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Ethelbert, 606-of Ina, 692-of Alfred, | ANJOU—continued. 888-of Edward the Confessor, 1065. ANGOLA, Settled by the Portuguese to supply Brazil with slaves, 1578. ANGORA. See ANCYRA. ANGOULEME, Occupied by the Saracens, 731. ANGOULEME, Isabella, daughter of the duke of, married to king John of England,
ANGOULEME, Francis, count of, affianced to Claude, daughter of Louis XII., 1506— married, 1514-he becomes king, 1515. See FRANCIS I., king of France. ANGOULEME, duke of, son of Francis I., the emperor Charles V. offers Milan to him, 1536.
ANGOULEME, Louis Antony, duke d', born 1765, marries his cousin Maria Theresa, June 10, 1799-endeavours to raise the French departments in favour of the Bourbons, but fails, April 11, 1815-leads a French army into Spain, and overthrows the constitution, 1823-d. 1844. ANGOULEME, duchess d'. See MARIA THERESA, daughter of Louis XVI. ANGRIA, the East Indian pirate, taken prisoner, and his stronghold on the Malabar coast destroyed by Adm. Watson and Col. Clive, Feb. 11, 1756.
ANGUS, the earl of, captured by the Percies at Homedon Hill, 1402.
ANGUS, Archibald Douglas, earl of, marries Margaret, sister of Henry VIII., and dowager queen of Scotland, 1514. ANHALT DESSAU, Maurice, prince of, Prussian general, obliges the Austrians to retire from Berlin, 1757.
ANHOLT, defended by a British garrison of 150 men, against 4000 Danes, 1811. ANIANUS, bp. of Antioch, 359. ANIANUS employed to adapt the Theodosian code for Alaric II., 506.
ANICETUS, bp. of Rome, 150-162.
ANJOU, Fulk, Count of, seizes Maine, and quarrels with Henry I. of England, 1111
is supported by Louis VI. of France, 1112-a reconciliation effected by the marriage of Henry's eldest son William to Fulk's daughter Matilda, 1119-death of William; his widow returns to her father, 1121-her brother, Geoffrey Plantagenet, marries Henry's daughter Matilda, widow of the emperor Henry V., 1127-Fulk joins the crusaders and becomes king of Jerusalem, 1131-is killed by a fall from his horse, 1142.
Death of Geoffrey; his son Henry (afterwards Henry II. of England) inherits Anjou and Maine, 1156-prevails on his brother Geoffrey to renounce all claim
on these lands for a pension, 1156-they are taken from king John by Philip Augustus, 1205.
Charles, count of Anjou, brother of Louis IX., treats with pope Innocent IV. for the crown of Sicily, 1253- again with Urban 1V., 1262-concludes the treaty, 1263-senator of Rome, 1264— crowned at Rome by Clement IV., 1265 -defeats Manfred at Benevento, Feb. 26, and is acknowledged as king, 1266. See CHARLES I., k. of Sicily.
Anjou reconquered by Edward III., but relinquished by him in the treaty of Bretigni, 1360-given by Charles V.,king of France to his brother Louis, with the title of duke of Anjou; he is invested by pope Clement VII. with all the dominions of Joanna, queen of Naples, in Italy and Provence, 1381-he attacks Charles, k. of Naples, 1382-the plague destroys a great part of his army, 1383 -he dies at Bari, 1384.
His son Louis receives the same grant from Urban VI., 1386-resisted in Naples by Margaret, mother of Ladislas, 1387abandoned by Urban, 1388-crowned at Avignon by Clement VII., 1389-opposed by the rival pope, Boniface IX., 1390gains possession of Naples, 1395-is vigorously attacked by Ladislas, 1398deserted by all, returns to Provence, 1399 -revives his pretensions to the throne, 1409-his fleet defeated by the Genoese, 1410-goes back to Provence, 1411.
His son, Louis III., is encouraged by pope Martin V. to claim the throne, 1420 -defeated by Braccio, 1421-returns to Rome, 1422-is adopted by Joanna as her heir, 1423-d. 1434.
