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drowned in the Nile, Oct. 30, 130. See ANTINÖEION, and ANTINOPOLIS. ANTIOCH, a city of Syria, built by Seleucus Nicator, for his residence, B.C. 300battle of; Álexander Bala slain by Demetrius Nicator, 146-Germanicus dies at, Oct. 9, A.D. 19-arrival of disciples who fled from Jerusalem, after the martyrdom of Stephen, 35-their doctrines are first taught to the Gentiles by some men of Cyprus and Cyrene, who produce so great an impression, that Saul and Barnabas come to inquire into it, 36— after a year's conference, the believers take the name of Christians, and the first Greek Christian church is founded, 37-Saul and Barnabas return to Antioch, and are sent forth by the new church to preach the Gospel to the Gentiles, 38.

The Olympic games celebrated at, 44 -Euodius, first bishop. See ANTIOCH, bishops of. - Trajan, on his march to the East, winters there, 114-a destructive earthquake at, 115-L. Verus, colleague of M. Aurelius, resides there during the war in the East, 163-Olympic games celebrated at, 212-surprised and pillaged by the Persians, 262 council of, to oppose the doctrines of Paul of Samosata, 264-taken from Zenobia by Aurelian, 272.

Revolt of Eugenius suppressed by

the inhabitants, 303-a synod held by the Arians, 328-decree issued by Constantius II. prohibiting marriage between uncles and nieces, Mar. 31, 339- synod of, assents to an Arian creed, deposes Athanasius, and appoints Gregory, bp. of Alexandria, 341- the Cæsar Gallus, gov. of the East, 351visit of Libanius, 352-massacre of the proconsul Theophilus, 353 - a synod deposes Meletius, and appoints Euzoius bp., 361--contest between Paulinus and Meletius-orations of Libanius, 362 -a synod held by Meletius, 363-persecution of magic by the emperor Valens, 372-a council of, deposes all Arian bishops, 380-Chrysostom ordained deacon at, 381-contests of rival bishops; violent tumults, and the statues of Theodosius are thrown down; his anger appeased, 387.

Nestorius retires into a monastery at Antioch, 431 another fatal earthquake, 458-bloody encounters of the circus-factions, 507 these disorders cause an ordinance which puts a stop to the Olympic games at Antioch, 520 -an earthquake begins, Oct. 525, and continues till the following May--another violent earthquake, 528-taken by Chosroes, 540-earthquake, 554-the Jews of Antioch attack the Christians, and kill the bp. Anastasius; the see remains vacant nineteen years, 610-surrenders to the Saracens, 638.

Recovered by the Greek emperor, 966-taken by Soliman, sultan of Iconium, which involves him in war with Thuthusch, 1086 besieged by the Crusaders, Oct. 21, 1097-surrenders, June 3, 1098-a Latin principality, under Bohemond, 1099-claimed by Alexius Comnenus, 1106-Tancred dies there, 1112-battle of; the Turks defeated by Baldwin II., k. of Jerusalem, and the Knights Hospitallers, 1119 given to Raymond of Poitiers, -claimed by Roger, k. of Sicily, and attacked by the emperor John II., who is repulsed, 1137 he prepares another attack, which is stopped by his death, 1143-distress of the wreck of the emperor Frederic Barbarossa's army at Antioch, when conducted there after his death by his son Frederic, duke of Swabia, 1190-Antioch taken by the Mameluke Bibars, 1268-by Ibrahim Pasha, 1832.

ANTIOCH, MUNDANE ERA OF, commenced 5492 years B.C.

GRECIAN, or SELEUCIDAN ERA OF (called by some ALEXANDRIAN) commenced, Sept. 1, B.C. 132 (Olymp. 117, 1;

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18. Cyrillus, 280. 19. Tyrannus, 302. 20. Vitalis, 315.

21. Philogonius, 320.

22. Paulinus I., 321-deposed for Arianism, 325.

deposed by the

23. Eustathius, 325 Arians, 328. 24. Paulinus II., 328-translated from Tyre-dies in six months.

25. Eulalius, 329.

26. Euphronius, 330.

27. Placillus, 332.

28. Stephen I., 342-ejected, 348.

29. Leontius, 348.

30. Eudoxius, 358-translated to CP.,359. 31. Anianus, 359.

32. Meletius, 360-deposed by Constantius, 361-restored by Julian, 362again deposed by Valens, 376-reinstated by Gratian, 378-d. 381.

