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mily of the duke of Clarence (Wm. IV.) Tiverton, June 5, 1731; Aug. 3, 1794. and Mrs. Jordan. See MUNSTER, George,

Tottenham Oil Mills, on the Lea earl of.-Augustus, the rev. lord, b. 1804 river, Aug. 8, 1852.

-d. 1854-gen. lord Frederic, b. 1800Tower of London, Jan. 31, 1774; Oct. d. 1854. 30,1841, 280,000 stand of arms destroyed. FITZGERALD, lord Edward, dismissed from Venice, 1106.

the army, 1792-engages in the Irish reWapping, 150 houses, Dec. 4, 1716; bellion, 1798 -- is mortally wounded in Sept. 28, 1775, 30 houses; Oct. 6, 1800, resisting his apprehension, and dies of 30 houses; July 21, 1794, 630 houses, loss his hurts,June 3-his attainder reversed, a million ; June 16, 1840, 12 houses. July 1, 1819.

Warehouses, A to D, at foot of Lon- FITZGERALD, lady Pamela, wife of lord don Bridge, and part of St. Saviour's Edward, and daughter of the countess church, June 23, 1851, loss £250,000. de Genlis, ordered to quit the kingdom,

Washington, post-office and patent- April 1798—d. 1831. office, Dec. 15, 1836 ; the Capitol, Dec. FITZGERALD, Maurice, one of Richard 24, 1851.

Strongbow's companions, lands in IreWestminster Abbey tower, July 9, land, and takes Wexford, Waterford, and 1803.

Dublin, 1169. Whittington Club, Strand (on the FITZGIBBON, John. See CLARE, earl of. site of the Crown and Anchor taveru) FITZHARRIS, Edward, committed to NewDec. 3, 1854.

gate for a libel, Feb. 28, 1681-removed Whitehall palace, Jan. 5, 1698.

to the Tower, March 11 — executed at Windsor Castle, damaged, March 19, Tyburn, as a traitor, July 1. 1853.

FITZHERBERT, Mrs., 6. 1756 — her alleged Windsor Forest, Apr. 17, 1785.

marriage to the prince of Wales denied Wynyard House, Feb. 19, 1841.

by Fox in the House of Commons, April York Minster, Feb. 1, 1829; May 19,

20, 1787—Dr. Withers convicted of a libel 1810.

on her, July 14, 1789--d. 1837. Fires, incendiary, prevalent in England, FITZJAMES, James. See BERWICK, duke of. 1833.

FiTzwiLLIAM, William Wentworth FitzFIREWORKS, display of, in London, to cele- william, earl of, b. 1747 --secedes from

brate the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, Nov. the Whigs, and supports W. Pitt's ad23, 1748; at Paris, on the marriage of ministration, July 11, 1794-appointed Louis XVI., May 31, 1770; in London, on viceroy of Ireland, Dec. 10 — being the Peace Jubilee, Aug. 1, 1814; at the thwarted in his measures for the relief coronation of William IV., Sept. 8, 1831; of the Irish Catholics, he resigns, Feb. on the peace with Russia, May 29, 1856. 21, 1795- dismissed from the lord lieuteFIRE-WORSHIPPERS. See MAGI.

nancy of the West Riding of Yorkshire, FIRMICUS MATERNUS, f1. 343.

Oct. 23, 1819-d. 1833. Firmus, an Egyptian merchant, revolts in FITZWILLIAM, Richard, viscount, founder

Egypt against Aurelian; is defeated, by his will of the Museum at Cambridge 273.

-d. 1816. Firmus, a Moor, revolts in Africa against FITZWILLIAM, Mrs., the actress, b. 1802-

Valentinian — Theodosius, the Elder, is d. 1854. sent against him, 372--compelled to seek FIVE-BURGHS. See Danes. refuge among the Moors, 373 - commits FIVE HUNDRED, Council of, the legislative suicide to avoid being given up by them, body of the new French constitution, 374.

established, Oct. 28, 1795. FIROZE, k. of Persia, succeeds his father, FIVE PER CENTS., Navy, interest on, reYezdejerd II., 458-d. 482,

duced to Four, Feb 25, 1822. FIRST FRUITS. See ANNATS.