His brother, Regnier (Renatus or René), now of Anjou, is declared k. of Naples by the will of Joanna, 1435being a prisoner in the hands of the duke of Burgundy, he sends his wife Isabella, and his son Louis, to claim the succession; they are opposed by Alfonso of Aragon, 1436-he regains his liberty, and arrives at Naples, 1438-expelled by Alfonso and returns to Provence, 1442marriage of his daughter Margaret to Henry VI. of England, contracted, 1444 -solemnized, Apr. 22, 1445. See HENRY VI., king, and MARGARET, Queen, of England. Regnier is invited by Francesco Sforza to claim Naples, 1453-returns to France, 1454-his son, John, renews the war in Naples, 1459 withdraws to the Isle of Ischia, 1463-returns to France, 1464 the throne of Aragon offered to Regnier by the Catalonians, 1466-he sends his son, John, with a French aux
iliary force, 1468-who dies at Barcelona, Dec. 16, 1470-Regnier is expelled from Anjou by Louis XI., 1474-his daughter Margaret is restored to him, 1475-d. 1480-when she resigns all claim on his states to Louis XI., and receives a pension from him-the duchy given to Frederic, the expelled king of Naples, 1501and held by him till his death, 1504.
Henry, duke of, younger brother of Charles IX. of France, defeats the Huguenots at Jarnac, March 13, and at Moncontour, Oct. 3, 1569-delusive negotiations for a marriage between him and Elizabeth, queen of England, 1571 -is obliged to raise the siege of La Rochelle, June 25-elected king of Poland, 1573- becomes king of France, May 30, 1574. See HENRY III., king of France.
His brother Francis, duke d'Alençon, is created duke of Anjou, and invited by the ten southern provinces of the Netherlands, to be their gov., 1578| -he visits queen Elizabeth and makes her proposals of marriage, 1580-fallacious negotiations between them; he is nominated by the Seven United Provinces to be sovereign of the Netherlands, 1581-finally dismissed by Elizabeth; he is received as sovereign at Antwerp, but acquires no real power, 1582-fails in an attempt on Antwerp, and retires into France, 1583-d. 1584.
Philip, duke of, second son of the dauphin, and grandson of Louis XIV., receives the dominions of Spain by bequest of Charles II., 1700, See PHILIP V., k. of Spain. ANKARSTROM, assassinates Gustavus III. of
Sweden, March 6, 1792. ANLAF, totally defeated by Athelstan and Edmund at Brunanburh, 937-is chosen king by the Northumbrian Danes, 941 -d. 942.
ANLAF, son of Sihtric, governs Northumberland, 942-defeated by Edmund, 943. ANLAF CWIRAN lands in the north of England, 949.
ANNA, king of East Anglia, 635-enlarges and endows the monastery of Fursey, at Cnobersburg, 639-falls in battle against Penda, 654.
ANNA, daughter of Romanus II., and sister of the Greek emperors Basil II. and Constantine XI., married to Wolodomir, grand-duke of Russia, 988.
ANNA COMNENA, writes the history of her father's reign, 1099-detected in a conspiracy against her brother, is pardoned, 1118.
ANNA, daughter of Ladislas VI., k. of
Hungary, betrothed to Ferdinand of Austria, 1506-their marriage, 1521unites Hungary and Bohemia to Austria, 1526.
ANNA MARIA MAURICIA. See ANNE OF AUSTRIA.
ANNA, SANTA, defeats the Spanish invasion of Mexico, 1829-elected president, 1833. ANNALES ECCLESIASTICI. See BARONIUS. ANNAN, battle of, Edward Balliol is defeat
ed by Sir Archibald Douglas, 1332. ANNAPOLIS, the name given by Colonel Nicholson to the French settlement of Port Royal in Acadia, after its capture, 1710.
ANNATS, or first-fruits, paid to the pope, abolished by the Council of Basle, 1435 prohibited by the English parliament, 1532.
ANNE of Savoy, widow of the Greek emperor Andronicus III. Palæologus, regent for her son, John V., 1341-opposed by John Cantacuzene, 1343-assisted by the Servians, who are defeated by the Turks, 1344-concludes a treaty, by which he shares the throne, Feb. 8, 1347-he breaks the treaty, 1353. See JOHN V. Palæologus.