33. Euzoins, 361-appointed by Constan tius, maintains the Meletian schism, till his death, in 376.

34. Paulinus III., 362—a third rival bp. 35. Dorotheus, 376-Arian, appointed by

Valens on the death of Euzoius-deposed, 378-d. 407.

36. Flavianus, 381-succeeds Meletiusrefuses to concur in the proceedings against Chrysostom, 403-d. 404. 37. Porphyrius, 404.

28. Alexander, 413.

39. Theodotus, 420. 40. Joannes I., 429.

41. Domnus II., 442-deposed by the "Robber Synod," of Ephesus, 449.

42. Maximus II., 449.

43. Basilius, 456.

44. Acacius, 458. See ACACIUS.

45. Martyrius, 459-resigns on account of the troubles created by Peter the Fuller, 471.

46. Julianus, 471.

47. Peter the Fuller, 476-expelled, 477 -restored, 485-d. 488.

48. Joannes II., 477-expelled, 478. 49. Stephen II., 478.

50. Stephen III., 480-killed, 481. 51. Calandio, 481-expelled, 485. 52. Palladius, 488.

53. Flavianus II., 498-deposed by Anastasius, and banished to Petra, 512. 54. Severus, 512-deposed by Justin I., and condemned to have his tongue cut out, 519.

55. Paulus II., 519-abdicates, 521. 56. Euphrasius, 521 - perishes in the earthquake, 526.

57. Ephraimius, 527.

58. Dominus III., 545.

59. Anastasius I., 559-deposed and banished by Justin II., 570-restored by Maurice, 593-d. 599.

60. Gregorius, friend of Evagrius, 570— d. 593.

61. Anastasius II., 599- slain by the Jews, 610. The see remains vacant, and Christianity yields to Mohammedanism, 638.

ANTIOCHENUS, George, the Sicilian admiral, anchors his fleet before CP., and plunders its vicinity, 1148-rescues Louis VII. of France from the Greeks, 1149. ANTIOCHIANUS, consul of Rome, 270. ANTIOCHIS. See ARIARATHES IV. ANTIOCHUS I., Soter, son of Seleucus Nicator, receives Upper Asia from his father, B.C. 294-on his father's death, becomes k. of all Syria, 280-unsuccessful in his war against Nicomedes of Bithynia, 278-patronizes Berosus, 276supports Magas of Cyrene in his war with Ptolemy Philadelphus, 264-de

feated by Eumenes, near Sardis, 263— killed in battle with the Galatians, 261. ANTIOCHUS II., Theus, son of Antiochus I., k. of Syria, B.C. 261-repudiates Laodice, and marries Berenice, 249 - divorces Berenice, and is poisoned by Laodice, 216.

ANTIOCHUS III., the Great, brother of Seleucus Ceraunus, k. of Syria, B. C. 223makes war on Ptolemy Philopater, k. of| Egypt, and conquers Palestine, 218-defeated, and stripped of his conquests, 217 -assisted by Attalus, k. of Pergamus, quells the rebellion of Achæus, in Lydia, 216-14-attacks the Parthians and Bactrians, 212-recognizes the independence of Parthia, 210-endeavours to dismember Egypt by war, 205-defeats Scopas, and the Etolian allies of Egypt, at Panium, and conquers Ccelo-Syria and Palestine, 198-seizes the Thracian Chersonesus, 196-receives Hannibal, who endeavours to reform the Syrian army and its tactics, 195-marries his daughter, Cleopatra, to Ptolemy Epiphanes, and restores to him Coelo-Syria and Palestine, 193-enters Greece, 192defeated at Thermopylæ, his fleet destroyed, he returns into Phrygia, 191– defeated by L. Scipio, at Magnesia, 190 -makes peace with the Romans, and resigns to them all Asia Minor, from the Taurus to the Egean Sea, 188-dismisses Hannibal-d. 187. ANTIOCHUS IV., Epiphanes, brother of Seleucus Philopator, k. of Syria, B.C. 175 -defeats the Egytian army, near Lake Sirbonis, 173-invades Egypt, and takes Memphis, 171-negociates with Perseus a league against Rome, 170-besieges Alexandria, 169-evacuates Egypt, and plunders Jerusalem, 168-is resisted by the Jews, 166-d. 164. ANTIOCHUS V., Eupator, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, k. of Syria, admitted, when only seven years old, to share his father's throne, B.C. 166-succeeds him, under the guardianship of Lysias, 164-loses a great part of his kingdom, conquered by the Parthians-is murdered by Demetrius Soter, 162. ANTIOCHES VI., Sidetes, or Euergetes, son of Demetrius Soter, defeats and slays the usurper Trypho, B.C. 139-occupies the throne of Syria on the captivity of his brother, Demetrius Nicator, 137-besieges Jerusalem, 134-grants peace and immunities to the Jewssends valuable gifts to P. Corn. Scipio Africanus Emilianus, 133-invades Parthia, 129-defeated and slain, 128. ANTIOCHUS VII., Grypus, son of Demetrius Nicator and Cleopatra, k. of Syria,