FLACCINATOR, M. Bossius, consul of Rome, FISHER, John, bp. of Rochester, refuses B.C. 318.

the oath of the king's supremacy, is FLACCINATOR, M. Bossius, military tribune committed to the Tower, and attainted, of Rome, B.C. 433. 1534—created a cardinal; beheaded, June Flaccus, consul of Rome, 174. 22, 1535.

FLACCUS, Valerius, writes his " Argonau. FISHMONGERS' COMPANY, in London, found

tica," 81. ed, 1384.

Flaccus, Verrius, preceptor of the impe FISSIRAGA, a Guelf family in Lodi, raised rial family at Rome, 8.

to importance by Napoleon della Torre, FLACCUS, C. Fulvius, consul of Rome, sent 1269.

to Sicily to put down a rebellion of the FITZCLARENCE, the name taken by the fa- slaves, B.C. 134.

Flaccus, C. Norbanus, consul of Rome, B.C. feats him at Cynoscephalæ, and dictates 38-others, 24; and A.D. 15.

terms of peace, 197-proclaims the deFLACCUS, C. Valerius, consul of Rome, B.C. cree of the Roman senate for the free331-another, 93.

dom of Greece, at the Isthmian games, FLACCUS, L. Lucretius, consul of Rome, B.C. 196—his command in Greece prolonged; 393.

he compels Nabis to submit, and sets FLACCCS, L. Pomponius, consul of Rome, 17. Argos free to rejoin the Achæan League, FLACCUS, L. Valerius, consul of Rome, B.C. 195- returns to Rome, 194 — sent to

261—another, 195-proconsul, is fiercely Greece, 192-defeats Antiochus at Therresisted by the Insubres and Boii about mopylæ, 191.

Mediolanum, 194; others, 152, 131, 100. FLAMINIUS, L. Quinctius, brother of T. FLACCUS, L. Valerius, on the death of Ma- Quinctius, consul of Rome, B.c. 192.

rius, appointed consul of Rome to supply FLAMINIUS, T. Quinctius, consul of Rome, his place; assassinated on his march to B.C. 150-another, 123. the East by C. Fimbria, B.c. 86.

FLAMSTEAD, John, b. 1646 — astronomer FLACCUS, M. Fulvius, consul of Rome, B.C. royal at the Greenwich Observatory, 264.

1675 — publishes his Catalogue of the FLACCUS, M. Fulvius, consul of Rome, as- Fixed Stars, 1688–d. 1719.

sists the Massilians by defeating the FLANDERS, in the north of Gaul, conquered Transalpine Ligurians and the Salyans, by Cæsar, and made part of the Roman B.C. 125.

province of Gallia Belgica, B.C. 57-00Flaccus, P. Valerius, consul of Rome, B.C. cupied by the Ripuarian Franks, A.D. 227.

420 part of the dominions of Clovis, FLACCUS, Q. Fulvius, consul of Rome, B.C. 510-of the kingdom of Soissons after

237; II. 224; III. 212; IV. 209-another, his death, 511- long tranquil and pros179.

perous, begins to engage in commercial FLACCUS, Ser. Fulvius, consul of Rome, intercourse with England, 629—and from

conquers the Vardæi, in Dalmatia, B.c.135. its proximity to the wool markets of that FLADENHEIM, battle of; the emperor Henry country becomes soon afterwards a seat

IV. defeated by Rudolf of Swabia, Jan. of manufacturing industry. See FLEM27, 1080.

INGS. FLAG OF TRUCE fired on by the Russians at Created an independent connty, 862.

Odessa, April 6, 1854—again, at Hango, See BALDWIN I.-III., and ARNULF I. in Finland, June 5, 1855.

- Fairs are established in, and manuPLAGELLANTS commence their exhibitions factures actively promoted, 963. See

in Italy, 1334-declared herctics by pope ARNULF II. and BALDWIN IV.-A great Clement VI., who issues a Bull against inundation in, 1014 - Hardacanute arthem, 1349—appear in England, 1352- rives in, to claim the English crown,

ninety-one burnt by the Inquisition, 1414. 1038. See BALDWIN V. and VI., and ARFLAMMA, L. Volumnius, consul of Rome, NULF III.-Robert I., the Frisian, defeats B.C. 307 ; II. 296.