ANNE, sister of Wenceslas of Germany and Bohemia, married to Richard II., k. of England, Jan. 14, 1382 protects Wickliffe, intercedes for John of Ghent, 1386-for the citizens of London, 1392dies at Shene, June 7, 1394. ANNE NEVILLE, daughter of the earl of Warwick, married to Edward, son of Henry VI., 1470-to Richard, duke of Gloucester, 1473-queen, 1483 d. 1485. ANNE, queen of Henry VIII. See BOLEYN,
Anne, and CLEVES, Anne of. ANNE, daughter of Frederic II., k. of Denmark, married to James VI., k. of Scotland, 1589-q. of Great Britain, 1603visited by her brother Christian IV. of Denmark, 1607-she intercedes in vain for Sir Walter Raleigh, 1618-dies at Hampton Court, March 3, 1619. ANNE, daughter of James, duke of York (afterwards James II.), and Anne Hyde, born 1665-married to prince George of Denmark, July 28, 1683-abandons her father, Nov. 26, 1688-at variance with her sister, queen Mary, 1692-reconciled with king William, March 5, 1695.
Queen of Great Britain, Mar. 8, 1702in her first speech to parliament recommends the Union of England and Scotland, Mar. 11-crowned, Apr. 23-war declared against France and Spain, May 4 -Cadiz unsuccessfully attacked, Aug. 15-the Spanish galleons captured or destroyed at Vigo, Oct. 12-commissioners appointed to treat for the Union, 22-
Marlborough, commander-in-chief of the English and Dutch armies, is successful in Flanders, Aug. to Oct.--storms the citadel of Liege, Oct. 23.
Disputes in parliament respecting the public accounts, Feb. 4, 1703-violent debates in the Scottish parliament regarding the Hanoverian succession, May 6Marlborough captures Bonn, May 14Huy, Aug. 27-Limburg, Sept. 27-the k. of Portugal joins the alliance against. France and Spain, 1703.
The fund termed Queen Anne's bounty instituted, Feb. 7, 1704 - Marlborough takes Donawert, July 2, and gains the battle of Blenheim, Aug. 2 (0.s. 13 N.s.) -Gibraltar captured, July 22-besieged in vain by the French and Spaniards, Oct. 22-the English and Dutch forces in Spain are ill-supported, and cannot make head against the duke of Berwick, 1704.
The queen is attached through the duke of Marlborough to the Whig party, 1705 visits Cambridge, and confers knighthood on Isaac Newton, Apr. 10the siege of Gibraltar raised, Mar. 10the earl of Peterborough reduces Catalonia and Valencia for Charles III.-Marlborough forces the French lines at Tirlemont, July 18-he visits the emperor at Vienna, concerts a plan for the operations of the next year, and returns to England in Dec.-the Tories and Jacobites alarm the queen for the safety of the church.
Meeting of the commissioners to treat for the Union with Scotland, Ap. 10, 1706 -Marlborough gains the victory of Ramillies, May 12, o.s.-the allies are successful in Spain, and enter Madrid, June 24, but it is recovered by Philip V., Aug. 5- Louis proposes to treat for peace, but his offers are rejected, Oct. 21 -Mrs. Masham begins to obtain the queen's favour.
The allies, under the earl of Galway, are totally defeated at Almanza, Ap. 14, 1707-the earl of Peterborough soon after withdraws from Spain-the Union with Scotland takes effect, May 1-Marlborough, unable to gain any advantage in the Netherlands from the cautious generalship of Vendôme, puts his army into winter quarters, Oct. 8-the first United parliament assembles, Oct. 23the mismanagement of the late campaign inquired into, Nov. 19-a clerk in secretary Harley's office detected in betraying secrets of state to the French government, Dec. 31.
Harley dismissed, Jan. 1708-the pretender attempts to land in Scotland, but
is driven back by Sir George Byng, Mar.-Marlborough defeats the French at Oudenarde, July 11-destroys their lines between Ypres and the Lys, July 15, and lays Artois and Picardy under contribution Lisle besieged by the allies, Aug. 11-the town surrenders, Oct. 23, and the citadel, Dec. 9 the whole of Flanders recovered by the allies, Dec.