on his accession, has to contend with Alexander Zebina, and with his mother, B.C. 125-overcomes and slays Zebina, 123-puts his mother to death, 121-expelled by his half-brother, Antiochus Cyzicenus, 113-shares his kingdom with him, 111-slain in a contest with him, 96. ANTIOCHUS VIII., Cyzicenus, son of Antiochus Sidetes and Cleopatra, claims Syria, B.C. 114 drives Antiochus Grypus to Aspendus, 113-shares Syria with him, 111-defeated by Seleucus, son of Grypus, and kills himself, 95. ANTIOCHUS IX., Eusebes, son of Antiochus Cyzicenus, obtains the greater part of Syria, B.C. 94-years of confusion and civil war follow-he is dispossessed by Philippus, 85, and his fate uncertain. ANTIOCHUS X., Asiaticus, son of Antiochus Eusebes, goes to Rome, to obtain aid in expelling Tigranes from Syria, B.C. 75made k. by Lucullus, 69-expelled by Pompey, 65-d. 49. ANTIOCHUS, Son of Alexander Bala, set up as a competitor for the crown of Syria, by Diodotus Trypho, B.C. 143— murdered by him, 139. ANTIOCHUS, the nominal k. of Commagene, deposed by Vespasian, and sent to Rome, 72.

ANTIOCHUS, of Syracuse, concludes his History of Sicily, B.C. 423. ANTIOCHUS, a lieut. of Alcibiades, defeated by Lysander at Ephesus, B.C. 407. ANTIOCHUS, the phil. acad., fl. B.C. 87teaches Cicero at Athens, B.C. 79. ANTIOCHUS, consul of Rome, 431. ANTI-ORANGE PARTY prevails in the United Provinces, on the death of William II., 1650- compelled by the popular voice to appoint William III., 1672prevails again on his death, 1702-compelled to appoint William IV., 1747supported by France, attempts to curtail the statholder's power, 1783 - expels him, but is overpowered by Great Britain and Prussia, 1787. ANTIPATER, a gen. of Alexander, makes war on Lacedæmon, and kills Agis III. in battle, B.C. 331-defeated by Sosthenes, the Greek leader, takes refuge in Lamia, 323-assisted by Craterus, subdues Etolia, takes Athens, and transplants 3000 citizens into Thrace, 322regent of Macedon, 321-d. 318. ANTIPATER and ALEXANDER, Sons of Cassander, contend for Macedon, B.C. 296invite foreign aid, 295-are killed by Demetrius Poliorcetes, 294. ANTIPATER, the father of Herod, becomes an ally of Rome, B.C. 47. ANTIPATER, Athenian archon, B.C. 389. ANTIPATER, Athenian archon, 45.

ANTIPATER of Tarsus, the stoic, succeeds ANTIPOPES-continued.
Diogenes, and writes against Carneades,
B.C. 144.

Theophylactus, 767.
Zizimus, 824.

ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY of London incorpo-
rated by Geo. II., 1751-of Edinburgh
founded, 1780.

ANTIPATER SIDONIUS, writer of the epigrams in the Anthologia, B.C. 127. ANTIPATER, L. Cælius, writes a history of the Punic wars, B.C. 123. ANTIPATER TYRIUS, stoic phil., and friend of Cato, d. B.C. 44.

ANTIPATER, the sophist, secretary to Sept. Severus, and tutor to his sons, 199writes a monody on the death of Geta, 212.

ANTIPATRIS, built by Herod, B. C. 10. ANTIPHANES, writes comedies, B.C. 387. ANTIPHATES, Athenian archon, B.C. 297. ANTIPHEMUS of Rhodes, founds Gela, a

town in Sicily, B.C. 690. ANTIPHO, the framer of the "government of 400," at Athens, put to death, B.C. 411. ANTIPHON, Athenian archon, B.C. 318. ANTIPODES, the existence of, taught by the priest Virgilius, for which he is convicted of heresy, 748. ANTIPOPES. See their transactions under the respective dates in the Chronological Tables.