Philip I., k. of France, at Mount Cassel, FLAMINIAN gate destroyed by an inunda- 1071. See BALDWIN VI. and VII. tion of the Tiber, 791.

Charles, the Good, slain; Flanders is FLAMINIAN WAY. See FLAMINIUS, C. Ne- given by Louis VI. to William Clito, son

pos.-Continued by Æmilius Paulus to of Robert, former duke of Normandy, Placentia, B.C. 182.

1127. See BALDWIN VIII. and IXFLAMINIUS, C., consul of Rome, B.C. 187. Treaty with Venice for the fourth cruFLAMINIUS, C. Nepos, tribune of Rome, sade, 1201 -visit of Baldwin II., emperor

carries against the senate and the violent of the East, to implore aid from Western opposition of his own father, a law for Europe, 1237. See DAMPIERRE, Guy de. dividing among the people the lands -Alliance with Edw. Ill. of England, taken from the Keltæ in Picenum, B.C. 1334. See ARTEVELDE, James Van.--232-consul of Rome, 223-censor; builds Edward disbands his army, 1339-lands the Circus Flaminius and constructs the again, 1340—unsuccessful crusade of the Via Flaminia from Rome to Ariminum, bp. of Norwich to support pope Urban 220-consul II.; defeated and slain by VI., 1383-on the death of Louis II., Hannibal at Thrasymene, 217.

Philip, duke of Burgundy, inherits FLAMINIUS, Quinctius, sul of Rome, Flanders, 1384. See BURGUNDY, duchy

takes the command in Greece, drives of.
Philip V., k. of Macedon, from the de- Succession of the counts of Flanders.
file of Antigonia, and enters Thessaly; Baldwin I., 862-879.
takes Elatea and Thebes, and detaches

II., 879--918. the Achæans from Philip, B.c. 198—de.

III., with Arnulf 1., 918-965.


its cultivation promoted in Ireland, Arnulf II., 965--989.

1851. Baldwin IV., 989—1036.

FLAXMAN, John, the sculptor, b. 1754-d. V., 1036-1067.

1826. VÍ., the Good, 1067—1070. FLEECE, Golden, the Order of the, instiArnulf III., 1070--1071.

tuted, 1430. See BURGUNDY, Philip, the Robert I., the Frisian, 1071-1093.

Good, duke of.
II., 1093--1111.

FLEET MARKET, London, opened, 1737— Baldwin VII., 1111-1119.

the new market opened, Nov. 20, 1829— Charles, the Good, 1119-1127.

the old market named Farringdon-st. William Clito, 1127–1128.

FLEETWOOD marries Cromwell's daughter, Thierry, 1128–1168.

the widow of Ireton, and is made goPhilip of Alsace, 1168–1191.

vernor of Ireland, 1654–petitions CromMargaret I. and Baldwin VIII., 1191 — well not to accept the crown, 1657 — 1194.

desires Richard Cromwell to dissolve IX., 1194–1206.

the parliament, 1659. Jane and Ferdinand, 1206—1233. FLEMING, Richard, founds Lincoln College, Jane, alone, 1233–1244.

Oxford, Oct. 13, 1427. Margaret II., 1244—1280.

FLEMINGS land at Scarborough to support Guy de Dampierre, 1280–1305.

Tostig, earl of Northumberland, and Robert III., 1305—1322.

are totally routed by Harold at StamLouis I., 1322—1346.

ford bridge, Sept. 25, 1066—having before II., 1346-1384.

bought and carried away the wool of Margaret of Anjou, and Edward, prince our eastern counties, introduce the art of of Wales, escape into, after the battle spinning it into yarn at Worstead, in of Hexham, 1463–Edward IV. arrives Norfolk, and make stuffs of it in Norin, to obtain aid from tho duke of Bur- wich, 1132-relieve the besiegers of Acre, gundy, 1470—first campaign in which 1189—support Otho IV., emperor of GerCharles V. and Francis I. command many, 1214-defeat the French at Couragainst each other, 1521- English auxi

tray, July 11, 1302 — are defeated by liaries support the Spaniards against the Philip IV., Aug. 16, 1304—revolt and French, 1557—they agree to a suspension are defeated by Philip VI. of France at of arms, Oct. 17,1558-Charles I. threatens