Louis XIV. again makes proposals for peace, Feb. 28, 1709-the negotiations are broken off, June 9-Marlborough and Prince Eugene collect their forces at Lisle, June 18-take Tournay, July 30 -gain the battle of Malplaquet, Sept. 11, and capture Mons, Oct. 21-Dr. Sacheverell preaches a sermon at St. Paul's, Nov. 5, for which he is impeached by the House of Commons, Dec. 15— the Whig ministry become unpopular, and are undermined at court by Mrs. Masham and Harley, the ex-secretarythe Copyright Act passed.
Overtures for peace by Louis XIV.again rejected, Jan. 2, 1710-Sacheverell's trial commences, Feb. 27-he is condemned, March 25, to silence for three years, and his sermon burnt by the hangman, Mar. 27-the conferences of Gertruydenburg commence, Mar, 11-broken off, July 20 -Marlborough and prince Eugene are successful in Flanders-the Whig ministry dismissed, Aug. 8-Marlborough retains his command-the allies are defeated in Spain, Dec.
The duchess of Marlborough supplanted at court by Mrs. Masham, Jan. 18, 1711-the late ministers formally accused of mismanagement, June 4-the South Sea Company established, under a royal commission, June 27-Marlborough drives the French from the lines of Arleux, Aug. 5, and captures Bonchain, Sept. 13-negotiations for peace privately entered into, and the preliminaries settled in London, Oct. 6-Marlborough returns to England, is accused of peculation, and dismissed from all his offices, Dec.-twelve new peers created for a political purpose, Dec. 31.
The duke of Ormond appointed captaingeneral of the British army, in place or Marlborough, Jan. 1, 1712-conferences for peace opened at Utrecht, Jan. 29-the House of Lords disapprove the proposed terms, Feb. 16, Mar. 4-the duke of Ormond is ordered not to undertake hostilities, May 10-on the complaint of the Dutch, the order is countermanded, May 28-he besieges and captures Quesnoy, June 8, July 4-he separates his forces
from the allies, Jnly 10-a cessation of arms with France proclaimed, July 17prince Eugene is defeated at Denain, July 24, and Quesnoy and other towns recaptured by the French-the Dutch agree to terms of peace, but the emperor (Charles VI.) continues the war-stamp duty first imposed on newspapers, 1712.
The treaty of Utrecht signed, Mar. 30, 1713-rivalry of Harley (now earl of Oxford) and Bolingbroke; the latter prejudices the queen against the elector of Hanover (afterwards George I.) for not agreeing to the treaty of Utrecht-the opening of the parliament is deferred in consequence of the queen's illness, Dec. 1-she recovers, and opens the parliament, Mar. 2, 1714-the electoral prince of Hanover summoned to parliament, as duke of Cambridge, April 12-by the death of the electress Sophia, her son, the elector, becomes heir to the throne under the Act of Settlement, June 3altercations of the ministers, and dismissal of Oxford, July 27-illness of the queen, 29-she makes the duke of Shrewsbury lord treasurer, 30 d. at Kensington, Aug. 1, 1714. ANNE, sister of Philip, duke of Burgundy, married to the duke of Bedford, 1423d. 1432.
ANNE HYDE, daughter of lord chancellor Clarendon, married to James, duke of York, Sept. 3, 1660-mother of queen Mary II., 1662-of queen Anne, 1664d. Mar. 31, 1671.
ANNE, princess royal, daughter of George II., b. 1709-married to William Charles Henry, prince of Orange, Mar. 15, 1734 -leaves England for Holland, Apr. 22, | regent for her son, William V., 1751d. Jan. 12, 1759.