Pascal, 687. Theodore, 687.

Felix II., 355-358. The bishops of
Rome were not then styled popes;
but he was called the first pretender
or intruder.
Constantine, 767.
Anastasius, 855.
Sergius, 898.
Boniface VII., 974.
John XVI., 997.
Gregory, 1012.
Sylvester, 1044.
Benedict IX., 1044-48.

X., 1058.

Honorius II. (Cadalo), 1061-67.
Clement III., 1080.
Gregory VIII., 1118.
Anacletus II., 1130-38.
Victor III., 1138.
IV., 1159-64.
Pascal III., 1164-68.
Callistus III., 1168–78.
Innocent III., 1178-80.

Clement VII., 1378–94.
Benedict XIII., 1394-1424.
Gregory XII., 1409-15.
Clement VIII., 1424-29.
Felix V. (Amadeus, duke of Savoy),

The following are by some added to the list:

Anastasins II., 496-497.
Dioscorus, 530.

(Irregularly elected in opposition to Sergius i.

ANTI-REFORMERS, ejected by most of the large constituencies, at the election of May, 1831 many of them burnt in effigy, and their property destroyed, Sept.

ANTISTHENES, disciple of Socrates, and preceptor of Diogenes, fl. B.C. 365. ANTISTHENES, hist., relates the events of his times, B.C. 198. ANTI-TRINITARIAN doctrines of Photinus condemned by the synod of Sirmium, 351 -disseminated in Lithuania by Simon Budæus, 1584. ANTI-TRINITARIAN SOCIETY, founded by Socinus in Italy, 1546.

ANTIUM, taken by the Romans, B.C. 468-restored to the Volscians, 457-made a Roman colony and municipium; but deprived of armed ships, 338. ANTOINETTE, queen of France. See MARIE. ANTONINA, wife of Belisarius, accompanies him to Africa, 533-obtains supplies at Naples to relieve Rome, 538. ANTONINUS, MARCUS, son of the emperor M. Aurelius, and twin-brother of Commodus, b. at Lanuvium, Aug. 31, 161d. 165.

ANTONINUS, T. Pius, proconsul of Asia, 121

-adopted by Hadrian, Feb. 25, succeeds him as emperor, July 10, 138-adopts M. Aurelius, and marries him to his daughter Faustina, 139-gives a king to the Armenians-his wall in Britain built, by Lollius Urbicus, 140-death of his wife, Faustina, 141-bestows salaries and distinctions on the teachers of philosophy and rhetoric in the provinces, 142--dedicates a temple to Hadrian, and distributes money to the people, 145-celebrates his decennalian games, 148forbids all persecution of the Christians -his reign the happiest period in Roman history, 151-punishes Atilius Titianus with death for a conspiracy, 156 -d. Mar. 7, 161.

ANTONINUS, Marcus Aurelius, the name assumed by Caracalla, consul of Rome, 202, 205, 208, 213-again by Elagabalus, as consul, 219, 220, and 222. ANTONINUS, the bridge of, destroyed by an inundation of the Tiber, 791. ANTONIO, duke of Athens. See ACCIAIUOLI. ANTONIO, natural son of Emanuel, late k. of Portugal, defeated by the marquis Santa Croce, in his expedition against the Azores; the prisoners taken are massacred by order of the duke of Alva,

1582-expedition of Drake and Norris to support him, 1589. ANTONIUS, M., the orator, b. B.C. 143--defends Aquilius, 98 killed in Cinna's struggle for the consulship, 87. ANTONIUS, Consul of Rome, 382. ANTONIUS. See CONSTANTINOPLE, patriarchs of.

ANTONIUS, C., son of the orator, joins Catiline in opposing Cicero's election to the consulship, B.C. 64--consul of Rome, and Cicero's colleague, 63-banished, 59. ANTONIUS, L., expelled from the Roman senate for irregularly divorcing his wife, B.C. 307.

