinck appointed captainregent, Oct. 1832-d. Nov. 29, 1833.

general of Sicily, obtains for the people FERDINAND, k. of Hungary. See FERDI- a free constitution; the k.makes his son

NAND, I. II., and III., emperors of Ger- regent, and the qu. withdraws, 1812niany.

restored in Naples, and takes the title of FERDINAND I., k. of Naples, natural son of Ferdinand I., king of the Two Sicilies,

Alfonso V., k. of Aragon, b. 1426; re- June 3, 1815-obliged by gen. Pépé and ceives Naples at his father's death, 1458 the Carbonari to grant a free constitu--disturbed by rebellious nobles, and the tion, 1820-goes to Laybach, annuls the hostility of John, son of Regnier d'Anjou, constitution, to which he had sworn 1459—defeated on the river Sarno, July fidelity, and is conducted back to Naples 7; the pope and Francesco Sforza assist by an Austrian army, May 15, 1821– him, 1460 – supported in Naples by revokes the Sicilian constitution; d. Scanderbeg, with a body of Albanians, Jan. 4, 1825.

FERDINAND II., k. of the Two Sicilies, son of the Rhine, Sept. 25, 1806--recovers

of Francis I., b. Jan. 12, 1810-succeeds Tuscany, 1814--d. June 18, 1824. to the throne, Nov. 8, 1830–dispute with FERDINAND, duke of Parma, son of Philip, Great Britain on the sulphur monopoly, b. Jan. 20, 1751-succeeds his father in settled under the mediation of France, Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla, July Mar. 15, 1840-revolt of Palermo, Jan. 18, 1765-expels the Jesuits, 1768-calls 12, 1848-constitution proclaimed at Na- upon pope Clement XIII. to suppress ples, 29-the English and French ad- the Order, 1769—d. Oct. 9, 1802. mirals mediate for the people of Palermo, FERDINAND CHARLES MARIA, duke of ParMar. 6, 1849—Ferdinand issues a decree, ma, son of Charles Louis, k. of Etruria, that all teachers and tutors in his do- and afterwards duke of Lucca, and of minions, male or female, public or Parma, b. Jan. 14, 1823--receives Parma private, must be examined as to their on his father's abdication, Mar, 14, 1849— religious belief, Oct. 27-intolerable ty- assassinated, Mar. 26, 1854. ranny of his government, 1855.

FERDINAND MARIA, elector of Bavaria, son FERDINAND, k. of Portugal, son of Peter of Maximilian, succeeds him, 1651-d.

I., b. 1345-succeeds bis father, 1367 1679. See BAVARIA. claims the throne of Castile, 1369-he FERDINAND, sou of Philip III., k. of Spain, offends his people by his marriage with appointed by his brother, Philip IV., Eleanor Tellez, 1371-Henry II. of Cas- gov.of the Spanish Netherlands, 1633-41. tile invades his kingdom, and compels FERDINAND, duke of Mantua, son of Vinhim to make peace, 1373— he marries his cent Gonzaga, made a cardinal, 1606only child, Beatrice, to Johu I. of Cas- succeeds his brother, Francis III., and tile; d. Oct. 20, 1383.

lays down his purple, 1612—d. Oct. 29, FERDINAND, prince of Brunswick. See 1626. BRUNSWICK, p. 118.

FERDINAND I., or Ferrante Gonzaga, count FERDINAND GONsalvo, count of Castile. of Guastalla, 1539_serves in the army of See Auca, and CASTILE.

Charles V. against the duke of Cleves, FERDINAND, son of Alfonso XI., k. of Cas- 1543-viceroy of Sicily, 1545--gov. of

tile, put to death by his brother, Peter Milan, 1546-answers complaints of the the Cruel, 1358.

Milanese against his government, 1554 FERDINAND, archduke of Austria. See -distinguishes himself in the NetherFERDINAND IN., emperor.

lands at the battle of St. Quentin; d. at FERDINAND, count of Flanders, 1206–1233. Brussels, Nov. 15, 1557. FERDINAND, son of John I., k. of Portugal, FERDINAND II., duke of Guastalla, 1575

accompanies his brother Edward's un- 1630. fortunate expedition against Tangier, is FERDINAND III., duke of Guastalla, 1632made prisoner by the Moors, and d. in 1678. captivity, 1437.

FERDULF, duke of Friuli, slain in battle FERDINAND I., grand duke of Tuscany, against the Slavonians, 706.

second son of Cosmo I. de' Medici, created FERDUSI, the Persian poet, writes his Shaha cardinal, succeeds his brother, Francis nameh, or Book of Kings, 1000. Maria, Oct. 19, 1587– plants a colony of FERENTINO, congress of, held by pope HoJews at Leghorn, 1604 -- d. Feb. 7, norius III. to promote the fifth crusade, 1609.

1223. FERDINAND II. de' Medici, grand duke of FERGANAH, a remote province, to which

Tuscany, b. 1610-succeeds his father, Yezdejerd, k. of Persia, retires after Cosmo II., 1621 - compelled by Blake his defeat at Jaloulah, 637. to desist from supporting Spain, 1655- FERGUSON, Adam, b. 1723-d. 1816. d. May 23, 1670.

FERGUSON, James, b. 1710-d. 1776. FERDINAND III., grand duke of Tuscany, FERGUSON, R., tried and imprisoned for at

second son of Leopold II., b. May 6, 1769 tempting to rescue O'Connor, April 15, -receives Tuscany on his father being 1799. elected emperor of Germany, 1790 – FERGUSON, Sir R., moves for an account of wishes to remain neutral; is compelled the expenses of the Milan commission, to join the coalition against France, 1793 which is refused, July 6, 1820. ---makes peace, Feb. 9, 1795 - expelled FERGUSON discovers the planet “Euphroby the French gen., Dupont, 1800. See syne," Sept. 1, 1854. ETRURIA, kingdom of.--Receives Salz- FERIA, the duke of, Spanish governor of burg with the title of elector, 1803 — Milan, occupies the Valteline, to support Salzburg taken from him, and he is the revolt of the Catholics against the made elector of Würzburg, 1805–made Protestant government of the Grisons, grand duke, and joins the confederation 1620.

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