ANNE, daughter of Louis XI. of France, regent for her brother, Charles VIII., 1483-assembles the States General at Tours, 1484 quarrels with the duke of Orleans, and makes war on the duke of Britanny, 1486-rejects the offered mediation of Henry VII., of England, 1487 -defeat of the Bretons; death of their duke, and captivity of the duke of Orleans, 1488. See BEAUJEU. ANNE of Britanny, daughter of the deceased duke, is sought in marriage by many, 1488, 1489-betrothed to Maximilian, k. of the Romans, 1490-compelled to marry Charles VIII., of France, and annex her lands to his, 1401-on his death, she marries Louis XII., 1498— d. Jan. 9, 1514. ANNE, daughter of the emperor Maximilian, married to Philip II., of Spain, 1570.
ANNE, sister of Sigismund Augustus, former k., is married to Stephen Bathori, k. of Poland, 1576.
ANNE of Austria (Anna Maria Mauricia), daughter of Philip III., of Spain, and Margaret, archduchess of Austria, b. 1601-marries Louis XIII., of France, 1615-regent for her son, Louis XIV.; makes cardinal Mazarin her minister, 1643-her regency ends, 1651-d. Jan. 20, 1666.
ANNE, second daughter of Iwan V., b. 1693 -empress of Russia, 1730-her favourite, Ernest John Biren, rules in Russia, 1732-she interferes in the election of a king in Poland, 1733-joins Austria in war against Turkey, 1736-Oczakow taken-she makes Biren duke of Courland, 1737-Orsova taken-the fortifications of Oczakow demolished, and the place abandoned, 1738-Choczim and Jassy taken-she concludes a treaty of peace with Turkey, at Belgrade, 1739compels prince Galitzin to marry a girl of low birth, builds them a palace of ice, and celebrates the wedding with many strange ceremonies-d. Oct. 28, bequeathing the empire to her great nephew, Iwan VI., and appoints Biren guardian and regent, 1740.
ANNE, grand-daughter of Iwan V., and mother of the czar, Iwan VI., regent, Nov. 28-forms an alliance, first with the k. of Prussia, and then with the queen of Hungary, 1740-her son is deposed and she is imprisoned, 1741--d. 1746.
ANNE DUBOURG, a magistrate and councillor, the first Protestant martyr in France, Dec. 23, 1559.
ANNEAU, battle of; the German allies of Henry of Navarre repulsed by the duke of Guise, Nov. 24, 1587. ANNECY in Savoy, attempted revolt at, 1830. ANNIANUS, consul of Rome, 314. ANNIANUS, first bp. of Alexandria, 63-85. ANNIANUS, the chronologist, fl., 412. ANNIBALDESCHI, the, claim to be senators of Rome, 1280. ANNICERRIS, phil. of the Cyrenaïc school, fl. B.C. 315.
ANNIUS RUFUS, Koman gov. of Judea, 13. ANNUAL parliaments, a motion for, negatived in the House of Commons by 145 to 113, Jan. 24, 1745. ANNUAL Register, suggested to Dodsley by Edmund Burke, 1759. ANSELM, abp. of Milan, joins the first crusade, 1100-escapes to Constantinople, and dies there, 1101.
ANSELM, a native of Aosta, and abbot of Bec, appointed abp. of Canterbury, 1093 -expelled from England by William 11.,
1097 takes a prominent part in the council of Bari, 1098-reinstated at Canterbury by Henry I., 1100-disputes the right of investiture with Henry, 1102goes to Rome, 1103-d. 1109. ANSGAR, a monk of Corvey, preaches Christianity in the North, 826-in Sweden, 830-abp. of Hamburg, 834-returns to Sweden and converts k. Olof, 853d. 865.
ANSON, George, b. 1697-sails for the South Seas, Sept. 18, 1740-returns, having sailed round the globe, and made many rich prizes, June 14; the treasure brought home by him, amounting to £1,250,000, is conveyed to the Tower in 32 waggons, July 14, 1744-he and adm. Warren defeat the French off Cape Finisterre, May -is made a peer, 1747-d. 1762. ANSON, Sir William, d. 1847. ANSPACH and Bayreuth, purchased from the margrave by the k. of Prussia, 1791. ANSPACH, margravine of (Lady Craven)d. 1828. ANSPRANDO, the guardian of Liutbert, k. of Lombardy, 700-defeated in an attempt to expel Aribert, 702 - driven from the Lake of Como, is protected, with his son, Liutprand, by the Bavarians, 703-assisted by them, defeats Aribert-d. after a reign of seven months, 712.