Mount Cassel, Aug. 23, 1328-are deto oppose the French and Dutch in, 1639 feated by the French at Rosebecque, near -success of the French, 1646. See NE- Ypres, 1382—receive and support Perkin THERLANDS. Coudé commands the Warbeck, 1492—for which Henry VII. Spanish forces, 1654-many of the people punishes them by stopping their trade emigrate into England, 1668 - Louis with England, 1493 – they refuse to XIV. makes new claims in, 1680. See shelter the inipostor, and their commerce FRANCE and BELGIUM.

is restored, 1497--many of them apFLAT Bush, battle of. See LONG ISLAND. pointed to offices in Spain, cause disFLAVIA, Domitilla. See DomitiaN.

satisfaction in that kingdom, 1520-reFLAVIAN family. See FLAVIUS.

volt against the heavy taxes imposed FLAVJANUS I. and II. See ANTIOCH, bp. of. by Chas. V., 1539—are suppressed by FLAVIANUS. See CONSTANTINOPLE, bp.of. him, and the citizens of Ghent deprived FLAVIUS, Cn., publishes his Calendar of of their privileges, 1540. See NETHER

Court Days, and makes himself popular LANDS. at Rome by other services, for which he FLENSBURG, Margaret, qu. of Denmark, is elected Curule Ædile, B.C. 306—after Norway, and Sweden, dies at, 1412—-calls having reconciled all the orders at on the k. of Denmark for reforms, 1830

Rome, erects a temple to Concord, 305. --taken by Prussian and Hanoverian Flavius, introduced as an imperial name troops, April 25, 1848–occupied by the by Vespasian, 69--and afterwards to de- Danes, July 16, 1850-assembly of the note his family, and assumed by many nobles at, June 15, 1851-railway to Tonsucceeding emperors in their Consular ningen opened, Oct. 25, 1854. Fasti.

FLETCHER, John, the dramatist, b. 1576— Flavius Arcadius, consul of Rome, 385- fl. 1614-d. 1625.

II., 392; III., 394; 1V., 306; V., 402; FLETCHER, Andrew, of Saltoun, excites VI., 406.

violent debates in the Scotch parliament N.B. supply these dates to the emperor by his motion respecting the Hanoverian Arcadius, p. 47.

succession, May 6, 1703. Flax brought into Gaul from Egypt, about FLEURUS, battles of, the prince of Wal

B.C. 1—first grown in England, 1533— deck defeated by marshal Luxemburg,

July 1, 1690—the allies defeated by the French gen. Jourdan, who uses the bal

loon telegraph, June 26, 1794. FLEURY, afterwards cardinal, b. 1653—

prime minister to Louis X.; relieves the financial embarrassments of France, 1726 -his pacific policy, aided by that of Walpole, effects the signature of preliminaries by all the discordant States except Spain, at Paris, May 29, 1727—

d. Jan. 29, 1743. FLINDERS, captain, explores the southern

coast of New Holland, 1801. FLINTSHIRE, volcanic eruption in, Feb. 4,

1773, FLODDEN-FIELD, battle of the Scots defeated

by the earl of Surrey, Sept. 9, 1513. FLOGGING of soldiers censured by Cobbett,

for which he is fined and imprisoned, July 2, 1810–J. Drakard, editor of the Stamford News, also punished for like comments, May 25, 1811-a new clause in the annual Mutiny Act authorises courts-martial to dispense with it, June,

1811. FLOOD, Mr., withdraws his motion for par

liamentary reform, Mar. 4, 1790. FLOODS. See INUNDATIONS. FLOR, Roger di, or Robert Blum, a Tem

plar, is degraded from the Order, retires to Genoa, where he fits out a private galley, and seeks his fortune as an adventurer, 1291-enters into the service of Frederic, k, of Sicily, 1298—forms out of the mercenaries who had served in Sicily his Catalan Grand Company, 1303. See CATALAN Grand Company.-Created Cæsar, 1306-assassinated at Adriano