ANTONIUS, L. Pietas, brother of Mark An

tony, consul of Rome, B.C. 41-opposes Octavius, and is besieged by him in Perusia-taken and pardoned, 40. ANTONIUS, M., son of the orator, and father of Mark Antony, maritime prefect, B.C. 75-attacks Crete, 74-d. there, 69. ANTONIUS, M. See ANTONY, MARK. ANTONIUS, M. Gnipho, rhetorician-Cicero,

when prætor, attends his lectures, B.C. 66. ANTONIUS, Qu. Haterius, consul of Rome, 53. ANTONY, MARK, tribune of the people, expelled from Rome, joins Cæsar, B.C. 49-master of the horse to him, 47-consul, 44 quarrels with Octavius, after Cæsar's death; tries to make himself master of Cisalpine Gaul, and is declared an enemy of his country, 44-besieges Mutina; defeated by the consuls, joins Octavius and Lepidus to form the second triumvirate, and murders Cicero, 43-remains in the East, attacks and kills Ariobarzanes, k. of Cappadocia, 42-summons Cleopatra to answer for having assisted Brutus; they meet at Tarsus; he consents to the murder of her sister Arsinoë, 41-accompanies her to Egypt; reconciled to Octavius, and married to his sister, Octavia, 40-concludes the treaty of Misenum with Octavius and Sextus Pompeius, 39-arrives in Italy to arrange a renewal of the triumvirate, 38concerts with Octavius the means of opposing Sextus Pompeius, 37-advances into Media, is defeated, and retreats into Egypt, 36-invades Armenia, and brings Artavasdes a prisoner to Egypt, 34divorces Octavia, 33-detaches himself wholly from Rome, and celebrates a triumph in Egypt; removes the library of Pergamus to Alexandria; prepares for war with Octavius, leads his forces as far as Corcyra, and passes the winter with Cleopatra, at Patræ, 32-defeated at Actium, 31-d. 30. ANTONY, the founder of monachism, b. 252 -introduces it into Egypt, 305-patronized by Athanasius, 328-called by him

to Alexandria to assist in the conversion of Arians, 352-d. 357.

ANTONY, the monk, the name assumed by the deposed emperor Andronicus II., 1332. ANTONY of Bourbon, marries Jane D'Albret, heiress of Lower Navarre, 1548birth of their son, the future Henry IV. of France, 1553-they inherit Lower Navarre, 1555-lieutenant-gen. of France, 1560-joins the Guise faction, 1561takes Rouen from the Huguenots, and dies of a wound received there, 1562. ANTONY CLEMENT, k. of Saxony, succeeds, May 5, 1827-shares his power with his nephew Frederic, and gives his people a constitution, Sept. 13, 1830-d. June 6, 1836.

ANTONY'S, St., Fire, the disease so called breaks out in Lorraine, 1089. ANTWERP, given to Godfrey of Bouillon, 1076-the name of Lollards first used there, 1300-Edward III. lands his army there, July 22, 1338-building of its church, 1422-of its exchange, 1531plundered by the troops of John of Austria, 1576-resists the duke of Parma as Spanish viceroy, 1579-recognizes the duke of Anjou, as sovereign, 1582-defeats his attempted seizure, 1583-besieged by the duke of Parma, 1584reduced by famine, surrenders, 1585its commerce transferred to Amsterdam and Rotterdam, 1609-the Barrier Treaty signed there, 5 (16) Nov. 1715 - taken by the French, 1746-a military council of the allies held there, Apr. 8, 1793held by the Dutch gen. Chassé against Leopold, k. of Belgium; the citadel invested by mar. Gérard, Nov. 15-captured, Dec. 23, 1832-railway to Cologne, Oct. 13, 1843-visit of queen Victoria, Sept. 7, 1845. ANULINUS, consul of Rome, 295. ANULLIANUS, P. Corn., consul of Rome, II,


ANULLINUS, Corn., consul of Rome, 216. ANUND, Jacob, k. of Sweden, 1024-1051. ANXUR, a city of the Volsci, taken by the Romans, B.C. 406.

AODH, K. of Scotland, 880; uncertain. AOSTA, its valley occupied by the Sa

lassi, a wild Alpine tribe, B.C. 143. APAMEA, taken by the Persians, 611. APELLES, the painter, fl. B.C. 332. APELLICON, the library of, brought from Athens to Rome by Sylla, B.C. 84-contained the works of Aristotle which Tyrannio copies, 68. APER, consul of Rome, 207.

APER, assassinates Numerianus, and himself falls by the hand of Diocletian, 284. APER, M. Flavius, consul of Rome, 130176, 11.

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