ANSPRANDO, duke of Spoleto, succeeded by Lupo, 746. ANTAGORAS, the Rhodian poet, favoured by Antigonus Gonatas, B.C. 269. ANTALCIDAS, the Lacedæmonian, drives the Athenian fleet from Abydos, and releases that of Nicolochus, B.C. 388makes peace with Artaxerxes, leaving the Ionian cities at his mercy, and maintaining the supremacy of Lacedæmon in Greece, 387. ANTARADUS, the Mohammedans are repulsed from, 700.
ANTEQUERA surrendered by the Moors to Ferdinand, regent of Castile, 1410. ANTEROS, bp, of Rome, 235. ANTEUIL, M. d', and the French forces nnder his command, surrender to Lawrence and Clive, 1752.
ANTHEMIUS, Consul of Rome, 405-prefect of the East, and minister of Theodosius II., 408. ANTHEMIUS Flavius Procopius, consul, 455 -emperor of the West, 467-his intended religious toleration is prevented By Hilary; consul II., 468-hires Riothamar and a Breton force to defend Gaul, 470quarrels with Ricimer, 471-killed, July 11, 472.
ANTHEMIUS, consul of Rome, 515. ANTHEMIUS of Tralles, the architect, em
ployed by Justinian to build the new church of St. Sophia. 532. ANTHIMUS, bp. of CP., 535-deposed by a council held at, 536.
ANTHOLOGIA, Collected by Meleager, B.C. 95 -a second by Philippus of Thessalonica, about A.D. 100-others by Diogenianus, about 120-Strato, about 130--and Agathias, hist., about 560. See ANTIPATER. ANTHROPOMORPHITE HERESY, propagated by Audæus, 341. ANTIAS, Valerius, the hist., fl. B.C. 110. ANTICLES, Athenian archon, B.C. 326 H., 325 C. ANTICLES, Olympic victor, B.C. 748. ANTICLES, Olympic victor, B.C. 340. ANTI-CORN-LAW ASSOCIATION formed, Mar., 1841-deputies meet in London, Feb. 8, 1842-the League established, diffuses information by lectures, pamphlets, and monthly meetings in Covent Garden theatre, Sept. 28, 1843-annual meeting, Jan. 22, 1845-bazaar in Covent Garden theatre, May 4-great meeting at Manchester, where more than £60,000 is subscribed in four hours, Dec. 23-meets at Manchester, and closes its operations, July 2, 1846-revived on the appointment of lord Derby's administration, Mar. 4, 1852. ANTICRATES, Olympic victor, B.C. 600. ANTIDOTUS, Athenian archon, B.C. 451. ANTIGENES, Athenian archon, B.C. 407. "ANTIGONE." See SOPHOCLES. ANTIGONIA, a defile between Epirus and Macedon, from which Flaminius drives Philip V., B.C. 198. ANTIGONUS, obtains a portion of Alexander's empire, B.C. 323-defeats Eumenes, and extends his dominions in Asia Minor, 320-besieges Eumenes in Nora, 319establishes his authority in Asia Minor, 318 defeated while pursuing Eumenes, 316-drives Seleucus from Babylon to Egypt, 315-declares war against Cassander at Tyre, 314-Tyre surrenders, 313-his army, under his son Demetrius Poliorcetes, defeated at Gaza, by Ptolemy and Seleucus, 312-Phoenicia given up to him, 311-fails in an attempt on Egypt, 306-treacherously kills Mithridates Ctistes, of Pontus, 302-defeated and slain at the battle of Ipsus, 301. ANTIGONUS GONATAS, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, succeeds Sosthenes, k. of Macedon, B.C. 277-expelled by Pyrrhus, 273-regains his throne, 272-patronizes poets and philosophers, 269 - takes Athens, 268-defeats Alexander of Epirus, 266 d. 239. ANTIGONUS DOSON, k. of Macedon, supports the Achæan league, B.C. 229-called upon by them to oppose Cleomeues,