ple, 1307. FLORA, a planet, discovered by Mr. Hind,

at London, Oct. 10, 1847. FLORENCE, the Roman Florentia, accord

ing to some, one of Sylla's military colonies originally at Fæsulæ, B.C. 80-according to others, founded on the banks of the Arno by the triumvirs, 60-a flourishing city in the time of the emperor Tiberius I., A.D. 30-besieged by Radagaisus, who is defeated and slain there by Stilicho, 405—a school founded by Lothaire, 829-Gerard, bp. of, elected pope Nicholas II., 1059-war with Lucca and Sienna, 1141-an independent republic, 1198-holds out against the emperor Fred. II., 1240-adopts a democratic constitution, and unites the Guelfs and Ghibelins, 1250-assisted by Manfred, k. of Sicily, the Ghibelins prevail, 1260—the citizens elect Charles of Anjou gov. for ten years, 1267-invited to protect Pisa against the Genoese, 1285-besiege that city, and are repulsed by Guido da Montefeltro, 1292.

Prosperous and rich, Florence is divided by the factions of the Bianchi (Whites), under Vieri de' Cerchi, and the Neri (Blacks), headed by Corso de' Donati; the former have the ascendancy, and reject the offered mediation of pope Boniface VIII., 1300—Charles de Valois, admitted under the plea of restoring peace, allows the Neri to ill-treat and drive out their opponents, 1301 - & great part of the city burnt by the violence of these factions, 1304-Robert, k. of Naples, appointed gov. for five years, 1313-battle of Cappiano, 1325. See CAPPIANO.-Charles, duke of Calabria, son of Robert, elected gov. for five years, 1326 -Lucca ceded to Florence by Mastino della Scala, which the Pisans oppose by war, 1341--Walter de Brienne, titular duke of Athens, appointed captain, makes peace with Pisa, 1342—the citizens ex. pel him, and establish a popular government, 1343—the plague rages, 1348.

English mercenaries, employed by Pisa, defeat the Florentines, 1363-are defeated by them, and peace follows between the two republics, 1364-Florence, attacked by the legate of pope Gregory IX., engages the services of Sir John Hawkwood, who repels the invasion, 1375—excites a general revolt in the papal States, takes Bologna, is excommunicated, and laid under an interdict, 1376--rejects the overtures of the pope, 1377—a revolt of the people, headed by Silvester de' Medici, is suppressed, 1378 -Sir John Hawkwood quits the service of the Florentines; their merchandize seized by the Genoese, and by Louis, duke of Anjou, in Provence, 1382– they call him back,

oppose Jo

Galeazzo Visconte, duke of Milan, and assist Da Carrara to recover Padua, 1390—he foils the Milanese, 1391-d., and is interred at Florence with funeral honours, 1394.

Emanuel Chrysoloras employed by the government to teach Greek, 1396-hostilities recommenced by the duke of Milan, 1397 — peace concluded, 1998Florence and Venice endeavour to take advantage of the disordered state of Italy, 1403– Pisa conquered, Oct. 9, 1406 --pope John XXIII. retires to Florence, 1413--the Florentines dissuade Ladislas, k. of Naples, from besieging him in Bologna, 1414-obtain Leghorn, 1421-are defeated by Philip Maria Visconte, duke of Milan, 1424 - league with Venice against Milan, 1425-agree to a congress at Ferrara to treat of peace, 1427-conclude peace, April 18, 1428-renew their league with Venice, and besiege Lucca, where they are repelled by Francesco

FLORENCE -- continued.

ish seizure of Otranto, foregoes his aniSforza, 1430—war again with Milan; mosity, and concludes a treaty with their fleet combined with the Venetians Florence, 1480—the Florentines assist in defeats the Genoese near Portofino, Aug. recovering Otranto, 1481 — unite with 27, 1431- peace concluded at Ferrara, other States to preserve peace in SouthApr. 26, 1433.

ern Italy, 1486-recover Sarzana from Cosmo de' Medici founds the univer- the Genoese, 1487--death of Lorenzo de' sity, but through the intrigues of Ri- Medici, April 7, 1492. naldo degli Albizi, and his other ene- His eldest son, Pietro, occupies his mies, he and his family are banished, station in the republic; is expelled, 1433—recalled, and his enemies are ex- with his brothers, by Charles VIII., iled; pope Eugenius IV., driven from king of France, 1494—Pisa regains inRome, comes to Florence; the republic dependence, 1495 — is besieged by the engages the services of Francesco Sforza, Florentines, 1496 — the Medici attempt 1434-alliance with Genoa, 1436-Sforza to regain their power, and are repulsed, returns to Milan; the friendship of Ve- 1497 - Savonarola, and two of his disnice cools; Cosmo de' Medici goes as ciples, burnt at Florence, by desire of ambassador to revive it, 1438-as gonfa- pope Alexander VI.; Louis Maria, duke lonier of Florence renews the league, and of Milan, assists the Florentines in their engages Sforza again, who restores vic

siege of Pisa, 1498-their gen., Paolo tory to the confederates, 1439 - the Vitelli, fails in his attack, and is beheadCouncil of Ferrara removed to Florence, ed, 1499--they renew the siege, and concludes the Union of the Latin and again abandon it with great loss, 1500 Greek churches, July 6, 1439-general return to the attack, 1504—make thempeace in Italy, 1441—the pope leaves selves masters of the city, June 8, 1509 Florence, 1443 Cosmo de Medici - the Medici conducted back to Florence founds the library, and patronizes learned by a Spanish army ; Julian, the young. men, 1444-supports Sforza against the est son of Lorenzo, takes the lead, Aug. pope, and Alfonso, k. of Aragon and Na- 31, 1512-joins in a league against Franples, 1446—pope Nicholas V. mediates cis I., k. of France, 1515—. March 17, peace, 1450—alliance with Sforza, now 1516—his nephew, Lorenzo II., d. April duke of Milan, who is threatened by 28, 1519. Venice, 1451-war commences, 1452- Pope Leo X. sends his cousin, carpeace of Lodi, April 9, 1454 – league dinal Julius de' Medici, to maintain the against the Ottomans, 1455_death of

family ascendancy in Florence, 1519 Cosmo de' Medici, Aug. 1, 1461-and of he rules there after he becomes pope his son, Pietro, Sept. 3, 1469.

Clement VII., 1523-includes Florence Lorenzo and his brother, Julian, govern in his secret treaty with Francis I., 1524 Florence; another league formed against - his family expelled from Florence, and the Turks, 1470—the duke and duchess of the republic revived, 1527-stipulates in Milan are magnificently entertained by a treaty with Chas. V. for the restoration Lorenzo de' Medici, 1471. See VOLTERRA. of his family, 1529 - Florence refuses -The Platonic Academy rises under his to admit them, and is besieged by a auspices, 1476-conspiracy of the Pazzi, Spanish army, under Filiberto, prince abetted by pope Sixtus IV.; Julian de of Orange, 1529 – he is killed in the Medici assassinated, Apr. 26, 1478–LO- attack, but Florence is taken, and Alexrenzo escapes and rules alone; the ander, a natural son of Lorenzo II., aparchbp. of Pisa, implicated in the plot, pointed gov. for life, Oct. 28, 1530. See is put to death, and the cardinal-legate ALEXANDER DE' MEDICI.-He is succeedimprisoned, for which the pope lays an ed by Cosmo, a descendant of Lorenzo, interdict on the city, and engages Ferdi- brother of the first Cosmo, 1537-created nand, k. of Naples, to join him in a war grand duke of Tuscany by pope Pius V., against Florence, the republic is assist- Sept. 1, 1569. See Tuscany. - A plot ed by Louis XI., k. of France, the regent formed at Florence against his son and of Milan, and by Venice, Ferrara, and successor, Francis, detected, and the conRimini; the emperor Frederic IV., and spirators punished, 1578—the Academy Matthias Corvinus, k. of Hungary, send Della Crusca founded, 1582-treaty of, ambassadors to protest against the con- between the French republic and Naples, duct of the pope, who disregards their Mar. 18, 1801. See FERDINAND IV., k. advice, 1478-he demands the expulsion of Naples. - Ravages of the cholera, of Lorenzo, who goes to Naples and con- 1855. ciliates the friendship of Ferdinand, FLORENCE of Worcester writes his Chro1479—pope Sixtus, alarmed by the Turks nicle, 1119.

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